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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 42-55, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919614

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Agonists of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) play a key role in activating the STING pathway by promoting the production of cytokines. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects and activation of the systemic immune response of treatment with DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid), a STING agonist, in EML4-ALK lung cancer and CT26 colon cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#The abscopal effects of DMXAA in the treatment of metastatic skin nodules were assessed. EML4-ALK lung cancer and CT26 colon cancer models were used to evaluate these effects after DMXAA treatment. To evaluate the expression of macrophages and T cells, we sacrificed the tumor-bearing mice after DMXAA treatment and obtained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were performed to analyze the expression of each FFPE and tumor cell. @*Results@#We observed that highly infiltrating immune cells downstream of the STING pathway had increased levels of chemokines after DMXAA treatment. In addition, the levels of CD80 and CD86 in antigen-presenting cells were significantly increased after STING activation. Furthermore, innate immune activation altered the systemic T cell-mediated immune responses, induced proliferation of macrophages, inhibited tumor growth, and increased numbers of cytotoxic memory T cells. Tumor-specific lymphocytes also increased in number after treatment with DMXAA. @*Conclusion@#The abscopal effect of DMXAA treatment on the skin strongly reduced the spread of EML4-ALK lung cancer and CT26 colon cancer through the STING pathway and induced the presentation of antigens.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891832

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to measure the presentism, intention of employment, selfefficacy, degree of exhaustion, and factors affecting presentism of clinical dental hygienists for use as basic data when developing measures to address presentism. @*Methods@#A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 210 clinical dental hygienists from April 1 to June 30, 2020. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, the Scheffé post-hoc test, and Pearson correlation analysis were applied, based on which a multiple regression analysis was conducted. @*Results@#Dental hygienists scored 3.09 points in presenteeism. The variables that influenced clinical empowerment were job and career burnout, explaining 12.3% of the variance in scores among dental clinic hygienists. @*Conclusions@#As a result, clinical dental hygienists’ presentism is associated with clinical background and exhaustion, and exhaustion as the strongest influence. Therefore, in order to reduce the loss of clinical dental hygienists due to presentism, it is necessary to develop and apply health promotion programs that can manage clinical dental hygienists’ health problems early and to provide support in the organizational aspects of their work.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 513-522, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903200

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience significant difficulties with executive functioning (EF) and related adaptive skills, yet the lack of interventions in South Korea targeting these areas has resulted in a heightened need to develop an evidence- based program. Therefore, we developed a novel intervention aiming to enhance everyday EF and daily adaptive skills in adults with high-functioning ASD and conducted a pilot study to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the program. @*Methods@#A behavioral intervention of 10-weekly sessions was developed based on literature searches and focus group interviews. Seven adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age=20.29) participated in a single-group pilot trial. We used self and parent-report questionnaires as well as skills measured by assessment instruments to analyze differences before and after the intervention. @*Results@#Significant improvements were shown in everyday EF, including time management, organization, self-restraint, and regulation of emotions. Additionally, results demonstrated an enhancement in adaptive functioning, especially in the subdomains of daily living skills. Analyses of parental outcomes only revealed a significant decrease in the scores of emotion regulation. @*Conclusion@#The current study provides good evidence for the validity and feasibility of an intervention to improve everyday EF and adaptive skills in adults with ASD.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899536

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to measure the presentism, intention of employment, selfefficacy, degree of exhaustion, and factors affecting presentism of clinical dental hygienists for use as basic data when developing measures to address presentism. @*Methods@#A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 210 clinical dental hygienists from April 1 to June 30, 2020. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, the Scheffé post-hoc test, and Pearson correlation analysis were applied, based on which a multiple regression analysis was conducted. @*Results@#Dental hygienists scored 3.09 points in presenteeism. The variables that influenced clinical empowerment were job and career burnout, explaining 12.3% of the variance in scores among dental clinic hygienists. @*Conclusions@#As a result, clinical dental hygienists’ presentism is associated with clinical background and exhaustion, and exhaustion as the strongest influence. Therefore, in order to reduce the loss of clinical dental hygienists due to presentism, it is necessary to develop and apply health promotion programs that can manage clinical dental hygienists’ health problems early and to provide support in the organizational aspects of their work.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 513-522, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience significant difficulties with executive functioning (EF) and related adaptive skills, yet the lack of interventions in South Korea targeting these areas has resulted in a heightened need to develop an evidence- based program. Therefore, we developed a novel intervention aiming to enhance everyday EF and daily adaptive skills in adults with high-functioning ASD and conducted a pilot study to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the program. @*Methods@#A behavioral intervention of 10-weekly sessions was developed based on literature searches and focus group interviews. Seven adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age=20.29) participated in a single-group pilot trial. We used self and parent-report questionnaires as well as skills measured by assessment instruments to analyze differences before and after the intervention. @*Results@#Significant improvements were shown in everyday EF, including time management, organization, self-restraint, and regulation of emotions. Additionally, results demonstrated an enhancement in adaptive functioning, especially in the subdomains of daily living skills. Analyses of parental outcomes only revealed a significant decrease in the scores of emotion regulation. @*Conclusion@#The current study provides good evidence for the validity and feasibility of an intervention to improve everyday EF and adaptive skills in adults with ASD.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917060

