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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833287

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the thickness of the processed pericardial patch graft for glaucoma implant tube coverage using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). @*Methods@#Thicknesses of seven samples of two pericardial patch grafts (Tutoplast pericardium, IOP Inc, Costa Mesa, CA, USA; pericardium LYO, DCI Donor Services, Inc., Nashville, TN, USA) were measured using AS-OCT (CASIA2, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The thickness of each sample was measured at the center and eight points with 45-degree angular distance, 2 mm from the center. The thickness was measured using AS-OCT program tools. @*Results@#The median thicknesses were 219 μm for Tutoplast pericardium and 157 μm for pericardium LYO. Tutoplast pericardium was significantly thicker than pericardium LYO (p = 0.001); pericardium LYO had a wider interquartile range within each sample, compared to Tutoplast pericardium (p = 0.017). @*Conclusions@#The thickness of the Tutoplast pericardium was greater and less variable than that of the pericardium LYO. These findings should be considered when choosing processed pericardium for coverage of glaucoma implants.

3.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 214-220, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836922

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prohibitin (PHB) regulates intracellular signal pathways, transcription, and cell cycles. Aberrant expression of the PHB gene is known to be related totumorigenesis, tumor progression, and chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to develop a one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) kit for quantifying PHB mRNA levels and evaluate its performance in the laboratory. @*Methods@#TaqMan chemistry was used to develop the one-step PHB1 and PHB2 RT-qPCR kit. Normal peripheral blood cells from healthy individuals (N=20) and leukemia cells from patients initially diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, N=20), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, N=13), and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, N=7) were enrolled to evaluate the laboratory performance of the kit using commercially available total human RNA controls. @*Results@#The intra-assay and inter-assay precision of the kit developed in this study was less than 2%. The distribution of PHB1 mRNA expression of AML, CML, and ALL was 0.898-0.993 (median: 0.936), 0.817-0.976 (0.918), and 0.844-1.074 (0.973), respectively. The distribution of PHB2 mRNA expression of AML, CML, and ALL was 0.957-1.024 (median: 0.985), 0.988-1.047 (1.002), and 0.937-1.059 (1.004), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and test effectiveness of the developed PHB1 and PHB2 kit were greater than 50% for each parameter. @*Conclusions@#Our developed kit would be useful for diagnosing leukemia as well as detecting residual disease. Additionally, this kit could be used for monitoring and conducting molecular pathophysiological studies of obesity, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836372

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism of normal hyoid movement during swallowing by calculating the activity of each muscle involved in the hyoid movement and propose a new kinetic modeling of hyoid movement using videofluoroscopy images. @*Methods@#Eight healthy volunteers with an average age of 56.8 swallowed 2-ml of diluted barium under videofluoroscopy. A video image was digitized to analyze the movement of the hyoid bone. The activity of the muscles acting on the hyoid bone was calculated from the movement of the hyoid bone using kinetic modeling. A surface electromyogram was measured simultaneously with videofluoroscopy, and the muscle force calculated by kinetic modeling was compared with the muscle force measured by surface EMG. @*Results@#The muscles acting on the hyoid bone were divided into three groups according to the direction of force and analyzed. The contraction of the retractor muscle group was observed as a median of 433 ms (95% CI 264-602, P=0.012) earlier than the contraction of protractor muscle group in all subjects. Generally, the peak activity of each muscle group was observed in the order of retractor (0 ms), protractor (592 ms, 95% CI 429-755), and depressor (717 ms, 95% CI 535-899) muscle group. The contraction of the protractor muscle measured by surface electromyography showed an earlier onset latency with a median of 82 2 ms (95% CI 615-102 9, P=0.012 ) compared to the contraction of the protractor muscle calculated by kinetic modeling. @*Conclusion@#Kinetic modeling reflects the pattern of contraction in the order of retractor, protractor, depressor muscle groups, as previously known. And it was possible to evaluate the activity of the retractor muscle, which is difficult to evaluate by electromyogram.

