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Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1069-1077, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968524


Objective@#Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) commonly have a favorite person (FP), whom they are heavily emotionally attached to and dependent on. This study aims to identify and illustrate the patterns of destructive FP relationships based on actual experiences described by those with BPD. @*Methods@#A data mining process was conducted using raw data collected from online communities, such as blogs and social networks. An in-depth review of the information to better understand the natural course of the FP relationship was also conducted. @*Results@#Individuals with BPD form an intense and insecure attachment toward their FP, from which they enormously suffer. FPs can be their friends, romantic or life partners, or family members. As their feelings go beyond their control, being increasingly obsessed with their FP, they make their FP gradually lose hope in continuing the relationship and want to quit trying to fulfill their needs. The relationship finally ends when the FP stops being responsible for meeting their expectations and eventually drifts away. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that certain FPs, distinctively named Teddy Bear Person, may behave in a particular manner to increase the likelihood of the FP relationship becoming more destructive. Moreover, the rejection sensitivity model should be discussed to understand their dysfunctional interaction.

Psychiatry Investigation ; : 362-370, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926924


Objective@#This study examined the path model predicting suicide attempts (SA) by interpersonal need for suicide desire, acquired capability for suicide, the emotion dysregulation, and depression symptoms in people admitted to hospitals for medical treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 344 participants (200 depressed patients with attempted suicide, 144 depressed patients with suicidal ideation) were enrolled for this study. Depression, anxiety, emotion regulation, interpersonal needs, and acquired capability for suicide were evaluated. A model with pathways from emotion regulation difficulties and interpersonal needs to SA was proposed. Participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of SA or suicidal ideation. @*Results@#Acquired capability for suicide mediated the path from depression to SA. In the path model, difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal needs predicted depression significantly. Although depression itself was not significantly related to acquired capability for suicide, depression was significantly related to acquired capability for suicide in suicide attempter group. @*Conclusion@#Interventions with two factors affecting SA will clarify the suicide risk and contribute to finding risk factors.

Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 292-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924852


Objective@#Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed inconsistencies in their cortisol level, an index of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. This study examined the relationship between dissociation, childhood trauma, and morning cortisol levels in PTSD patients. @*Methods@#This study included 69 (23 males and 46 females) patients and 82 (22 males and 60 females) healthy controls (HCs). Clinical assessments, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Peri-traumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores, and morning cortisol levels were evaluated. The morning cortisol levels were compared between PTSD with high dissociation and low dissociation (PTSD-LD) groups. The effect of CTQ subtype on morning cortisol levels was analyzed. @*Results@#The PTSD with high dissociation group showed significantly lower cortisol levels than that of the PTSD-LD and HC groups. A significant inverse correlation was found between cortisol levels and dissociation. A significant positive correlation was found between dissociation and physical abuse and sexual abuse scores. Morning cortisol levels showed a significant positive correlation with emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect, respectively. There was no moderating or mediating effect of CTQ on the relationship between cortisol level and dissociation. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that dissociation is a significant factor related to hypocortisolism in PTSD patients.Additionally, basal morning cortisol levels and dissociation scores were closely associated with childhood trauma.

Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1164-1170, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918715


Objective@#This study aims to understand borderline personality disorder (BPD) features by employing the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). @*Methods@#A total of 156 psychiatric patients completed PSY-5 scales of MMPI-2 and Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Subscale (PAI-BOR). Pearson’s partial correlation analysis was conducted to control the impact of age and gender and to determine the relationship between PSY-5 scales and BOR. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was implemented to examine whether PSY-5 scales predicted the BOR-total, and a path analysis was performed to determine whether PSY-5 scales predicted each PAI-BOR subscale. @*Results@#The BOR-total score had a significant correlation with all PSY-5 scores, even after controlling for age and gender. However, only aggressiveness (AGGR), disconstraint (DISC), negative emotionalityeuroticism (NEGE), and introversion/low positive emotionality (INTR), excluding psychoticism (PSYC), significantly predicted BOR-total. The path analysis indicates that PSYC did not predict any BOR subscale, while NEGE predicted all BOR subscales. @*Conclusion@#The study findings indicate that NEGE best reflects BPD features, while PSYC is far from the core domain that describes BPD. In addition, the influence of age should be considered when understanding BPD, since age predicted the BOR-total and two BOR subscales.

Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1064-1072, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832588


Objective@#The objective of the present study was to explore causal pathways to understand how second traumatic experiences could affect the development of emotional exhaustion and psychiatric problems. @*Methods@#A total of 582 workers who had jobs vulnerable to secondary traumatic experiences were enrolled for this study. Emotional exhaustion, secondary trauma, resilience, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems were evaluated. A model with pathways from secondary traumatic experience score to depression and anxiety was proposed. The participants were divided into three groups according to the resilience: the low, middle and high resilience group. @*Results@#Resilience was a meaningful moderator between secondary traumatic experiences and psychiatric problems. In the path model, the secondary trauma and perceived stress directly and indirectly predicted perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems in all three groups. Direct effects of perceived stress on depression and anxiety were the largest in the low resilience group. However, direct effects of secondary trauma on perceived stress and emotional exhaustion were the largest in the high resilience group. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the needs of focusing for distinct psychological factors offers a valuable direction for the development of intervention programs to prevent emotional exhaustion among workers with secondary traumatic experiences.

Psychiatry Investigation ; : 718-727, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760909


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine social functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and explore the psychological and neurophysiological predictors of social functioning. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and thirty patients with bipolar disorder, as well as twenty-five healthy controls, completed measures of social functioning (questionnaire of social functioning), neurocognition (Verbal fluency, Korean-Auditory Verbal Learning Test), and social cognition (basic empathy scale and Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice), and the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). For neurophysiological measurements, mismatch negativity and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded from all participants. Multiple hierarchical regression was performed to explore the impact of factors on social functioning. RESULTS: The results showed that CTQ-emotional neglect significantly predicted social functioning in schizophrenia group, while HRV-high frequency significantly predicted social functioning in bipolar disorder patients. Furthermore, emotional neglect and HRV-HF still predicted social functioning in all of the subjects after controlling for the diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSION: Our results implicated that even though each group has different predictors of social functioning, early traumatic events and HRV could be important indicators of functional outcome irrespective of what group they are.

Humans , Bipolar Disorder , Cognition , Empathy , Heart Rate , Schizophrenia , Verbal Learning