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1.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 700-708, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001764

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the effectiveness of shortening the injection interval to < 2 months in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with limited response to bimonthly aflibercept injections. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records for neovascular AMD patients who received aflibercept injections with < 2 month intervals (shortened injection) because of limited response to bimonthly injections. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were compared before and after shortened injections. The incidence of complete resolution of retinal edema was also analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 28 patients were included, with a mean duration between diagnosis and shortened injection of 43.0 ± 20.5 months. The interval of the first shortened injection was 5 weeks in 8 eyes and 6 weeks in 20 eyes. BCVA changed from mean logarithm of minimal angle of resolution of 0.37 ± 0.21 to 0.32 ± 0.20 after shortening (p = 0.075). The mean CRT reduced significantly from 389.3 ± 73.7 μm to 242.1 ± 91.9 μm after shortening (p < 0.001). Retinal fluids resolved completely in 11 (39.3%) eyes after a single shortened injection, and in 15 (53.6%) eyes after two or more shortened injections. @*Conclusions@#Shortening the injection interval to < 2 months had good anatomical efficacy in neovascular AMD with limited response to bimonthly aflibercept injections. However, the efficacy for improvement in visual acuity was limited. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term outcomes.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 101-112, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968734

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To identify changes in symptoms and pulmonary sequelae in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). @*Methods@#Patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at seven university hospitals in Korea between February 2020 and February 2021 were enrolled, provided they had ≥ 1 outpatient follow-up visit. Between January 11 and March 9, 2021 (study period), residual symptom investigations, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and neutralizing antibody tests (NAb) were performed at the outpatient visit (cross-sectional design). Additionally, data from patients who already had follow-up outpatient visits before the study period were collected retrospectively. @*Results@#Investigation of residual symptoms, chest CT scans, PFT, and NAb were performed in 84, 35, 31, and 27 patients, respectively. After 6 months, chest discomfort and dyspnea persisted in 26.7% (4/15) and 33.3% (5/15) patients, respectively, and 40.0% (6/15) and 26.7% (4/15) patients experienced financial loss and emotional distress, respectively. When the ratio of later CT score to previous ones was calculated for each patient between three different time intervals (1–14, 15–60, and 61–365 days), the median values were 0.65 (the second interval to the first), 0.39 (the third to the second), and 0.20 (the third to the first), indicating that CT score decreases with time. In the high-severity group, the ratio was lower than in the low-severity group. @*Conclusions@#In COVID-19 survivors, chest CT score recovers over time, but recovery is slower in severely ill patients. Subjects complained of various ongoing symptoms and socioeconomic problems for several months after recovery.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967395

ABSTRACT

Background@#Lipoprotein(a) is a known independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the prognostic impact of the baseline lipoprotein(a) levels on long-term clinical outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction remain unclear. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,908 patients with acute myocardial infarction from November 2011 to October 2015 from a single center in Korea. They were divided into 3 groups according to their baseline lipoprotein(a) levels: groups I (< 30 mg/dL, n = 1,388), II (30–49 mg/dL, n = 263), and III (≥50 mg/dL, n = 257). Three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and cardiac death) at 3 years were compared among the 3 groups. @*Results@#The patients were followed for 1094.0 (interquartile range, 1,033.8–1,095.0) days, during which a total of 326 (17.1%) three-point major adverse cardiovascular events occurred. Group III had higher rates of three-point major adverse cardiovascular events compared with Group I (23.0% vs. 15.7%; log-rank P = 0.009). In the subgroup analysis, group III had higher rates of three-point major adverse cardiovascular events compared with group I in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (27.0% vs. 17.1%; log-rank P = 0.006), but not in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (14.4% vs. 13.3%; logrank P = 0.597). However, in multivariable Cox time-to-event models, baseline lipoprotein(a) levels were not associated with an increased incidence of three-point major adverse cardiovascular events, regardless of the type of acute myocardial infarction. Sensitivity analyses in diverse subgroups showed similar findings to those of the main analysis. @*Conclusion@#Baseline lipoprotein(a) levels in Korean patients with acute myocardial infarction were not independently associated with increased major adverse cardiovascular events at 3 years.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e155-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976974

