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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913550

ABSTRACT

Background@#Selecting effective products among the various types of silicone gel sheets can be challenging for surgeons. Therefore, we assessed the effect of silicone gel sheet thickness on surgical scars in pediatric and adolescent patients. @*Methods@#From December 2017 to May 2018, we identified patients aged 1–19 years who underwent excision. Among these patients, those who were prescribed 0.3-mm or 1.0-mm-thick silicone sheets were selected. Scars were subjectively evaluated using a questionnaire consisting of seven items. Objective evaluation was performed by two plastic surgeons using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). @*Results@#The mean age of the 49 selected patients was 9.78 years. The patients were divided into two groups according to the thickness of the silicone gel sheet used (0.3 mm vs. 1.0 mm). Objective evaluation of the patients’ scars revealed more favorable results in the 0.3 mm group than in the 1.0 mm group (P=0.010). Multivariate analysis of VSS scores indicated that the resulting scars in cases involving the trunk were of poorer quality than those involving facial areas (P=0.015). Additionally, favorable (i.e., below-average) VSS scores were significantly less likely in patients with longer scars (odds ratio, 0.896; 95% confidence interval, 0.834–0.963; P=0.003) or thicker silicone sheets (odds ratio, 0.085; 95% confidence interval, 0.011–0.699; P=0.019). @*Conclusions@#The use of thinner silicone gel sheets in children and adolescents resulted in better scars according to subjective evaluations, underscoring the importance of compliance in pediatric patients. The type of operation and surgical lesion should also be considered when planning the management of surgical scars.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915161

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to analyze occupational accident compensation insurance coverage and occupational accidents incidence for special-type delivery workers. @*Methods@#The data for occupational accident compensation insurance coverage and occupational accidents from 2012 to 2017 were analyzed through descriptive statistics. @*Results@#Rates of occupational accident compensation insurance coverage of special-type delivery workers decreased gradually from 43.4% in 2012 to 28.5% in 2016, and 29.0% in 2017. Rates of occupational illnesses death per ten thousand workers increased gradually from 2.1‱ in 2013 to 3.1‱ in 2016, and 8.6‱ in 2017. All occupational illness deaths were due to cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. Road traffic accidents and slips accounted for the largest proportion of occupational accidents. @*Conclusion@#Special-type delivery workers have a high risk of industrial accidents, so it is necessary to raise industrial accident insurance coverage and provide professional and systematic occupational safety and health services.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914657

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib, an oral multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MTKI) for treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer can induce acute or chronic pancreatitis as an adverse event. However, there have been no reports of pancreatic cancer associated with MTKI, especially among long-term MTKI user. A 60-year-old male patient visited our outpatient cancer clinic due to aggravated abdominal and back pain. He had been taking sorafenib for over five years for advanced thyroid cancer with multiple lung metastases, without any adverse events except mild hand-foot syndrome and slightly increased liver enzymes at the initial phase. Laboratory findings showed increasing serum amylase and lipase levels. An abdominal CT scan showed a 5.2 cm heterogeneous hypointense mass-like lesion on the pancreas distal body area. Under suspicion of pancreatic cancer, extensive surgery of distal pancreatectomy, unilateral nephrectomy, and unilateral adrenalectomy confirmed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with a background of chronic pancreatitis accompanying fibrosis and fat necrosis. Pancreatic cancer should be considered as well as pancreatitis in long-term MTKI users who show abrupt increases in serum pancreatic enzymes, although a causal relationship between long-term MTKI use and pancreatic cancer has not been elucidated.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900317

ABSTRACT

Obesity, which is one of the most important noncommunicable diseases, has become an epidemic. With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the collision of these two health risks has increased the threat of adverse events and serious threats to public health. In this review, the impact of obesity on COVID-19 severity and mortality is presented. The mechanism by which obesity increases susceptibility and severity is discussed. As a low-grade inflammatory disease, obesity provides a pro-inflammatory milieu by which adipose tissue expressing angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is known as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, works as a viral reservoir. Finally, the role of metabolic and bariatric surgeries during the COVID-19 era will be discussed.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899959

