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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926437

ABSTRACT

Although renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor, treatment may be necessary occasionally because it can cause potentially life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Transarterial embolization (TAE) is a safe and effective treatment option to prevent the hemorrhagic rupture of AMLs and relieve the symptoms caused by enlarged lesions or active bleeding. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the indications for prophylactic TAE in patients with sporadic renal AMLs. In urgent TAE for bleeding AMLs, there is a likelihood of incomplete embolization when the focus is on stabilizing the clinical symptoms. This pictorial essay discusses the patient selection and technical considerations to achieve optimal therapeutic effects as well as the follow-up findings after TAE.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926427

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are not uncommon and often cause gastrointestinal bleeding. GISTs occurring in the small intestine are occasionally difficult to identify by endoscopy and CT. In this case, the patient underwent CT three times before surgery, and the lesion was found to be located in a different area of the abdominal cavity on each CT scan. Moreover, the lesion was missed in the first two CT images because it was difficult to distinguish it from the nearby collapsed small intestine. The lesion was eventually detected through angiography; however, the correct diagnosis and treatment were delayed for 3 years because it was mistaken for a vascular malformation, which is the most common cause of obscure GI bleeding in elderly patients. This report emphasizes the need for interventional radiologists to be updated and vigilant of the angiographic features of GISTs to make an accurate diagnosis and establish a management strategy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901360

ABSTRACT

The inferior mesenteric artery is a rare source of postpartum hemorrhage. We report two cases of primary postpartum hemorrhage that originated from the inferior mesenteric artery after vaginal delivery. Both patients showed signs of hypovolemic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. The bleeding continued even after embolization of the uterine artery, a typical source of postpartum hemorrhage. Inferior mesenteric arteriography confirmed contrast extravasation from the superior rectal artery, and selective embolization was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. This report highlights that the inferior mesenteric artery can be a source of bleeding in patients with intractable and persistent postpartum hemorrhage due to birth canal injury.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915342

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#: This study aimed to systematically review the preventive interventions for delirium in Korean intensive care unit (ICU) patients and evaluate their efficacy. @*Methods@#: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched the literature and selected studies from data sources that included the RISS, KISS, National Central Library, National Assembly Library, DBpia, Science on, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library. We used Cochrane’s revised tool for risk of bias in randomized trials and non-randomized studies of intervention tools to assess the quality of the selected studies. The effect size of the intervention was calculated as odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD). @*Results@#: Preventive interventions reported in 23 studies with a total of 4,799 ICU patients were effective in reducing the occurrence of delirium (OR=0.64, 95% CI : 0.49~0.91, p=.011), but not the duration (SMD=–0.22, 95% CI : -0.51∼0.08, p=.148). As a result of a subgroup analysis, non-pharmacological interventions were effective in reducing the occurrence of delirium (OR=0.66, 95% CI : 0.47~0.94, p=.020), while pharmacological interventions had no effect (OR=0.68, 95% CI : 0.33∼1.40, p=.295). Among the non-pharmacological interventions, multi-component intervention had the largest effect size (OR=0.38, 95% CI : 0.26~0.55, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#: Non-pharmacological interventions were effective in reducing the occurrence of delirium. We recommend the development and application of multi-component interventions to prevent delirium in the Korean ICU patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874555

ABSTRACT

Paracrine interactions are imperative for the maintenance of adipose tissue intercellular homeostasis, and intracellular organelle dysfunction results in local and systemic alterations in metabolic homeostasis. It is currently accepted that mitochondrial proteotoxic stress activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in vitro and in vivo. The induction of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases during the UPRmt is a key cell-autonomous mechanism of mitochondrial quality control. The UPRmt also affects systemic metabolism through the secretion of cell non-autonomous peptides and cytokines (hereafter, metabokines). Mitochondrial function in adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in whole-body metabolism and human diseases. Despite continuing interest in the role of the UPRmt and quality control pathways of mitochondria in energy metabolism, studies on the roles of the UPRmt and metabokines in white adipose tissue are relatively sparse. Here, we describe the role of the UPRmt in adipose tissue, including adipocytes and resident macrophages, and the interactive roles of cell non-autonomous metabokines, particularly growth differentiation factor 15, in local adipose cellular homeostasis and systemic energy metabolism.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893656