ABSTRACT

Kidney injury caused by anticancer agents is a common problem that can interfere with and affect the dose intensity of anticancer therapy, thus restricting patient survival. Recent advances in targeted and immunotherapeutic agents have transformed the landscape of medical oncology, and these agents have been widely employed in clinical practice. While typically associated with favorable toxicity profiles, several novel anticancer drugs present distinctive nephrotoxicities. It remains urgent to closely monitor renal injuries associated with these agents, and medical practitioners should be familiar with general principles for managing nephrotoxicity associated with novel cancer drugs. This review provides an in-depth investigation of the literature and guidelines regarding the prevalence, clinical presentations, mechanisms, and management of nephrotoxicity for each drug.

7.
Immune Network ; : e10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890852

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.

8.
Immune Network ; : e10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898556

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.

9.
Immune Network ; : 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811172

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogenes , Patient Selection , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 525-534, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Standard treatment for cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibiting acquired drug resistance includes tumor rebiopsy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing (e.g., for T790M mutations), and the subsequent administration of third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, rebiopsies are typically invasive, costly, and occasionally not feasible. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess rebiopsy procedures by analyzing real-world data collected by the ASTRIS study of patients with resistant NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study used statistical models to evaluate data collected by the ASTRIS trial (NCT02474355) conducted at Yonsei Cancer Center, including the rebiopsy success rate, incidence of T790M mutations in collected tissue and plasma samples, and association of administered osimertinib treatment efficacy. RESULTS: In a total of 188 screened patients, 112 underwent rebiopsy. An adequate tumor specimen was obtained in 95 of these patients, the greatest majority of whom (43.8%) were subjected to bronchoscopy. T790M mutations were detected in 53.3% of successfully EGFR-tested rebiopsy samples. A total of 88 patients received osimertinib treatment, and the objective response rate and median progression-free survival time was 44.3% and 32.7 weeks, respectively, among the treated patients overall, but 57.8% and 45.0 weeks, and 35.2% and 20.4 weeks among patients who exhibited T790M-positive tissue (n=45) and plasma (n=54) samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximately 60% of patients in the analyzed real-world cohort were eligible for tissue rebiopsy upon NSCLC progression. Osimertinib activity was higher in patients in whom T790M mutations were detected in tissues rather than in plasma samples.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Resistance , Humans , Incidence , Models, Statistical , Phosphotransferases , Plasma , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 127-131, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86563

ABSTRACT

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a rare multisystemic disorder mainly affecting the skin and joints in patients with underlying renal insufficiency exposed to gadolinium-based contrast. We report a patient who had renal insufficiency caused by multiple myeloma and developed nephrogenic systemic fibrosis after exposure to gadolinium-based contrast for the first time in Korea.


Subject(s)
Fibrosis , Gadolinium , Humans , Joints , Korea , Multiple Myeloma , Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy , Renal Insufficiency , Skin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The retrospective study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity profiles of sunitinib in Korean patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2008, 76 Korean patients with recurrent/metastatic RCC who received sunitinib were retrospectively reviewed. The primary end point was progression-free survival and the secondary end points were overall survival and response rate. We also assessed the toxicities associated with sunitinib treatment. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients, 69 (90.1%) were diagnosed with clear cell RCC. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 7.2 and 22.8 months, respectively in overall patients. Sixty-two patients (81.6%) received 50 mg 4 week and 2 week off schedule, and 14 patients (18.4%) received 37.5 mg daily on a daily continuous schedule. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 27.6% and 84.2%, respectively. A dose reduction or reduction in dose due to adverse events occurred in 76% of the patients, whereas 11% of the patients had discontinued treatment. Other common laboratory abnormalities were increased serum creatinine (75.6%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (71.0%), neutropenia (61.8%), anemia (69.7%), and increased aspartate aminotrasferase (53.3%). Grade 3/4 toxicities occurred as follows: thrombocytopenia (38.2%), fatigue (10.5%), stomatitis (10.5%), and hand-foot syndrome (9.2%). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that sunitinib treatment is effective and tolerable for ecurrent/metastatic RCC patients in Korea. Further studies with prognostic or biochemical factors are needed to clarify the different toxicity profiles of this study.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Anemia , Appointments and Schedules , Aspartic Acid , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Creatinine , Disease-Free Survival , Fatigue , Hand-Foot Syndrome , Humans , Indoles , Korea , Neutropenia , Pyrroles , Retrospective Studies , Stomatitis , Thrombocytopenia
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100522