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899897

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early trauma is known to be a risk factor of suicide-related behavior. On the other hand, people who attempt suicide using a fatal method are reported to be more likely to complete suicide. In this study, we assumed that early trauma affects an individual's temperament and character and thereby increases the risk of a fatal method of suicide attempts. @*Methods@#We analyzed 92 people with a history of previous suicide attempts. We compared the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised scores between the groups with and without early trauma, and between the groups with and without a history of suicide attempt using fatal methods through an analysis of covariance with age, sex, and presence of a psychiatric history as covariates. A mediation analysis was conducted of the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt with self-transcendence as a mediator. @*Results@#Higher self-transcendence was reported in the fatal group (27.71 ± 13.78 vs. 20.97 ± 12.27, P = 0.010) and the early trauma group (28.05 ± 14.30 vs. 19.43 ± 10.73, P = 0.001), respectively. The mediation model showed that self-transcendence mediates the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. The 95% confidence intervals for the direct and indirect effect were (−0.559, 1.390) and (0.026, 0.947), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Self-transcendence may mediate the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. Self-transcendence may be associated with unhealthy defenses and suicidal behavior for self-punishment and may constitute a marker of higher suicide risk.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892613

ABSTRACT

Obesity, which is one of the most important noncommunicable diseases, has become an epidemic. With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the collision of these two health risks has increased the threat of adverse events and serious threats to public health. In this review, the impact of obesity on COVID-19 severity and mortality is presented. The mechanism by which obesity increases susceptibility and severity is discussed. As a low-grade inflammatory disease, obesity provides a pro-inflammatory milieu by which adipose tissue expressing angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is known as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, works as a viral reservoir. Finally, the role of metabolic and bariatric surgeries during the COVID-19 era will be discussed.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892255

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892193

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early trauma is known to be a risk factor of suicide-related behavior. On the other hand, people who attempt suicide using a fatal method are reported to be more likely to complete suicide. In this study, we assumed that early trauma affects an individual's temperament and character and thereby increases the risk of a fatal method of suicide attempts. @*Methods@#We analyzed 92 people with a history of previous suicide attempts. We compared the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised scores between the groups with and without early trauma, and between the groups with and without a history of suicide attempt using fatal methods through an analysis of covariance with age, sex, and presence of a psychiatric history as covariates. A mediation analysis was conducted of the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt with self-transcendence as a mediator. @*Results@#Higher self-transcendence was reported in the fatal group (27.71 ± 13.78 vs. 20.97 ± 12.27, P = 0.010) and the early trauma group (28.05 ± 14.30 vs. 19.43 ± 10.73, P = 0.001), respectively. The mediation model showed that self-transcendence mediates the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. The 95% confidence intervals for the direct and indirect effect were (−0.559, 1.390) and (0.026, 0.947), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Self-transcendence may mediate the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. Self-transcendence may be associated with unhealthy defenses and suicidal behavior for self-punishment and may constitute a marker of higher suicide risk.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875407

ABSTRACT

Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing that can be caused by a number of disorders that involve either the oropharynx or the esophagus.Specific endoscopic treatment for dysphagia depends on its etiology, whether the dysphagia is caused by mechanical narrowing or a motor disorder. Variable endoscopic treatment strategies can be used to manage dysphagia. Patient with dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter may benefit from esophageal dilationor injection of botulinum toxin. Pneumatic balloon dilation, injection of botulinum toxin, peroral endoscopic myotomy can be considered as treatment options for esophageal motility disorders. Endoscopic dilation is the treatment choice of esophageal stricture, while intraluminal steroid injection and temporary stent can be considered in refractory benign esophageal stricture. Self-expandable metal stent insertion can be considered for dysphagia with malignant cause.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875225

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to identify health behaviors, work-related health problems, and accidents of live-line workers. @*Methods@#The questionnaires were administered to 150 live-line workers in 150 workplaces.A total of 150 questionnaires were collected and 130 were used. Data were analyzed for frequency and percentage by SAS Version 9.3. @*Results@#In terms of eating habits, 62.3% were in the regular-group. Smoking status was 61.5% of smokers and drinking status was 87.7% in the drinking-group. Body mass index was 42.9% for obesity. Most of the workers had problems with sleep. Among the work-related health problems were 98.2% for “upper limb muscle pain”, 92.7% for “back pain”, and 97.2% for “body fatigue”. Among the work-related accidents were 91.7% for “cutting”, 88.4% for “excessive movement”, and 88.3% for “falling”. @*Conclusion@#Safety technology development and effective and efficient work equipment must be used to improve the safety and health of live-line workers. In addition, it is necessary to thoroughly supervise and provide active support for the risk factors and health management to the working environment of live-line workers.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874992