ABSTRACT

Background@#Before the omicron era, health care workers were usually vaccinated with either the primary 2-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) series plus a booster dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) (CCB group) or the primary 2-dose BNT162b2 series plus a booster dose of BNT162b2 (BBB group) in Korea. @*Methods@#The two groups were compared using quantification of the surrogate virus neutralization test for wild type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SVNT-WT), the omicron variant (SVNT-O), spike-specific IgG, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), as well as the omicron breakthrough infection cases. @*Results@#There were 113 participants enrolled in the CCB group and 51 enrolled in the BBB group. Before and after booster vaccination, the median SVNT-WT and SVNT-O values were lower in the CCB (SVNT-WT [before-after]: 72.02–97.61%, SVNT-O: 15.18–42.29%) group than in the BBB group (SVNT-WT: 89.19–98.11%, SVNT-O: 23.58–68.56%; all P < 0.001). Although the median IgG concentrations were different between the CCB and BBB groups after the primary series (2.677 vs. 4.700 AU/mL, respectively, P < 0.001), they were not different between the two groups after the booster vaccination (7.246 vs. 7.979 AU/mL, respectively, P = 0.108). In addition, the median IFN-γ concentration was higher in the BBB group than in the CCB group (550.5 and 387.5 mIU/mL, respectively, P = 0.014). There was also a difference in the cumulative incidence curves over time (CCB group 50.0% vs. BBB group 41.8%; P = 0.045), indicating that breakthrough infection occurred faster in the CCB group. @*Conclusion@#The cellular and humoral immune responses were low in the CCB group so that the breakthrough infection occurred faster in the CCB group than in the BBB group.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e15-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915530

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the incidence of rhinovirus (RV) is inversely related to the intensity of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs), such as universal mask wearing and physical distancing. @*Methods@#Using RV surveillance data, changes in the effect of NPIs were investigated in South Korea during the pandemic. The time to the first visible effect of NPIs after the onset of NPIs (T1), time to the maximum effect (T2), and duration of the maximum effect (T3) were measured for each surge. For each week, the RVdiff [(RV incidence during the pandemic) − (RV incidence within 5 years before the pandemic)] was calculated, and number of weeks for RVdiff to be below zero after NPIs (time to RVdiff ≤ 0) and number of weeks RVdiff remains below zero after NPIs (duration of RVdiff ≤ 0) were measured for each surge. @*Results@#During the study period, four surges of COVID-19 were reported. As the pandemic progressed, T1 and T2 increased, but T3 decreased. Additionally, the “time to RVdiff of ≤ 0” increased and “duration of RVdiff of ≤ 0” decreased. These changes became more pronounced during the third surge (mid-November 2020), before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine, and from the emergence of the delta variant. @*Conclusion@#The effect of NPIs appears slower, the duration of the effect becomes shorter, and the intensity also decreases less than a year after the onset of the pandemic owing to people’s exhaustion in implementing NPIs. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 response strategy must be completely overhauled

6.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 158-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967565

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy is a widely accepted procedure for right colon cancer. Among the various approaches, the superior approach has potential benefits in that it exposes the gastrocolic trunk early and consistently allows for D3 lymph node dissection along superior mesenteric vessels. In this video, we present a beginner performing a laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy using a superior approach without an assistant.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e134-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925969

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. @*Results@#Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26–14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P= 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). @*Conclusion@#Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 777-785, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939093

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an adverse cardiac event in patients with a first AMI. The predictors of recurrent AMI after the first AMI in patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been elucidated. @*Methods@#We analyzed the data collected from 9,869 patients (63.2 ± 12.4 years, men:women = 7,446:2,423) who were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health between November 2011 and October 2015, had suffered their first AMI and had received successful PCI during the index hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of recurrent AMI following the first AMI. @*Results@#The cumulative incidence of recurrent AMI after successful PCI was 3.6% (359/9,869). According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the significant predictive factors for recurrent AMI were diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, atypical chest pain, and multivessel disease. @*Conclusions@#In this Korean prospective cohort study, the independent predictors of recurrent AMI after successful PCI for the first AMI were diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, atypical chest pain, and multivessel disease.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 786-799, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939092

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Little is known about the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Korea during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with STEMI in the COVID-19 era. @*Methods@#A total of 588 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were included in this study. The patients were categorized into the COVID-19 (from January 20, 2020 to December 31, 2020) and control groups (from January 20, 2019 to December 31, 2019). @*Results@#The COVID-19 group showed pre-hospital and in-hospital delays than the control group. The control group underwent more thrombus aspiration and had a higher proportion of left main coronary artery diseases, while the COVID-19 group had a higher proportion of multivessel diseases with a marked increase in the number and total length of stents than the control group. As for the prescribed medications, the COVID-19 group was administered more beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins than the control group. The clinical outcomes were comparable between the groups, except for higher incidences of atrioventricular block and temporary pacemaker implantation in the COVID-19 group. @*Conclusions@#Reperfusion after STEMI treatment during the COVID-19 period was delayed; therefore, efforts should be made to improve on reperfusion.