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the prognosis of pN3 stage gastric cancer patients after they have undergone curative resection, and we also wanted to identify the prognostic factors according to the clinico-pathologic features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2004, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients with histologically confirmed pN3 stage gastric cancer. They underwent both gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy with a curative aim. We categorized the pN3 stage patients into 2 groups; one with pN3 only (pN3M0) and the other with pN3 combined with M1 stage (pN3M1) that included peritoneal seeding, hepatic metastasis or para-aortic LN metastasis. RESULTS: Out of 467 patients with stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma who received surgery, 260 patients underwent curative resection and they were pathologically staged as N3. Among these 260 patients, 78 patients were classified as the pN3/M1 stage. For all the patients, the median follow-up period was 19 months (range: 1~108 months) and the median overall survival time was 16.2 months (95% CI, 14.1~18.3%). The 5-year survival rate of the pN3/M0 group was significantly higher than that of the pN3/M1 group (12.6% vs. 2.6%, respectively, p<0.0001). The identified predictor for a worse prognosis was an advanced T4 stage (HR: 3.38, 95% CI, 1.4~8.3, p=0.008) for the pN3 patients. CONCLUSION: The survival for the pN3 gastric cancer patients after curative gastrectomy was significantly longer in the pN3/M0 group as compared to that of the pN3/M1 group. An advanced T stage was a predictor for a poor prognosis for the pN3 patients. Therefore, diverse treatment strategies for these heterogeneous pN3 gastric cancer patients are needed for improving their survival.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seeds , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival Rate
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68321

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ezrin is a membrane cytoskeletal linker protein and it is known to be associated with metastasis of primary osteosarcoma. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between an ezrin expression and several key clinical parameters and to elucidate its potential prognostic value for patients with osteosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with histologically confirmed osteosarcoma and who had no distant metastasis were enrolled between 1995 and 2005 at Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, Korea. The clinical parameters were retrospectively reviewed and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for ezrin was performed using the surgically resected specimens. RESULTS: Of the 70 tumor specimens, 39 (55.7%) revealed an ezrin expression. More of an osteoblastic histology and an elevated initial ALP level were observed in the ezrin positive patients than in the ezrin negative patients (p=0.008 and 0.001, respectively). The proportion of patients who favorably responded to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (> or =90% necrosis) was significantly higher in the group of ezrin positive patients than that in the group of ezrin negative patient (72.2% vs 45.2%, respectively, p=0.024). The ezrin positive patients showed more frequent recurrence than did the ezrin negative patients (64.1% vs 35.5%, respectively, p=0.017). The patients with an ezrin expression also demonstrated poorer survival than did those patients without ezrin expression (5-year EFS: 31.7% vs 61.3%, respectively, p=0.023, 5-year OS: 53.4% vs 71.0%, respectively, p=0.022). When comparing EFS according to both an ezrin expression and chemoresponsiveness, there were trends that the ezrin negative/chemoresponsive group showed the best 5-year EFS (71.4%), followed by the ezrin negative/chemoresistant group (52.9%), the ezrin positive/chemoresponsive group (38.1%) and the ezrin positive/chemoresistant group (13.6%). These trends were statistically significant (p=0.036). CONCLUSION: The expression of ezrin by IHC staining was found in 55.7% of the patients with metastasis-free osteosarcoma. Immunoreactivity to ezrin is a negative prognostic factor for survival for the patients suffering with osteosarcoma. Identifying an ezrin expression might offer a valuable piece of information when treating patients with primary osteosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Cytoskeletal Proteins , Humans , Korea , Membranes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteoblasts , Osteosarcoma , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stress, Psychological
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10559

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This is an ad hoc analysis of two phase II studies which compared the efficacy and safety of two taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in advanced gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were untreated or had only received first-line chemotherapy, were treated with either paclitaxel (PFL; 175 mg/m2) or docetaxel (DFL; 75 mg/m2) on day 1, followed by a bolus of LV (20 mg/m2 days 1~3) and a 24-hour infusion of 5-FU (1,000 mg/m2 days 1~3) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) and the secondary endpoint included survival and toxicity. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients received DFL (first-line [n=38]; and second-line [n=28]) and 60 patients received PFL (first-line [n=37]; and second-line [n=23]). The ORRs were not significantly different between the 2 groups (DFL, 26%; PFL, 38%). With a median follow-up of 9.5 months, the progression free survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2~6.5 months) for DFL and 3.3 months (95% CI, 1.3~5.5 months) for PFL (p=0.17). The overall survival was also comparable between the patients who received DFL and PFL (10.0 months [95% CI, 7.2~12.5 months] and 13.9 months [95% CI, 10.9~19.2 months], respectively; p=0.37). The most frequent grade 3~4 adverse event was neutropenia (DFL, 71%; PFL, 62%). DFL and PFL had different non-hematologic toxicities; specifically, grade > or =3 mucositis (5%) and diarrhea (3%) were common in DFL, while nausea/vomiting (15%) and peripheral neuropathy (5%) were common in PFL. CONCLUSION: Thus, the two taxanes had similar efficacy in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, but different toxicity profiles. Prospective comparative studies are required to further clarify the role of taxanes in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leucovorin , Mucositis , Neutropenia , Paclitaxel , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Taxoids
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