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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833451

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: We investigated the effect of hypnotics on sleep quality, cognitive function, and depressive mood in patients with insomnia following brain tumor resection. @*Methods@#: From patients who underwent brain tumor resection, we recruited 10 patients with insomnia who received hypnotics for more than 1 week during a 3-week follow-up period (insomnia group). We also recruited 12 control patients with brain tumors but without insomnia (control group). We evaluated sleep quality at baseline and 3 weeks later using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and investigated cognitive function and depression using the Computerized Neuropsychological Test and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). @*Results@#: At baseline, SSS, ISI, PSQI, and BDI scores were significantly higher and visual continuous performance test (VCPT) and auditory continuous performance test (ACPT) scores were significantly lower in the insomnia than in the control group. Three weeks later, the patients who had received hypnotics had significantly higher ISI, PSQI, ESS, VCPT, ACPT, visual span forward and backward, and visual recognition test scores, and significantly lower BDI scores. @*Conclusion@#: Quality of sleep in patients with insomnia following brain tumor resection was initially poor but improved significantly after taking hypnotic medication. Further, the hypnotic medications appeared to contribute to the amelioration of cognitive impairments and depressive moods in patients who previously underwent brain tumor resection. We thus recommend the use of hypnotics for patients with brain tumors with insomnia.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897399

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate walking ability and balance improvement of patients with ataxia caused by brain lesions after end-effector type robot (Morning Walk® )-assisted gait training. This study randomly assigned 19 patients to one of two groups: 30 minutes of Morning Walk® training with 1 hour of conventional physiotherapy (Morning Walk® group; n = 10) or 1.5 hours of conventional physiotherapy (Control group; n = 9). Five treatment sessions per week were given for 3 weeks. The primary outcomes were walking ability and balance, which were assessed by the functional ambulation category (FAC) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), respectively. The secondary outcomes included 10-meter Walk Test (10mWT), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), Motricity Index (MI), and Modified Barthel Index (MBI). At baseline, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups except MBI. After the treatment, the Morning Walk® group showed significant improvement in the FAC, BBS, 10mWT, RMI and MBI. The control group showed significant improvement in the BBS, 10mWT, RMI and MBI. Inter-group comparison demonstrated that the ∆FAC, ∆10mWT and ∆RMI of the Morning Walk® group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Our results suggest that the patients with ataxia receiving Morning Walk® -assisted gait training might improve greater in walking ability and balance than those trained with conventional physiotherapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889695

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate walking ability and balance improvement of patients with ataxia caused by brain lesions after end-effector type robot (Morning Walk® )-assisted gait training. This study randomly assigned 19 patients to one of two groups: 30 minutes of Morning Walk® training with 1 hour of conventional physiotherapy (Morning Walk® group; n = 10) or 1.5 hours of conventional physiotherapy (Control group; n = 9). Five treatment sessions per week were given for 3 weeks. The primary outcomes were walking ability and balance, which were assessed by the functional ambulation category (FAC) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), respectively. The secondary outcomes included 10-meter Walk Test (10mWT), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), Motricity Index (MI), and Modified Barthel Index (MBI). At baseline, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups except MBI. After the treatment, the Morning Walk® group showed significant improvement in the FAC, BBS, 10mWT, RMI and MBI. The control group showed significant improvement in the BBS, 10mWT, RMI and MBI. Inter-group comparison demonstrated that the ∆FAC, ∆10mWT and ∆RMI of the Morning Walk® group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Our results suggest that the patients with ataxia receiving Morning Walk® -assisted gait training might improve greater in walking ability and balance than those trained with conventional physiotherapy.

4.
Neurology Asia ; : 103-107, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822848

ABSTRACT

@#Objective: We evaluated the effects of a short ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia by comparing its effectiveness to that of a conventional solid plastic AFO. The calf shells of the long and short AFOs were manufactured in lengths that extended proximally 2.5 cm distal to the fibular head and mid-calf level, respectively. Methods: Ten patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke were recruited for the study. Two types of AFOs, short and long, were used, both of which were individually molded and fitted. AFO preference was evaluated using a questionnaire regarding AFO weight, ease of donning and doffing, stability, and comfort. AFO effectiveness was evaluated using gait analysis. Results: The short AFO improved gait speed, stride length, and toe clearance as effectively as the long AFO. Additionally, we found that the short AFO had additional merits in terms of its lighter weight and ease of donning and doffing. Conclusion: The short AFO is a useful treatment option, especially in patients who dislike the heaviness of conventional AFOs or who have difficulty donning and doffing conventional AFOs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716992