6.
Blood Research ; : 240-249, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations may regulate the progression and chemosensitivity of leukemia. Few studies regarding mitochondrial aberrations and haplogroups in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their clinical impacts have been reported. Therefore, we focused on the mtDNA length heteroplasmies minisatellite instability (MSI), copy number alterations, and distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups in Korean patients with AML. METHODS: This study investigated 74 adult patients with AML and 70 controls to evaluate mtDNA sequence alterations, MSI, mtDNA copy number, haplogroups, and their clinical implications. The hypervariable (HV) control regions (HV1 and HV2), tRNA(leu1)gene, and cytochrome b gene of mtDNA were analyzed. Two mtDNA minisatellite markers, 16189 poly-C (¹⁶¹⁸⁴CCCCCTCCCC¹⁶¹⁹³, 5CT4C) and 303 poly-C (³⁰³CCCCCCCTCCCCC³¹⁵, 7CT5C), were used to examine the mtDNA MSI. RESULTS: In AML, most mtDNA sequence variants were single nucleotide substitutions, but there were no significant differences compared to those in controls. The number of mtMSI patterns increased in AML. The mean mtDNA copy number of AML patients increased approximately 9-fold compared to that of controls (P < 0.0001). Haplogroup D4 was found in AML with a higher frequency compared to that in controls (31.0% vs. 15.7%, P=0.046). None of the aforementioned factors showed significant impacts on the outcomes. CONCLUSION: AML cells disclosed more heterogeneous patterns with the mtMSI markers and had increased mtDNA copy numbers. These findings implicate mitochondrial genome instability in primary AML cells. Therefore, mtDNA haplogroup D4 might be associated with AML risk among Koreans.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cytochromes b , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Minisatellite Repeats
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of family caregiving on depression in the first 3 months after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 76 patients diagnosed with an SCI from January 2013 to December 2016 at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Korea. Clinical characteristics including age, gender, level of injury, completeness of the injury, time since injury, caregiver information, etiology, and functional data were collected through a retrospective review of medical records. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients with 14 or more points were classified as depressed and those with scores of 13 or less as non-depressed group. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients, 33 were in the depressed group with an average BDI of 21.27±6.17 and 43 patients included in the non-depressed group with an average BDI of 4.56±4.20. The BDI score of patients cared by unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) was significantly higher than that of patients cared by their families (p=0.020). Univariate regression analysis showed that motor complete injury (p=0.027), UAP caregiving (p=0.022), and Ambulatory Motor Index (p=0.019) were associated with depression after SCI. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that motor completeness (p=0.002) and UAP caregiving (p=0.002) were independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: Compared with UAP, family caregivers lowered the prevalence of depression in the first 3 months after SCI.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Depression , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vincristine is an antimitotic agent used for treatment of leukemia, lymphomas, and cancers. Its main side effect is a dose-related, length-dependent axonal neuropathy.METHODS: We performed electrodiagnostic examinations in 18 children who had been treated with vincristine and who presented with the clinical picture of a peripheral neuropathy.RESULTS: The mean cumulative dose of vincristine was 37.7±26.5 mg/m². Electrodiagnostic examination showed an axonal neuropathy with a length-dependent pattern. All patients showed motor nerve abnormalities and sensory nerve abnormalities were observed in 13 patients (72.2%). The number of affected nerves was 2.67±1.1 (mean±SD) of four motor nerves and 1.5±1.4 of four sensory nerves. The mean reduction of the compound muscle action potential amplitude was 70.9±42.2% in the median nerve and 23.7±20.8% in the peroneal nerve compared to normal value. However, the mean change in the sensory nerve action potential amplitude was 139.9±78.5% in the median nerve and 246.9±169.7% in the superficial peroneal nerve. There was statistically significant difference between amplitude reduction of the compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve action potential.CONCLUSION: The quantitative analysis of electrophysiological motor predominance described differs from the mainly sensory neuropathy reported in adults. Incomplete myelination in motor nerve due to young age may have resulted in greater sensitivity of some nerves to neurotoxic agents.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adult , Axons , Child , Drug Therapy , Humans , Leukemia , Lymphoma , Median Nerve , Myelin Sheath , Pediatrics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Peroneal Nerve , Polyneuropathies , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Reference Values , Vincristine
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740459