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to establish an animal model of oral dysphagia for translational research purposes. @*Methods@#Four week old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to a surgical partial glossectomy group (horizontal resection, n=13 vs. vertical resection, n=15) and a nonsurgical group (control, n=7). The survival rate, mouse weight, amount of food, and water consumption were compared. Comparisons were made using a Kruskall Wallis test, and survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method. @*Results@#Eleven of the 13 (84.6%) horizontal resection animals and 11 of the 15 (73.3%) vertical resection animals survived to the study endpoint. Compared to the non-surgical control mice, the mice that had undergone a horizontal and vertical resection had a significantly lower mean body weight (P<0.05) during experimental day (ED) 5, with the greatest dysphagia observed in ED 2. The horizontal resection-type mice showed greater mean body weight loss and food consumption in the early stages of the experiment than the vertical resection-type mice. In contrast, the horizontal resection-type mice showed greater body weight gain and food consumption in the late stages of the experiment. @*Conclusion@#This study provides novel evidence that the proper timing for an animal model of oral dysphagia was within ED 5; severe dysphagia was observed in ED 2. The horizontal-type partial glossectomy had a better survival rate than the vertical-type model. Furthermore, the prolonged dysphagia model mimics the vertical resection-type mice.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836710

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze industrial accident compensation insurance coverage and industrial accidents among concrete mixer truck drivers. @*Methods@#Original data on industrial accidents from 2012 to 2017 were analyzed through descriptive statistics. @*Results@#Industrial accident compensation insurance coverage was 44.6% in 2017. Most concrete mixer truck drivers were affiliated with small businesses. A total of 61 industrial accidents occurred in 2012, 65 in 2014, and 80 in 2017. The major types of industrial accident were falls, slips, and crushes. @*Conclusion@#Because concrete mixer truck drivers are at high risk for industrial accidents, industrial accident compensation insurance coverage and industrial accident prevention should be strongly enforced.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836428

ABSTRACT

We present four cases of aberrant carotid arteries manifesting as pharyngeal masses with throat discomfort. The symptoms of this anomaly are very similar to those of laryngopharyngeal reflux or globus pharyngeus. The identification of this anomalous artery is essential for the head and neck surgeon because the anomaly frequently manifests as a symptomatic pulsatile mass in the pharynx. All patients complained of foreign body sensation in the throat and showed protrusion of the posterolateral pharyngeal wall anteromedially. CT scans demonstrated that there were two cases involving the right common carotid artery (CCA) and two cases involving both CCAs in the retropharyngeal space. As conclusion, the aberrant course of the artery can occur on both sides of CCAs, and it can manifest as a pharyngeal mass. When the patients complain of foreign body sensation in the throat without any other abnormal findings in the pharynx, we should consider the possibility that it may be due to the aberrant course of the CCA and its bifurcations in the retropharyngeal space.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835495

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the participation of D-serine and NR2 in antinociception produced by blockade of central erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) A4 (EphA4) signaling in rats with trigeminal neuropathic pain. Trigeminal neuropathic pain was modeled in male Sprague-Dawley rats using mal-positioned dental implants. The left mandibular second molar was extracted under anesthesia, and a miniature dental implant was placed to induce injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. Our current findings showed that nerve injury induced by malpositioned dental implants significantly produced mechanical allodynia; additionally, the inferior alveolar nerve injury increased the expression of D-serine and NR2 subunits in the ipsilateral medullary dorsal horn (trigeminal subnucleus caudalis). Intracisternal administration of EphA4-Fc, an EphA4 inhibitor, inhibited nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia and upregulated the expression of D-serine and NR2 subunits. Moreover, intracisternal administration of D-amino acids oxidase, a D-serine inhibitor, inhibited trigeminal mechanical allodynia. These results show that D-serine and NR2 subunit pathways participate in central EphA4 signaling after an inferior alveolar nerve injury.Therefore, blockade of D-serine and NR2 subunit pathways in central EphA4 signaling provides a new therapeutic target for the treatment of trigeminal neuropathic pain.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to develop an evidence-based clinical imaging diagnostic guideline for implant planning, taking into account efficacy, benefits, and risks.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The guideline development process employed the adaptation methodology used for Korean clinical imaging guidelines(K-CIG). Core databases(Ovid-Medline, Ovid-Embase, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guideline International Network) and domestic databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, and KoMGI) were searched for guidelines. The retrieved articles were analyzed by 2 reviewers, and articles were selected using well-established inclusion criteria.RESULTS: The search identified 294 articles, of which 3 were selected as relevant guidelines. Based on those 3 guidelines, 3 recommendations for implant planning were derived.CONCLUSION: We recommend radiography or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning for individual patients judged to require a cross-sectional image after reading of a panoramic X-ray image and a conventional intraoral radiological image. Various steps should be taken to raise awareness of these recommendations among clinicians and the public, and K-CIG should be regularly reviewed and revised.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901822

