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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 513-521, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967061

ABSTRACT

The apocrine morphology of the breast is observed in a broad pathological spectrum, ranging from benign cysts to invasive carcinomas. However, the number of clinical research investigating malignant apocrine lesions is limited. This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with malignant apocrine lesions admitted in a tertiary center between January 2004 and December 2021, based on the radiology-pathology correlation and the recent advances in their status to enhance the therapeutic implications of androgen receptor (AR). Among the 37 patients with lesions, 27 (73.0%) had triple-negative subtypes with predominant AR expression. The radiological features of malignant apocrine lesions did not differ from those of typical invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. This study demonstrated that knowledge on the imaging features of malignant apocrine lesions and their histological basis could enhance the adoption of new targeted therapies in patients with this particular type of breast cancer.

2.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 971-976, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901305

ABSTRACT

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are relatively rare fibroepithelial tumors that account for less than 1% of primary breast neoplasms. Phyllodes tumors have epithelial and stromal components and they originate from the periductal stroma. They are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Carcinomatous differentiation of the epithelial components of phyllodes tumors is rare, and their imaging features have not been accurately described. Herein, we report a rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma originating from a borderline phyllodes tumor in a 21-yearold female with radiologic and pathologic findings.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 971-976, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893601

ABSTRACT

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are relatively rare fibroepithelial tumors that account for less than 1% of primary breast neoplasms. Phyllodes tumors have epithelial and stromal components and they originate from the periductal stroma. They are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Carcinomatous differentiation of the epithelial components of phyllodes tumors is rare, and their imaging features have not been accurately described. Herein, we report a rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma originating from a borderline phyllodes tumor in a 21-yearold female with radiologic and pathologic findings.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

6.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 56-64, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937780

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pathologic N3a breast cancer is defined as having 10 or more metastatic axillary lymph nodes and metastases to the infraclavicular (level III axillary lymph) node. This study aimed to determine clinicopathological factors and assess the importance of lymph node ratio (LNR) as a prognostic factor for patient with N3a breast cancer treated with surgery without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. @*Methods@#Medical records of 154 patients who underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were pathologically diagnosed with N3a breast cancer between May 2004 and December 2014. LNR was defined as the number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by the total number of resected lymph nodes. It was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The median follow up period was 94 months (range, 10–205 months). @*Results@#Among 154 patients with N3a breast cancer, 70 (45.5%) had recurrence and 40 (26.0%) died during the follow-up period. The 5-year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates after surgery were 63.0% and 85.9%, respectively. LNR>0.82 (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.271; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.413–3.649; p=0.001) was a prognostic factor significantly associated with DFS. LNR>0.68 (HR: 2.156; 95% CI: 1.146–4.044; p=0.017) and invasive ductal carcinoma (HR: 0.125; 95% CI: 0.017–0.915: p=0.041) were significantly associated with OS. @*Conclusion@#Although LNR values associated with DFS and OS are slightly different, LNR is a good prognostic factor for patients with N3a breast cancer.

7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 71-76, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937778

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intraoperative frozen section analysis to assess margin status during breast-conserving surgery is often performed to reduce the rate of re-excision. Whether additional resection is required if atypical cells are found at the margin during breast-conserving surgery is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen section analysis and investigate the feasibility of additional resection in cases of atypical hyperplasia on frozen sections from breast-conserving surgery. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 1,411 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery between July 2004 and June 2012. The microscopic margins of the intraoperative frozen sections and permanent sections were examined. Overall events (locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis) were analyzed between the negative margin group and the other margin group (including atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ [CIS], and invasive carcinoma). @*Results@#Of the 1,411 patients, 1,201 had negative margins and 210 had other margin types in the first frozen section. 68 patients had atypical hyperplasia on frozen section analysis. This atypical hyperplasia included atypical cells, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and atypical lobular hyperplasia. Of these 68 patients, the final findings on the permanent section were negative (n=32, 47.1%), atypical cells (n=16, 23.5%), and CIS (n=20, 29.4%). The rate of overall events and distant metastases were higher in the other margin group (9.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.021) and (5.7% vs. 3.0%, p=0.045). Of the 1,411 patients, 44 (3.1%) had false-positive findings, and 15 (1.1%) had false-negative findings in the frozen sections, with an accuracy of 95.8%. @*Conclusion@#The accuracy of intraoperative frozen section analysis was 95.8%, with 91.7% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity. Atypical hyperplasia on frozen section analysis requires additional resection at the time of breast-conserving surgery because of the possibility of CIS, but excessive resection may be performed in other cases. Therefore, sufficient consultation with patients is required.