ABSTRACT

Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is beneficial in effectively implementing repetitive, high-intensity gait training. Several studies have been conducted in different fields of RAGT; however, only a few have explored such training practices in patients with brain tumors. We conducted RAGT in 3 patients with primary brain tumors. They were treated with 30 minutes of Morning Walk® training, followed by 1 hour of conventional physiotherapy, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. At the end of RAGT, the outcomes revealed improved scores in all 3 patients on several assessments, such as the 10-meter walk test, Modified Barthel Index, Rivermead Mobility Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. However, the level of fatigue (Brief Fatigue Index) increased in all the patients. RAGT accompanied with conventional physiotherapy is beneficial for gait speed, mobility, and functional ambulation, but the level of fatigue is deteriorated at the same time in patients with brain tumors. The time, intensity, and protocol of RAGT accompanied with conventional physiotherapy need to be tailored to the level of fatigue expressed by patients with brain tumors to improving gait disturbances effectively.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Fatigue , Gait , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Rehabilitation , Walking
6.
Neurology Asia ; : 217-224, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822719

ABSTRACT

@#Few reliable studies have used standardized outcome measures to examine the effectiveness of sensory interventions to treat somatosensory impairment. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Frenkel’s exercise for improving lower limb sensation, balance, motor function, functional ambulation, and activities of daily living in subacute ischemic stroke patients with impaired proprioception. Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 14 patients suffering subacute ischemic stroke between 7 to 30 days of onset who showed reduced proprioception in the lower limbs. They were divided into two groups: intervention group (performed Frenkel’s exercise, 15 minutes per day, 15 days over a period of 3 weeks, n=7) and control group (received conventional physical therapy instead, n=7). Outcome measurements included the kinesthetic and light touch sensation subscales of the Nottingham Sensory Assessment (NSA) for the lower limb, the Korean version of the Berg balance scale (K-BBS), the Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC), the Motricity Index (MI), and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). Results: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements on the kinesthetic and tactile sensation subscale of the NSA for the lower limb, the K-BBS, the FAC, and the K-MBI, but not the MI, from baseline to post-intervention at 3 weeks. When compared between the two groups, significant improvements were only seen in the kinesthetic sensation subscale of the NSA for the lower limb and the K-BBS (p<0.05). Conclusions: Frenkel’s exercise improves sensory and balance recovery among subacute ischemic stroke patients with impaired proprioception and minimal lower limb motor weakness.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185297

ABSTRACT

To investigate the influence of leukoaraiosis (LA) on the functional outcomes of subcortical stroke in the subacute phase after onset. We retrospectively analyzed 41 patients with subacute subcortical infarct at a single center from 2011 to 2015. We explored the relationship between LA severity at admission/transfer (initial evaluation) and functional outcome at the time of discharge (follow-up evaluation), as assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), and modified Barthel Index (mBI). LA severity was graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to the Fazekas scale. Scores of the mRS, FAC, and mBI were compared in patients grouped based on LA severity: no LA (n = 12), mild LA (n = 19), and moderate-to-severe LA (n = 10). Significant inter-group differences were observed in all 3 scores at both the initial and follow-up evaluations. After adjustment for age, scores at follow-up evaluation were significantly different between the 2 groups. LA is related to functional outcomes of subcortical stroke in the subacute phase after onset. After adjustment for age, severe LA was correlated with poor functional outcomes in the subacute phase.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukoaraiosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Walking
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify possible clinical predictors of intermittent oro-esophageal (OE) tube feeding success, and evaluate the clinical factors associated with OE tube treatment. METHODS: A total of 135 dysphagic patients were reviewed, who received OE tube treatment and were hospitalized in the department of rehabilitation medicine between January 2005 and December 2014. The 76 eligible cases enrolled were divided into two groups, based on the OE tube training success. Clinical factors assessed included age, cause of brain lesion, gag reflex, cognitive function and reasons for OE tube training failure. RESULTS: Of the 76 cases enrolled, 56 study patients were assigned to the success group, with the remaining 20 in the failure group. There were significant differences between these two groups in terms of age, gag reflex, ability to follow commands, and the score of Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE). Location of the brain lesion showed a borderline significance. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression revealed that age, cause of brain lesion, gag reflex, and K-MMSE were the main predictors of OE tube training success. CONCLUSION: A younger age, impaired gag reflex and higher cognitive function (specifically a K-MMSE score ≥19.5) are associated with an increased probability of OE tube training success in dysphagic patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Brain , Cognition , Deglutition Disorders , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Reflex , Rehabilitation
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176890