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to compare the clinical efficacy and safety between combination of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and AIs alone in patients with hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor type2-(HR+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer. @*Methods@#Published clinical studies were identified through electronic database searches until February 2019. Literature qualities were assessed by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Checklist. Key endpoints of efficacy were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and clinical benefit (CB). Endpoints of safety were adverse events (AEs) (neutropenia, leukopenia, any grade 3/ 4 AEs, and serious AEs) and on-treatment death. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. @*Results@#The selected five studies were evaluated as “good” in quality assessment. Compared to AIs alone, the combination therapy significantly improved PFS (pooled hazard ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.62), ORR (odds ratio=1.78; 95% CI=1.49-2.13), and CB (odds ratio=1.86; 95% CI=1.51-2.28). The prevalence of AEs was significantly higher in the combination group than in the AIs alone group. On-treatment death was greater in the combination group than in the AIs alone group, although insignificant. @*Conclusion@#The combination therapy of CDK4/6 inhibitors with AIs was more effective for the treatment of HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer, but less safe than AIs alone. The combination therapy should be effectively managed through patient monitoring, and further studies are needed to reduce AEs in the combination therapy of CDK4/6 inhibitors with AIs.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831731

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the benefits of helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly are strongly correlated with age, the effective period remains controversial. However, most physicians agree that effective results can be obtained in patients within the age of 6 months. Owing to the characteristics of positional plagiocephaly in Koreans, many Korean patients have delayed diagnosis, and because this results in delayed onset of the helmet therapy, the outcomes remain largely underevaluated. In the management of late-diagnosed positional plagiocephaly, we aimed to determine the factors affecting the effective application of helmet therapy. @*Methods@#We recruited 39 consecutive patients with positional plagiocephaly who received helmet therapy and completed the treatment between December 2008 and June 2016. The ages at initiation and completion of treatment, duration of daily use, initial and final absolute diagonal differences, cephalic index, and cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) were analysed using data retrospectively collected from the patients' medical records. @*Results@#We identified 12 patients with late-diagnosed positional plagiocephaly, of whom 83.33% were effectively treated. The effective change in CVAI (%) was affected by age at treatment initiation (P= 0.001), initial absolute diagonal distance differences (P 13.50 mm and initial CVAI of > 11.03% could receive effective helmet therapy. @*Conclusion@#The efficacy of helmet therapy in late-diagnosed patients can be predicted on the basis of not only age at treatment initiation, but also initial absolute diagonal distance differences and initial CVAI. We anticipate that even patients with late-diagnosed positional plagiocephaly can expect better helmet therapy outcomes.

20.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 131-137, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831206

ABSTRACT

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in which the patient cannot concentrate urine despite appropriate or high secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Congenital nephrogenic DI is caused by the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) gene mutation; the AVPR2 genetic mutation accounts for 90% of the cases. National health screening for infants and children was launched in 2007 in order to prevent accidents and promote public health in infants and children in Korea. The program has been widely used as a primary clinical service in Korea. We treated an infant with faltering growth and delayed development detected by the National health screening program, and diagnosed the problem as nephrogenic DI caused by a rare missense mutation of c.490T>C on the AVPR2 gene. This case can be a good educational nephrogenic DI with a rare AVPR2 mutation, which was well screened and traced by the national health screening program for infants and children in Korea.

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