8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 88-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937775

ABSTRACT

Adenoma of the nipple is a rare benign type of breast that occurs most often in middle-aged women with nipple discharge, skin erosion in addition to crusting, inflammation, and pain. It can be clinically confused with Paget’s disease or breast cancer precursor lesions, such as ductal carcinoma in situ low grade. The treatment of choice for nipple adenoma is complete excision of the tumor. However in younger women, nipple preservation is required. We present two cases of nipple adenoma that were completely removed with nipple preservation.

9.
Translational and Clinical Pharmacology ; : 147-159, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896419

ABSTRACT

Carisbamate is an antiepileptic drug and it also has broad neuroprotective activity and anticonvulsant reaction. In this study, a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric (LC-qTOF-MS) method was developed and applied for the determination of carisbamate in rat plasma to support in vitro and in vivo studies. A quadratic regression (weighted 1/concentration2), with an equation y = ax2 + bx + c, was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range from 9.05 to 6,600 ng/mL for carisbamate in rat plasma. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies of carisbamate have been studied through the developed bioanalytical method. Based on these study results, human pharmacokinetic (PK) profile has been predicted using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The PBPK model was optimized and validated by using the in vitro and in vivo data. The human PK of carisbamate after oral dosing of 750 mg was simulated by using this validated PBPK model. The human PK parameters and profiles predicted from the validated PBPK model were similar to the clinical data. This PBPK model developed from the preclinical data for carisbamate would be useful for predicting the PK of carisbamate in various clinical settings.

10.
Translational and Clinical Pharmacology ; : 147-159, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904123

ABSTRACT

Carisbamate is an antiepileptic drug and it also has broad neuroprotective activity and anticonvulsant reaction. In this study, a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric (LC-qTOF-MS) method was developed and applied for the determination of carisbamate in rat plasma to support in vitro and in vivo studies. A quadratic regression (weighted 1/concentration2), with an equation y = ax2 + bx + c, was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range from 9.05 to 6,600 ng/mL for carisbamate in rat plasma. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies of carisbamate have been studied through the developed bioanalytical method. Based on these study results, human pharmacokinetic (PK) profile has been predicted using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The PBPK model was optimized and validated by using the in vitro and in vivo data. The human PK of carisbamate after oral dosing of 750 mg was simulated by using this validated PBPK model. The human PK parameters and profiles predicted from the validated PBPK model were similar to the clinical data. This PBPK model developed from the preclinical data for carisbamate would be useful for predicting the PK of carisbamate in various clinical settings.

11.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 129-133, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899016

ABSTRACT

Breast hamartoma is a rare benign tumor that comprises lobular breast tissues with various admixtures of fibrous, fibrocystic, and adipose tissue. Hamartoma accounts for 0.7%-5.0% of all benign breast tumors. Myoid hamartoma is an extremely rare variant of mammary hamartoma characterized by the presence of smooth muscle component. Herein, we report a case of myoid hamartoma showing irregular margins and microcalcifications with a literature review.

12.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 283-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896969

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 320-325, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914818

ABSTRACT

Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast is a relatively rare fibroepithelial tumor that accounts for < 1% of primary breast neoplasms. PT is classified histologically as benign, borderline, or malignant, and a malignant PT has greater potential to metastasize than benign PT.Although almost all other organs can be affected, common metastatic sites are the lung and bone via the hematogenous route. There have been several studies reporting cutaneous and soft tissue metastases of PT, though the incidence is rare. Herein, we report a very rare case of scalp metastasis of malignant PT that was diagnosed via skin biopsy and surgical excision.

14.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 129-133, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891312

ABSTRACT

Breast hamartoma is a rare benign tumor that comprises lobular breast tissues with various admixtures of fibrous, fibrocystic, and adipose tissue. Hamartoma accounts for 0.7%-5.0% of all benign breast tumors. Myoid hamartoma is an extremely rare variant of mammary hamartoma characterized by the presence of smooth muscle component. Herein, we report a case of myoid hamartoma showing irregular margins and microcalcifications with a literature review.