10.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 147-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938097

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Data pertaining to the prognostic value of the combination of high neutrophilto-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and anemia on admission in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical value of baseline NLR in combination with anemia in predicting clinical outcomes after STEMI. @*Methods@#A total of 5,194 consecutive patients with STEMI within 12 hours of symptom onset from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health database between 2011 and 2015 were categorized into 4 groups according to their NLR and hemoglobin levels: low NLR (<4) without anemia (n=2,722; reference group); high NLR (≥4) without anemia (n=1,527); low NLR with anemia (n=508); and high NLR with anemia (n=437). The co-primary outcomes were 180-day and 3-year all-cause mortality. @*Results@#Mortality rates significantly increased at the 3-year follow-up across the groups (3.3% vs. 5.4% vs. 16.5% vs. 21.7% for 180-day mortality and 5.3% vs. 9.0% vs. 23.8% vs. 33.4% for 3-year mortality; all p-trends <0.001). After adjusting for baseline covariates, the combination of high NLR and anemia was a significant predictor of 180-day mortality after STEMI with low NLR and no anemia as the reference (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.58–2.95; p<0.001). Similar findings were observed for the 3-year mortality. @*Conclusions@#This nationwide prospective cohort study showed that the combination of high NLR (≥4) and anemia is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality after STEMI.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 591-604, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927015

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is conventionally recognized as an urgent medical condition requiring timely and effective reperfusion therapy. However, the results of studies on the clinical outcomes in AMI according to hospital visit timings are inconclusive. To explore the difference in long-term outcomes between off- and on-hour percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with AMI of Killip functional classification III–IV (Killip III–IV AMI). @*Methods@#Data on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of 1,751 patients with Killip III–IV AMI between November 2011 and June 2015 from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health registry were analyzed. All participants were allocated into two groups: off-hour (weekdays from 6:00 PM to 8:00 AM, weekends, and legal holidays) and on-hour (weekdays from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM) groups. The incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, any revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, and stent thrombosis, was the primary endpoint. @*Results@#Among the 1,751 patients, 572 (39.1%) underwent PCI during on-hours and 892 (60.9%) during off-hours. At the 3-year follow-up, no significant difference was found in the clinical outcomes between the two groups in both the unadjusted and propensity-score weighing-adjusted analyses. @*Conclusions@#The outcomes of patients with Killip III–IV AMI admitted during off- and on-hours were similar.

12.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 382-394, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913396

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to evaluate the surgicopathological outcomes of lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLD) and long-term oncological outcomes of selective LPLD after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and compare them to those of total mesorectal excision (TME) alone based on pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Methods@#We compared the TME-alone group (2001–2009, n=102) with the TME with LPLD group (2011–2016, n=69), both groups having lateral lymph nodes (LLNs) of ≥5 mm in short axis diameter. The surgicopathological outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Oncological outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. @*Results@#The rates of overall postoperative 30-day morbidity (42.0% vs. 26.5%, P=0.095) and urinary retention (13.7% vs. 10.1%, P=0.484) were not significantly different between the LPLD and TME-alone groups, respectively. Pathologically proven LLN metastasis was identified in 24 (34.8%) LPLD cases after nCRT. The LPLD group showed a lower 5-year local recurrence (LR) rate (27.9% vs. 4.6%, P<0.001) and better recurrence-free survival (RFS) (59.6% vs. 78.2%, P=0.008) than those of the TME-alone group, while the 5-year overall survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups (76.2% vs. 86.5%, P=0.094). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that LPLD is a safe and feasible procedure. The oncological outcomes suggest that selective LPLD improves LR and RFS in patients with clinically suspicious LLNs on pretreatment MRI. Considering that lateral nodal disease is not common, a multicenter large-scale study is necessary.