ABSTRACT

It is challenging to produce esthetic implant restoration in the narrow anterior maxilla region where insufficient volume of alveolar bone could limit the angle and position of implant fixture, if preceding bone augmentation is not considered. Ideal angle and position of implant fixture placement should be established to reproduce harmonious emergence profile with marginal gingiva of implant prosthesis, bone augmentation considered to be preceded before implant placement occasionally. In this case, preceding bone augmentation has been operated before esthetic implant prosthesis in narrow anterior maxilla region. Preceded excessive bone augmentation in buccal area allowed proper angulation of implantation, which compensates unfavorable implant position. Provisional restorations were corrected during sufficient period to make harmonious level of marginal gingiva and interdental papilla. The definite restoration was fabricated using zirconia core based glass ceramic. Functionally and esthetically satisfactory results were obtained.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Gingiva , Glass , Maxilla , Prostheses and Implants
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, a fixed combination of grazoprevir and elbasvir (GE) has been introduced to the arsenal of chemotherapeutics to fight against this virus. The study aimed to provide information on the efficacy and safety of GE for the treatment of HCV infection by performing a meta-analysis of literature data. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE database searches were conducted. Among the literature retrieved, pivotal Phase III clinical studies were analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by RevMan. RESULTS: Four pivotal Phase III clinical studies compared the efficacy and safety of GE. When HCV patients were treated with GE for 12 weeks, the sustained virologic response, defined as the viral RNA level below the lower limit of quantification at 12 weeks after the cessation of therapy (SVR12), was 94.7%. The clinical advantage of GE involves its use by patients with cirrhosis and/or renal failure without dose adjustment. If the genotype (GT) of the causative virus was GT1a with NS5A polymorphism or GT4 with resistance to peginterferon/ribavirin, treatment with GE plus ribavirin for 16 weeks resulted in a better outcome compared to treatment with GE alone for 12 weeks. Adverse events reported during the four clinical studies were 71.09% in the GE arms and it was 76.61% in the non-GE arms, with the most frequent events being mild central nervous system symptoms. CONCLUSION: GE was generally safe and effective for the treatment of HCV infection. However, since HCV mutates very rapidly and becomes resistant to antiviral agents, long-term monitoring should be mandatory.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Arm , Central Nervous System , Fibrosis , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Humans , Renal Insufficiency , Ribavirin , RNA, Viral
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vincristine is an antimitotic agent used for treatment of leukemia, lymphomas, and cancers. Its main side effect is a dose-related, length-dependent axonal neuropathy. METHODS: We performed electrodiagnostic examinations in 18 children who had been treated with vincristine and who presented with the clinical picture of a peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS: The mean cumulative dose of vincristine was 37.7±26.5 mg/m². Electrodiagnostic examination showed an axonal neuropathy with a length-dependent pattern. All patients showed motor nerve abnormalities and sensory nerve abnormalities were observed in 13 patients (72.2%). The number of affected nerves was 2.67±1.1 (mean±SD) of four motor nerves and 1.5±1.4 of four sensory nerves. The mean reduction of the compound muscle action potential amplitude was 70.9±42.2% in the median nerve and 23.7±20.8% in the peroneal nerve compared to normal value. However, the mean change in the sensory nerve action potential amplitude was 139.9±78.5% in the median nerve and 246.9±169.7% in the superficial peroneal nerve. There was statistically significant difference between amplitude reduction of the compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve action potential. CONCLUSION: The quantitative analysis of electrophysiological motor predominance described differs from the mainly sensory neuropathy reported in adults. Incomplete myelination in motor nerve due to young age may have resulted in greater sensitivity of some nerves to neurotoxic agents.