ABSTRACT

“Clinical Practice Guideline for Stroke Rehabilitation in Korea 2016” is the 3rd edition of clinical practice guideline (CPG) for stroke rehabilitation in Korea, which updates the 2nd edition published in 2014. Forty-two specialists in stroke rehabilitation from 21 universities and 4 rehabilitation hospitals and 4 consultants participated in this update. The purpose of this CPG is to provide optimum practical guidelines for stroke rehabilitation teams to make a decision when they manage stroke patients and ultimately, to help stroke patients obtain maximal functional recovery and return to the society. The recent two CPGs from Canada (2015) and USA (2016) and articles that were published following the 2nd edition were used to develop this 3rd edition of CPG for stroke rehabilitation in Korea. The chosen articles' level of evidence and grade of recommendation were decided by the criteria of Scotland (2010) and the formal consensus was derived by the nominal group technique. The levels of evidence range from 1++ to 4 and the grades of recommendation range from A to D. Good Practice Point was recommended as best practice based on the clinical experience of the guideline developmental group. The draft of the developed CPG was reviewed by the experts group in the public hearings and then revised. “Clinical Practice Guideline for Stroke Rehabilitation in Korea 2016” consists of ‘Chapter 1; Introduction of Stroke Rehabilitation’, ‘Chapter 2; Rehabilitation for Stroke Syndrome, ‘Chapter 3; Rehabilitation for Returning to the Society’, and ‘Chapter 4; Advanced Technique for Stroke Rehabilitation’. “Clinical Practice Guideline for Stroke Rehabilitation in Korea 2016” will provide direction and standardization for acute, subacute and chronic stroke rehabilitation in Korea.


Subject(s)
Canada , Consensus , Consultants , Humans , Korea , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Rehabilitation , Scotland , Specialization , Stroke
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97890

ABSTRACT

During recent years, many robots have been used for rehabilitation therapy and the rehabilitation robots have also advanced considerably. These robots can eliminate the repetitive tasks of the occupational or physical therapist and provide high-intensity and high-dosage training for the patients. In general, the robots used for rehabilitation therapy are classified into therapeutic and assistive robots, and therapeutic robots can be further divided into end-effector and exoskeleton types. In the study, we reviewed the clinical use of robot-assisted therapy as a part of rehabilitation medicine, especially in patients with stroke and Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease , Physical Therapists , Rehabilitation , Robotics , Stroke
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mirror therapy using a tablet PC for post-stroke central facial paresis. METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed. Twenty-one post-stroke patients were enrolled. All patients performed 15 minutes of orofacial exercise twice daily for 14 days. The mirror group (n=10) underwent mirror therapy using a tablet PC while exercising, whereas the control group (n=11) did not. All patients were evaluated using the Regional House–Brackmann Grading Scale (R-HBGS), and the length between the corner of the mouth and the ipsilateral earlobe during rest and smiling before and after therapy were measured bilaterally. We calculated facial movement by subtracting the smile length from resting length. Differences and ratios between bilateral sides of facial movement were evaluated as the final outcome measure. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups. There were no differences in the scores for the basal Modified Barthel Index, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, R-HBGS, and bilateral differences and ratios of facial movements. The R-HBGS as well as the bilateral differences and ratios of facial movement showed significant improvement after therapy in both groups. The degree of improvement of facial movement was significantly larger in the mirror group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Mirror therapy using a tablet PC might be an effective tool for treating central facial paresis after stroke.


Subject(s)
Facial Paralysis , Humans , Mouth , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Smiling , Stroke
12.
Neurology Asia ; : 85-88, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-625440

ABSTRACT

Patients with thalamic lesions can experience ataxia on the contralesional side. We report here a 24 year old female patient who presented with a left thalamic tumor and experienced bilateral ataxia of the upper and lower extremities after a left thalamic resection. Her right-sided ataxia was more severe than that of the left side. The bilateral ataxia was likely to be from cerebellar ataxia. The right-sided ataxia may have been caused by injury of the dentatorubrothalamic tract originating from the dentate nucleus of the right cerebellum and terminating in the contralateral ventrolateral nucleus of the left thalamus. We believe that the left sided ataxia in this patient was due to an uncrossed dentatorubrothalamic tract, which control the movement of the ipsilateral side of the human body.