ABSTRACT

The inferior mesenteric artery is a rare source of postpartum hemorrhage. We report two cases of primary postpartum hemorrhage that originated from the inferior mesenteric artery after vaginal delivery. Both patients showed signs of hypovolemic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. The bleeding continued even after embolization of the uterine artery, a typical source of postpartum hemorrhage. Inferior mesenteric arteriography confirmed contrast extravasation from the superior rectal artery, and selective embolization was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. This report highlights that the inferior mesenteric artery can be a source of bleeding in patients with intractable and persistent postpartum hemorrhage due to birth canal injury.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832909

ABSTRACT

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a potentially lethal complication in patients on anticoagulant therapy and can be caused by ovarian artery bleeding, regardless of the patients’ age and obstetric history. This case illustrates the clinical presentation of ovarian artery bleeding in a postmenopausal female on anticoagulant therapy, the diagnostic utility of transcatheter angiography, and successful embolization.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832821

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bleeding due to vascular involvement of neurofibromatosis type 1 is rare but potentially fatal. Herein, we report a case of a lethal spontaneous hemomediastinum in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. The bleeding was caused by rupture of an aberrant bronchial artery arising from the ipsilateral subclavian artery, which was successfully treated using transarterial embolization with coils and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82809

ABSTRACT

Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of the variable neuropsychiatric impairment. Despite of widely known central nerve system complications after CO intoxication, peripheral neuropathy due to CO poisoning is rare and has been under-recognized. We report interesting case of a 29-year-old male who suffered from motor weakness and sensory abnormalities in his lower extremity following acute CO intoxication. The patient revealed direct and indirect signs of peripheral neuropathy of the left inferior gluteal and sciatic nerve on magnetic resonance imaging.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Humans , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Poisoning , Sciatic Nerve , Sciatic Neuropathy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100491

ABSTRACT

The incidence of uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare. However, it is clinically significant in that it can cause life-threatening vaginal bleeding. We report a case of a large uterine AVM with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. A presumptive diagnosis was made; a uterine AVM accompanied by, early pregnancy or retained product of conception. Because this uterine AVM was extensive, transcatheter arterial embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding arteries was performed. Three months after undergoing transcatheter arterial embolization, complete resolution of the uterine AVM was confirmed without major complication.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Arteriovenous Malformations , Chorion , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Diagnosis , Fertilization , Incidence , Pregnancy , Uterine Artery , Uterine Hemorrhage
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1158-1167, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198360

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T missense variant (NQO1*2) and 29 basepair (bp)-insertion/deletion (I29/D) polymorphism of the NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) gene promoter have been proposed as predictive and prognostic factors for cancer development and progression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between NQO1/NQO2 genotype and clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from 243 patients; and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. NQO1*2 and tri-allelic polymorphism of NQO2 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: PTMC with NQO1*2 frequently exhibited extra-thyroidal extension as compared to PTMC with wild-type NQO1 (p=0.039). There was a significant relationship between I29/I29 homozygosity of NQO2 and lymph node metastasis (p=0.042). Multivariate analysis showed that the I29/I29 genotype was associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.10-4.56; p=0.026). CONCLUSION: NQO1*2 and I29 allele of the NQO2 are associated with aggressive clinical phenotypes of PTMC, and the I29 allele represents a putative prognostic marker for PTMC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Mutation, Missense , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/chemistry , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prognosis , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Sequence Deletion , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 859-862, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93566

ABSTRACT

Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction with associated cerebral pathology. It is distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is characterized by inappropriate retention of free water. We report a patient with a porencephalic cyst who developed cerebral salt wasting. His initial treatment was supplementation of water and salt, which did not improve natriuresis or volume contraction. Fludrocortisone administration effectively managed the cerebral salt wasting.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Fludrocortisone/therapeutic use , Humans , Hyponatremia/drug therapy , Male , Natriuresis/physiology , Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59138