13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 533-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901633

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The study sought to investigate the impact of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support before revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by profound cardiogenic shock after resuscitated cardiac arrest. It is difficult to determine optimal timing of ECMO in patients with AMI complicated by profound cardiogenic shock after resuscitated cardiac arrest. @*Methods@#Among 116,374 patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in South Korea, a total of 184 resuscitated patients with AMI complicated by profound cardiogenic shock, and who were treated successfully with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and ECMO, were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of ECMO: pre-PCI ECMO (n=117) and post-PCI ECMO (n=67). We compared 30-day mortality between the 2 groups. @*Results@#In-hospital mortality was 78.8% in the entire study population and significantly lower in the pre-PCI ECMO group (73.5% vs. 88.1%, p=0.020). Thirty-day mortality was also lower in the pre-PCI ECMO group compared to the post-PCI ECMO group (74.4% vs.91.0%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.93; p=0.017). Shockable rhythm at the emergency room (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36–0.91; p=0.019) and successful therapeutic hypothermia (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23–0.69; p=0.001) were also associated with improved 30-day survival. @*Conclusions@#ECMO support before revascularization was associated with an improved short-term survival rate compared to ECMO after revascularization in patients with AMI complicated by profound cardiogenic shock after resuscitated cardiac arrest.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 336-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901580

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the “smoker's paradox”. This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization. @*Results@#Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594–0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443–0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009–1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026–1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensityscore matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416–5.338; p=0.003). @*Conclusions@#In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e259-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900049

ABSTRACT

Background@#Titanium dioxide films exhibit good biocompatibility and may be effective as drug-binding matrices for drug-eluting stents. We conducted a mid-term evaluation of a novel polymer-free everolimus-eluting stent using nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide film deposition (TIGEREVOLUTION® ) in comparison with a commercial durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (XIENCE Alpine® ) in a porcine coronary restenosis model. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight coronary arteries from 14 mini-pigs were randomly allocated to TIGEREVOLUTION® stent and XIENCE Alpine® stent groups. The stents were implanted in the coronary artery at a 1.1–1.2:1 stent-to-artery ratio. Eleven stented coronary arteries in each group were finally analyzed using coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography, and histopathologic evaluation 6 months after stenting. @*Results@#Quantitative coronary analysis showed no significant differences in the preprocedural, post-procedural, and 6-month lumen diameters between the groups. In the volumetric analysis of optical coherence tomography at 6 months, no significant differences were observed in stent volume, lumen volume, and percent area stenosis between the groups. There were no significant differences in injury score, inflammation score, or fibrin score between the groups, although the fibrin score was zero in the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent group (0 vs. 0.07 ± 0.11, P = 0.180). @*Conclusion@#Preclinical evaluation, including optical coherence tomographic findings 6 months after stenting, demonstrated that the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent exhibited efficacy and safety comparable with the XIENCE Alpine® stent, supporting the need for further clinical studies on the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent.

16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 53-62, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898637

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis, but differentiating between the diagnosis of TBM and viral meningitis (VM) is difficult. Thus, we have developed machine-learning modules for differentiating TBM from VM.Material and Methods: For the training data, confirmed or probable TBM and confirmed VM cases were retrospectively collected from five teaching hospitals in Korea between January 2000 - July 2018. Various machine-learning algorithms were used for training. The machinelearning algorithms were tested by the leave-one-out cross-validation. Four residents and two infectious disease specialists were tested using the summarized medical information. @*Results@#The training study comprised data from 60 patients with confirmed or probable TBM and 143 patients with confirmed VM. Older age, longer symptom duration before the visit, lower serum sodium, lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose, higher CSF protein, and CSF adenosine deaminase were found in the TBM patients. Among the various machinelearning algorithms, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics of artificial neural network (ANN) with ImperativeImputer for matrix completion (0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.79 - 0.89) was found to be the highest. The AUC of the ANN model was statistically higher than those of all the residents (range 0.67 - 0.72, P <0.001) and an infectious disease specialist (AUC 0.76; P = 0.03). @*Conclusion@#The machine-learning techniques may play a role in differentiating between TBM and VM. Specifically, the ANN model seems to have better diagnostic performance than the non-expert clinician.