Subject(s)
Ataxia
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8570

ABSTRACT

The authors found that the fourth author's affiliation had been inadvertently omitted.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the prevalence of cerebral hypoperfusion without focal cerebral lesions in patients with Moyamoya disease (MMD), and the relationship between areas of hypoperfusion and cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty-six MMD patients were included. Patients were categorized according to the presence/absence of hypoperfusion in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes on brain single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) after acetazolamide challenge. Computerized neuropsychological test (CNT) results were compared between groups. RESULTS: Only 3 patients showed normal cerebral perfusion. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Patients with frontal lobe hypoperfusion showed lower scores in visual continuous performance test (CPT), auditory CPT, forward digit span test, backward digit span test, verbal learning test, and trail-making test. Patients with parietal lobe hypoperfusion showed lower backward digit span test, visual learning test, and trail-making test scores. Related to temporal and occipital lobes, there were no significant differences in CNT results between the hypoperfusion and normal groups. CONCLUSION: MMD patients without focal cerebral lesion frequently exhibit cerebral hypoperfusion. MMD patients with frontal and parietal hypoperfusion had abnormal CNT profiles, similar to those with frontal and parietal lesions. It is suggested that the hypoperfusion territory on brain SPECT without focal lesion may affect the characteristics of neurocognitive dysfunction in MMD patients.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide , Brain , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Learning , Moyamoya Disease , Neuropsychological Tests , Occipital Lobe , Parietal Lobe , Perfusion , Prevalence , Rabeprazole , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Verbal Learning
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a senior functional game (Rejuvenescent village) on cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), depression, and life satisfaction in Korea. METHODS: An one-group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Data were collected twice (at the beginning and the end) from 100 elderly adults in S city who played “Rejuvenescent village” 8 times (twice per week, one hour per session) for a month. Also they completed questionnaires on their cognitive function, IADL, depression, life satisfaction, and general characteristics. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 programs. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.06(±3.77) years, with a range of 65-80 years old. Among 100 subjects, 21% were male and 85% were young old. There were statistically significant differences in cognitive function (t=-3.32, p=.001), IADL (t=1.98, p=.049), and life satisfaction (t=-2.15, p=.034). Although there was no statistically significant difference in mean depression score (t=1.06, p=.292), categorized depression was statistically significant (χ²=62.97, p<.001). CONCLUSION: The findings in this study show that the serious game (Rejuvenescent village) was effective for older Koreans' cognitive function, IADL, depression, and life satisfaction. Thus, we need to consider senior functional games to get health benefits by making elderly adults active with enjoyment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Aged , Cognition , Depression , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Male
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) improves visuospatial attention in stroke patients with left visuospatial neglect. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: anodal tDCS over the right PPC, cathodal tDCS over the left PPC, or sham tDCS. Each patient underwent 15 sessions of tDCS (5 sessions per week for 3 weeks; 2 mA for 30 minutes in each session). Outcome measures were assessed before treatment and 1 week after completing the treatment. RESULTS: From pre- to post-treatment, there was an improvement in the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT), line bisection test (LBT), star cancellation test (SCT), Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS), Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and Functional Ambulation Classification in all 3 groups. Improvements in the MVPT, SCT, and LBT were greater in the anodal and cathodal groups than in the sham group. However, improvements in other outcomes were not significantly different between the 3 groups, although there was a tendency for improved CBS or K-MBI scores in the anodal and cathodal groups, as compared with the sham group. CONCLUSION: The study results indicated that the facilitatory effect of anodal tDCS applied over the right PPC, and the inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS applied over the left PPC, improved symptoms of visuospatial neglect. Thus, tDCS could be a successful adjuvant therapeutic modality to recover neglect symptom, but this recovery might not lead to improvements in activities of daily living function and gait function.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Classification , Gait , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Rabeprazole , Stroke , Visual Perception , Walking