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) according to the timing of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in infantile urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: The data of 134 infants (1-12 months) with renal cortical defect in 99mTc-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scan with a diagnosis of UTI in two hospitals from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The VCUG was performed after 2 weeks from the diagnosis of UTI in Group I (n=68), and the VCUG was performed within 2 weeks from the diagnosis of UTI in Group II (n=66). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in the duration of fever, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, and abnormalities in ultrasonography (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevelence of VUR, bilateral VUR, and severe VUR. VCUG-induced UTI was detected 16 (23.5%) of patients in whom the procedure was performed 2 weeks after the diagnosis, and none of VCUG-induced UTI occurred in those in whom the procedure was performed 2 weeks within the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the prevalence of VUR according to the timing of VCUG did not differ between the two groups in infantile UTI with renal cortical defect in DMSA scan. We also found that performing VCUG with antibiotics can decrease risk of VCUG-induced UTI.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , C-Reactive Protein , Fever , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Succimer , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. RESULTS: The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). CONCLUSION: Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Radiography, Thoracic , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162651

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute renal failure remains a potentially devastating clinical problem. This study aimed to examine whether the expression of TGF-beta-induced gene product, betaig-h3, is altered in ischemia- reperfusion (I/R) injury and urinary excretion of betaig-h3 is changed in I/R injury. METHODS: I/R injury was performed by clamping both renal arteries. Daily urine output, serum creatinine and urinary TGF-beta and betaig-h3 were measured after I/R injury. Also, the renal expression of betaig-h3 by western blotting and immunohistochemistry were investigated. In the second step, urinary betaig-h3 was measured at 4, 10, 16, and 24 hours after I/R injury to investigate whether it could be used as an early and sensitive marker for detecting I/R injury. RESULTS: Urinary betaig-h3 was significantly elevated at 24 hours and maintained higher than the controls until 2 days after I/R injury. In contrast, western blotting did not reveal any changes of betaig-h3 expression. Immunohistochemistry showed that labeling of betaig-h3 was seen at the basement membranes of proximal tubule cells mainly located at the medullary ray (S3 segment) in both groups. Following I/R injury, the labeling was also seen in the basement membrane of injured or regenerated proximal tubular epithelial cells. Within 24 hours, urinary betaig-h3 was significantly increased at 4 hours after I/R injury. Importantly, the urinary appearance of betaig-h3 preceded that of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that endogenous renal betaig-h3 may serve to promote tissue regeneration in I/R injury and urinary betaig-h3 could be used as an early and sensitive marker demonstrating I/R injury.


Subject(s)
Acetylglucosaminidase , Acute Kidney Injury , Basement Membrane , Blotting, Western , Constriction , Creatinine , Epithelial Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Regeneration , Renal Artery , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Transforming Growth Factor beta
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Developing mental health services and systems to identify children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and providing early therapeutic interventions for them are important to prevent further impairments or disturbances associated with the disorder. The purpose of this study is to examine the clinical validities and efficiencies of Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) for screening and identifying children with ADHD in community. METHODS: Randomly selected 1st to 3rd graders of the two elementary schools (n=1668) in the City of Gunsan participated in the study. K-CBCL and K-ARS were used as screening instruments. Diagnoses were determined by clinical psychiatric interviews and confirmed by Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean Version (K-SADS-PL-K) using DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: The rate of inclusion above the T score of 60 with regard to the attention problems profile of K-CBCL was 4.5%. There was a significant correlation (p or =60 in attention problems) and K-ARS (parent/teacher total> or =90th percentile) reports were combined. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the K-CBCL and K-ARS together could serve as a rapid and useful screening instrument to identify children with ADHD in epidemiologic case definitions.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Child Behavior , Child , Community Mental Health Services , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Mass Screening , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Mood Disorders , Parents , Sensitivity and Specificity
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