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adult , Axons , Child , Drug Therapy , Humans , Leukemia , Lymphoma , Median Nerve , Myelin Sheath , Pediatrics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Peroneal Nerve , Polyneuropathies , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Reference Values , Vincristine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of nasogastric tube (NGT) removal and change to oral feeding with a food thickener for acute stroke patients in whom a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) confirmed thin liquid aspiration. METHODS: We retrospectively examined data of 199 patients with first stroke who were diagnosed with dysphagia from 2011 to 2015. Swallowing function was evaluated using VFSS. Patients included in this study were monitored for 4 weeks to identify the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was used to assess VFSS findings. The patients were divided into thin-liquid aspiration group (group 1, n=104) and no thin-liquid aspiration group (group 2, n=95). RESULTS: The feeding method was changed from NGT feeding to oral feeding with food thickener (group 1) and without food thickener (group 2). The PAS scores of thin and thick liquids were 6.46±0.65 and 1.92±0.73, respectively, in group 1 and 2.65±0.74 and 1.53±0.58, respectively, in group 2. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 1.9% of group 1 and 3.2% of group 2 (p=0.578), with no significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that removing the NGT and changing to oral feeding with a food thickener is a safe food modification for acute stroke patients with thin liquid aspiration. Therefore, we recommend that VFSS should be conducted promptly in acute stroke patients to avoid unnecessary prolonged NGT feeding.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Feeding Methods , Humans , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Retrospective Studies , Stroke
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, the association between pediatric AML and mitochondrial aberrations has not been studied. We investigated various mitochondrial aberrations in pediatric AML and evaluated their impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: Sequencing, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number determination, mtDNA 4,977-bp large deletion assessments, and gene scan analyses were performed on the bone marrow mononuclear cells of 55 pediatric AML patients and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 55 normal controls. Changes in the mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were also examined. RESULTS: mtDNA copy numbers were about two-fold higher in pediatric AML cells than in controls (P<0.0001). Furthermore, a close relationship was found between mtDNA copy number tertiles and the risk of pediatric AML. Intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potentials were all elevated in pediatric AML. The frequency of the mtDNA 4,977-bp large deletion was significantly higher (P< 0.01) in pediatric AML cells, and pediatric AML patients harboring high amount of mtDNA 4,977-bp deletions showed shorter overall survival and event-free survival rates, albeit without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate an association between mitochondrial genome alterations and the risk of pediatric AML.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Gene Deletion , Gene Dosage , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Male , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Minisatellite Repeats/genetics , Odds Ratio , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Survival Rate
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of balance control training using a newly developed balance control trainer (BalPro) on the balance and gait of patients with subacute hemiparetic stroke. METHODS: Forty-three subacute stroke patients were assigned to either a balance control training (BCT) group or a control group. The BCT group (n=23) was trained with BalPro for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and received one daily session of conventional physical therapy. The control group (n=20) received two sessions of conventional physical therapy every day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was assessment with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Secondary outcomes were Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), the 6-minute walking test (6mWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and the manual muscle test (MMT) of the knee extensor. All outcome measures were evaluated before and after 2 weeks of training in both groups. RESULTS: There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters except MMT and FAC after 2 weeks of treatment in both groups. After training, the BCT group showed greater improvements in the BBS and the 6mWT than did the control group. CONCLUSION: Balance control training using BalPro could be a useful treatment for improving balance and gait in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Gait , Humans , Knee , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Postural Balance , Stroke , Walking
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34582