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the resting foot splint to prevent ankle contracture. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial in 33 patients with brain injury with ankle dorsiflexor weakness (muscle power ≤grade 2). Both groups continued conventional customized physical therapy, but the patients in the foot splint group were advised to wear a resting foot splint for more than 12 hours per day for 3 weeks. The data were assessed before and 3 weeks after the study. The primary outcome was the change in ankle dorsiflexion angle after 3 weeks. RESULTS: Before the study, there were no differences between groups in gender, age, time post-injury, brain injury type, initial edema, spasticity, passive range of ankle dorsiflexion, Fugl-Meyer score (FMS), or Functional Ambulation Classification. A significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion angle, and FMS was found after 3 weeks in both groups. The splint group showed more spasticity than the control group after 3 weeks (p=0.04). The change of ankle dorsiflexion angle, foot circumference, spasticity, and FMS after adjusting initial value and spasticity were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Wearing a resting foot splint for 3 weeks did not affect joint mobility in patients with subacute brain injury regularly attending personalized rehabilitation programs. Further studies of larger sample sizes with well controlled in spasticity are required to evaluate the effects of the resting foot splint.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Brain Injuries , Brain , Classification , Contracture , Edema , Foot Orthoses , Foot , Humans , Joints , Muscle Spasticity , Orthotic Devices , Rehabilitation , Sample Size , Splints , Walking
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate an additive effect of core muscle strengthening (CMS) and trunk neuromuscular electrical stimulation (tNEMS) on trunk balance in stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty patients with acute or subacute stroke who were unable to maintain static sitting balance for >5 minutes were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups, i.e., patients in the CMS (n=10) group received additional CMS program; the tNMES group (n=10) received additional tNMES over the posterior back muscles; and the combination (CMS and tNMES) group (n=10) received both treatments. Each additional treatment was performed 3 times per week for 20 minutes per day over 3 weeks. Korean version of Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), total score of postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of therapeutic intervention. RESULTS: All 3 groups showed improvements in K-BBS, PASS, TIS, and K-MBI after therapeutic interventions, with some differences. The combination group showed more improvements in K-BBS and the dynamic sitting balance of TIS, as compared to the CMS group; and more improvement in K-BBS, as compared to the tNMES group. CONCLUSION: The results indicated an additive effect of CMS and tNMES on the recovery of trunk balance in patients with acute or subacute stroke who have poor sitting balance. Simultaneous application of CMS and tNMES should be considered when designing a rehabilitation program to improve trunk balance in stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Back Muscles , Electric Stimulation , Humans , Rehabilitation , Stroke
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognosis of patients with stroke and urinary retention resistant to alpha blockers and cholinergic agents. METHODS: Post-void residual urine volume (PVR) was measured in 33 patients with stroke (14 men and 19 women) who were admitted to the department of rehabilitation medicine of our hospital within 30 days after stroke onset. An alpha-blocker and cholinergic agent were administered to patients with PVR >100 mL. If urinary retention had not improved despite the maximum drug doses, the patient was diagnosed with drug-resistant urinary retention. We retrospectively reviewed patient's charts, including PVR at discharge and prognostic factors for PVR. RESULTS: Ten patients (30.3%) could not void or their PVR was >400 mL at discharge (45.7+/-15.4 days after onset) after rehabilitation. Twelve patients (36.4%) could void, and their PVR was 100-400 mL. PVR was consistently <100 mL in 11 patients (33.3%). These measurements correlated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index score, Functional Ambulation Category, and the presence of a communication disorder. CONCLUSION: The results show that 22 patients (66.7%) had incomplete bladder emptying or required catheterization at discharge. Outcomes correlated with functional status, walking ability, and the presence of a communication disorder. Patients with urinary retention and poor general condition require close observation to prevent complications of urinary retention.


Subject(s)
Catheterization , Catheters , Cholinergic Agents , Communication Disorders , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urinary Retention , Walking
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184030

ABSTRACT

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique that modulates neural networks. However, there were few studies evaluating the effects of rTMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we assessed the effectiveness of rTMS on behavioral recovery and metabolic changes using brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a rat model of TBI. We also evaluated the safety of rTMS by measuring brain swelling with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were randomly assigned to the sham (n=10) or the rTMS (n=10) group. rTMS was applied on the fourth day after TBI and consisted of 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks with 10 Hz frequency (total pulses=3,000). Although the rTMS group showed an anti-apoptotic effect around the peri-lesional area, functional improvements were not significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, rTMS did not modulate brain metabolites in MRS, nor was there any change of brain lesion or edema after magnetic stimulation. These data suggest that rTMS did not have beneficial effects on motor recovery during early stages of TBI, although an anti-apoptosis was observed in the peri-lesional area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Motor Activity/physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recovery of Function/physiology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Treatment Outcome
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