15.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 283-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889265

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

16.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 23-29, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has become the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognosis according to molecular subtype and clinicopathologic factors in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated by NAC. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 91 patients with breast cancer who underwent NAC followed by surgery between January 2005 and January 2010. The patients were classified into four molecular subtype groups: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 enriched, and triple negative (TN). RESULTS: Thirty-five (38%) patients had luminal A, 13 (14%) patients luminal B, 22 (24%) patients HER2 enriched and 21 (21%) patients TN breast cancer. Patients with TN breast cancer tended to be more than 50 years of age and to have a higher histologic grade. There were statistically significant differences according to ypN stage (ypN0 vs. ypN1–3; p=0.019, 5-year disease-free survival [DFS]; p=0.005, 5-year overall survival [OS]) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p=0.003, 5-year DFS; p=0.006, 5-year OS) in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, LVI was a significant factor in 5-year DFS (odds ratio 2.145, 95% confidence interval 1.064–4.324, p=0.033). There was no significant difference among molecular subtypes in DFS (p=0.161) or OS (p=0.084). CONCLUSION: LVI was associated with prognosis in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated by NAC and surgery. However, molecular subtype had no effect on 5-year DFS or OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 99-103, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763277

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in Korean women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes cause hereditary breast cancer and are detected in 15–20% of hereditary breast cancer. We investigated the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in 114 familial breast cancer patients using next-generation sequencing. We confirmed 20 different mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 25 subjects (21.9%). Two such mutations in eight patients were novel (not reported in any variant database or previous study). Six mutations have been reported as disease-causing mutations in public databases. Seven mutations were found only in a single nucleotide polymorphism database and one mutation has been reported in Korea. The BRCA1/2 mutation frequency was similar to that of other studies on familial breast cancer patients in the Korean population. Further studies should examine more cases and mutations of whole exons.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , BRCA1 Protein , BRCA2 Protein , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Exons , Genes, BRCA2 , Germ-Line Mutation , Korea , Mutation Rate , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
18.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 575-583, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes of cardiac and muscle damage markers in exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) runners before running (pre-race), immediately after completing a 100-km ultramarathon race, and during the recovery period (24, 72, and 120 hours post-race). METHODS: In this observational study, volunteers were divided into EIH group (n=11) whose maximum systolic blood pressure was ≥210 mmHg in graded exercise testing and normal exercise blood pressure response (NEBPR) group (n=11). Their blood samples were collected at pre-race, immediately after race, and at 24, 72, and 120 hours post-race. RESULTS: Creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were significantly higher in EIH group than those in the NEBPR group immediately after race and at 24 hours post-race (all p < 0.05). However, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CKMB), or CKMB/CK levels did not show any significant differences between the two groups in each period. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were significantly higher in EIH group than those in NEBPR group immediately after race and at 24 and 72 hours post-race (all p < 0.05). A high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level was significantly higher in EIH group than that in NEBPR group at 24 hours post-race (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The phenomenon of higher inflammatory and cardiac marker levels in EIH group may exaggerate cardiac volume pressure and blood flow restrictions which in turn can result in cardiac muscle damage. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the chronic effect of such phenomenon on the cardiovascular system in EIH runners.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Blood Pressure , C-Reactive Protein , Cardiac Volume , Cardiovascular System , Racial Groups , Creatine , Creatine Kinase , Exercise Test , Hypertension , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Myocardium , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Running , Troponin I , Volunteers
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 62-69, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713696

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the second most common cancer among Korean women. The prognosis of breast cancer is poor in patients with other primary cancers. However, there have been few clinical studies regarding this issue. Therefore, we analyzed the characteristics and prognosis of patients with breast cancer with multiple primary cancers (MPCs). METHODS: Data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry were analyzed. Data from enrolled patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer were analyzed for differences in prognosis dependent on the presence of MPCs, and which MPC characteristics affected their prognosis. RESULTS: Among the 41,841 patients analyzed, 913 patients were found to have MPCs, accounting for 950 total MPCs. There was a significant difference in survival rates between the breast cancer only group and the MPC group. The 5-year survival rates were 93.6% and 86.7% and the 10-year survival rates were 87.5% and 70.4%, respectively. Among the 913 patients with MPCs, patients with two or more MPCs had significantly worse prognoses than patients with a single MPC. With respect to the time interval between breast cancer and MPC occurrence, patients with a 5-year or greater interval had significantly better prognoses than patients with less than 1 year between occurrences. Among MPCs, thyroid cancer was the most common primary cancer. However, this type was not related to the prognosis of breast cancer. Gynecologic cancer, colorectal cancer, upper gastrointestinal cancer, and lung cancer were related to breast cancer prognosis. CONCLUSION: MPCs were a poor prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer. Two or more MPCs and a shorter time interval between occurrences were worse prognostic factors. Although MPCs were a poor prognostic factor, thyroid cancer did not affect the prognosis of patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Colorectal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Thyroid Neoplasms
20.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 420-424, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741196

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Breast , Carcinoma, Lobular , Collagen
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