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are important intracellular organelles that produce energy for cellular development, differentiation, and growth. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a 10- to 20-fold higher susceptibility to genetic mutations owing to the lack of introns and histone proteins. The mtDNA repair system is relatively inefficient, rendering it vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during ATP synthesis within the mitochondria, which can then target the mtDNA. Under conditions of chronic inflammation and excess stress, increased ROS production can overwhelm the antioxidant system, resulting in mtDNA damage. This paper reviews recent literature describing the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondrial genome aberrations in aging hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow failure syndromes, hematological malignancies, solid organ cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, and other diseases caused by exposure to environmental hazards.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Hematologic Diseases/genetics , Humans , Inflammation , Mitochondria/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasms/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipomastia (pseudogynecomastia, fatty-type gynecomastia) is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast attributable to accumulation of the adipose tissue. The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of a stab incision on the nipple areolar junction method to the correction of lipomastia. The authors present a combined method ultrasound-assisted liposuction in conjunction with a shaver technique to effectively remove the fatty and fibro-glandular tissues of the male breast and avoid noticeable scar. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of 500 cases of lipomastia operated on in the last 16 months via sub-nipple approach. The extent of the clinical result, the technique employed, and the complications were observed. RESULTS: The volume of liposuction from each side ranged from 30 to 500 mL (median, 175 mL) and the median weight of the fibro-glandular tissue was 10.5 grams. Major complications from this procedure include undercorrection, overcorrection, infection, and hematoma. Our total major complication rate was 1.8%. CONCLUSIONS: These techniques of a sub-nipple stab incision are also alternative to correct lipomastia, avoiding undesirable scars.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Breast , Cicatrix , Gynecomastia , Hematoma , Humans , Lipectomy , Male , Nipples , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Determination of monoclonal gammopathy through conventional protein electrophoresis is sometimes difficult because of the presence of large proteins such as haptoglobin and transferrin, which may obscure the results. Ambiguity in an electrophoresis band can give rise to confusion or difficulty in interpretation. The heavy chain/light chain assay (HLC assay) using Hevylite antibody (The Binding Site, UK) has recently been developed for the accurate measurement of monoclonal proteins. We compared the immunotyping (IT) profiles to the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy/light chain measurements obtained using the HLC assay and observed the ratios between intact Ig kappa and lambda. METHODS: We collected 35 and 28 sera from patients with suspicious and definitive monoclonal protein, respectively. Then we performed serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) and IT by Capillarys2 (Sebia, USA). Monoclonal protein production was investigated using Freelite antibody (The Binding Site) and specific Ig(G, A)kappa and Ig(G, A)lambda Hevylite antibodies. The results were analyzed using PASW 18.0 for Windows (IBM, USA). RESULTS: Direct measurement of Ig heavy/light chains showed discordant IT results for 12 (34.2%) of 35 patients' sera with suspicious SPEP pattern and identical IT results for 28 patients' sera with definitive monoclonal peak in the SPEP results. Overall, the results of the HLC assay and IT showed good agreement (kappa=0.718, P=0.000 by cross-tabulation Gamma, Kappa analysis). CONCLUSIONS: The results of direct measurement of serum Ig heavy chain/light chain pairs were comparable to those of IT and were helpful for determination of monoclonality in the case of ambiguous electrophoresis results. Measurement of the heavy chain/light chain pair ratio also allowed precise quantification of the monoclonal Igs with ambiguous electrophoresis patterns and identification or discrimination of clonality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Binding Sites , Capillaries , Discrimination, Psychological , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Haptoglobins , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Multiple Myeloma , Paraproteinemias , Transferrin
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13575

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of simvastatin on the catalase expression in human retinal pigment epithelium. METHODS: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were incubated for 6 hours and 24 hours with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, RPE cells were incubated with 200 microM of H2O2 and various concentrations of simvastatin. After incubation, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to examine the catalase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression and a catalase assay was performed to examine the catalase activity in RPE. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). RESULTS: Simvastatin increased the amount of catalase mRNA and catalase activity at 10 microM in RPE cells. Under oxidative stress (200 microM of H2O2), 2.5 microM of simvastatin increased the catalase mRNA expression and 5 microM of simvastatin increased catalase activity in RPE cells. In addition, simvastatin reduced free radical formation but this effect was diminished in the presence of an irreversible catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT). CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin exhibits anti-oxidative effects by inducing the catalase expression in human RPE cells. This anti-oxidative effect may be beneficial for preventing age-related macular degeneration induced by oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Amitrole , Catalase , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescence , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinaldehyde , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Simvastatin
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