17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 46-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898636

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pyomyositis (PM) is a serious soft tissue infection and despite its clinical importance, previous studies have not been able to fully determine the clinical characteristics and microbial epidemiology of PM in Korea, which we therefore aimed to investigate. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively identified 140 adult patients diagnosed with PM from 13 general hospitals between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the clinical and microbial characteristics of community-onset PM and compared them with communityacquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HCA) PM. @*Results@#One hundred eleven organisms were isolated from 96 (68.6%) patients with PM.Staphylococcus aureus (38 patients) was the most common pathogen, followed by streptococci (24 patients), and enteric Gram-negative organisms (27 patients). Methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) was identified in four (2.9%) patients and in-hospital mortality reached 8.6% (12/140). Enterococci isolates were identified in the HCA PM subgroup only The proportion of MRSA isolates was not comparable between CA and HCA PM subgroups. In the 83 patients with PM infected by monomicrobial pathogens, isolates of Gram-negative organisms were more commonly found in HCA PM subgroup than in CA PM subgroup (47.6% [10/21] of patients with HCA PM vs. 20.7% [12/58] of patients with CA PM; P = 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Gram-positive cocci such as S. aureus and streptococci were dominant etiologies in community-onset PM, whereas MRSA appears to an uncommon causative organism of PM in Korea. Enteric Gram-negative organisms should also be considered as major etiologies, especially in HCA PM patient population in Korea.

18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 400-408, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896563

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare mortality rates after discharge between the patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and identify each mortality risk factors in these two types of myocardial infarction. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2011 and 2015, 13105 consecutive patients were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction-National Institute of Health registry (KAMIR-NIH); 12271 patients with acute myocardial infarction met the inclusion criteria and were further stratified into the STEMI (n=5828) and NSTEMI (n=6443) groups. The occurrence of mortality and cardiac mortality at 3 years were compared between groups, and the factors associated with mortality for NSTEMI and STEMI were evaluated. @*Results@#The comparison between these two groups and long-term follow-up outcomes showed that the cumulative rates of allcause and cardiac mortality were higher in the NSTEMI group than in the STEMI group [all-cause mortality: 10.9% vs. 5.8%; hazards ratio (HR), 0.464; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.359–0.600, p100 beats/min), no PCI, and low hemoglobin level were identified as the risk factors for 3-year mortality. @*Conclusion@#The NSTEMI group had higher mortality compared to the STEMI group during the 3-year clinical follow-up after discharge. Low LVEF and no PCI were the main risk factors for mortality in the NSTEMI group. In contrast, old age and renal dysfunction were the risk factors for long-term mortality in the STEMI group.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 608-616, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895995

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-TnT) assays detect very low levels of cardiac troponin. This study examined the interval change between initial and subsequent hs-TnT levels and evaluated its ability to predict significant coronary stenosis. @*Methods@#The study analyzed 163 patients who presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and underwent coronary angiography (CAG) between April 2014 and May 2018. The 0 and 3-hour hs-TnT were checked. The patients were subdivided into positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 131) interval change groups. The presence of significant coronary artery stenosis on CAG in the two groups was compared. @*Results@#The positive interval change group was older and had higher 0 and 3-hour hs-TnT and blood glucose levels than the negative interval change group. Significant coronary stenosis was more common in the positive interval change group than in the negative interval change group (68.8% vs. 23.7%, p = 0.001). However, vasospasm was more common in the negative interval change group (6.3% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.003). The positive interval change group had higher rates of bifurcation lesions and received more percutaneous coronary intervention. In multivariate analysis, age, interval change of serial hs-TnT and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of significant coronary artery stenosis. @*Conclusions@#This study identified a relationship between the serial change in cardiac biomarkers and the presence of significant coronary stenosis in patients with ACS. Serial hs-TnT change was associated with real angiographic stenosis in patients with ACS.

20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S99-S113, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875494

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study compared long-term clinical outcomes between male and female acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#From November 2011 to December 2015, 13,104 patients with AMI were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry National Institutes of Health (KAMIR-NIH) (4,458 diabetic patients and 8,646 non-diabetic patients). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to reduce bias due to confounding variables. Following PSM, 2,046 diabetic patients, 1,023 males (69.8 ± 9.4 years) and 1,023 females (69.9 ± 9.4 years); and 3,412 non-diabetic patients, 1,706 males (70.0 ± 10.4 years) and 1,706 females (70.4 ± 10.8 years) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were compared between male and female patients with and without diabetes over a 3-year clinical follow-up. @*Results@#In diabetic patients, mortality (21.1% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.813) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (30.6% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.698) were not significantly different between males and females. However, mortality (15.8% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.002) and MACE (20.8% vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in male non-diabetic patients than in female non-diabetic patients. The predictors of mortality for both males and females in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups were old age, heart failure, renal dysfunction, anemia, and no percutaneous coronary intervention. @*Conclusions@#The long-term clinical outcomes in AMI patients with DM did not significantly differ by sex. However, the mortality and MACE in non-diabetic male patients were higher than those in females.

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