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1.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 26-35, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967690

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate treatment patterns and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) after initiating biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). @*Methods@#Patients newly diagnosed with RA in 2014 were identified and followed up on using the Korean National Health Insurance Database until 2018. The initial line of therapy (LOT) or LOT1 included patients treated with conventional DMARDs (cDMARD). Patients who started a bDMARD were assigned to LOT2 bDMARD. Those who moved from a bDMARD to a Janus kinase inhibitor were assigned to LOT3. Analyzed outcomes were treatment patterns and HCRU in LOT2 bDMARD. @*Results@#The most prescribed initial bDMARD was a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor. Seventy-five percent of patients had changes in treatment after starting a bDMARD, such as addition/removal or switch of a DMARD, and transition to LOT3. For the first and second changes in LOT2 bDMARD, adding a cDMARD to a bDMARD was more common than switching to another bDMARD (7.98% vs. 2.93% for the first change, and 17.10% vs. 6.51% for the second change). Tocilizumab was the most common bDMARD that was switched to. Forty-eight percent of patients had at least one hospitalization after initiating bDMARDs. Of these patients, 64.3% were admitted due to RA-related reasons. @*Conclusion@#This real-world study provides information on treatment characteristics of RA patients in Korea after starting a bDMARD. In contrary to guidelines, cDMARD addition was more often than bDMARD switches in daily clinical practice.

2.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 26-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966199

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to evaluate the usefulness and safety of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in children with complex chronic diseases (CCD) with impending respiratory failure in the general ward. @*Methods@#Medical records of subjects with HFNC oxygen use in the general ward at a Korean tertiary children’s hospital were reviewed. Children with CCD and impending respiratory failure were included. treatment success was defined as successful weaning from HFNC oxygen support and treatment failure as weaning failure that led to higher level of respiratory support such as invasive ventilation or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. @*Results@#Fifty cases were included. Thirty-five cases (70%) were weaned off HFNC oxygen successfully, 15 cases (30%) failed. At the time of HFNC oxygen administration, the treatment failure group showed higher heart rate (P = 0.043), carbon dioxide partial pressure (P = 0.002), and initial inspired oxygen fraction (P = 0.007). Within 72 hours of initial treatment, 20% of patients in the treatmentsuccess group were weaned off the HFNC oxygen and half in the treatment-failure group required invasive ventilation. One case experienced complication. @*Conclusion@#HFNC oxygen is safe and effective for respiratory support in the general ward to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in children with CCD and impending respiratory failure.

3.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 34-42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966198

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There is a lack of a report about the trajectories of allergen sensitization, although it is important to understand the change of allergen sensitization to manage allergic disease. This study aimed to analyze the change and trajectories of allergen sensitization in children with respiratory and allergic diseases. @*Methods@#From 2006 to 2020, children with respiratory and allergic diseases or screened for allergic sensitization were evaluated. We visualized the alterations and the trajectories of allergen sensitization using stacked area graphs, box plots, and Sankey diagrams. @*Results@#A total of 2,804 subjects were included, and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis was diagnosed in 1,931 children (68.9%). The mean age for the first test was 4.1 years, and that for the second test was 6.5 years. Children sensitized to class 1 food allergen before age 5 showed sensitizations more for other allergens and at a younger age after age 5 than children who were not. The atopic tendency continued once it had been obtained before the early school age in the persistence or the new development of sensitization. @*Conclusion@#Allergen sensitization has changed over time and has shown different patterns according to age. Its trajectory has taken a wide variety of courses in children with respiratory and allergic diseases until the early school age. These changes reflect the allergic diseases and socio-environmental characteristics of children and adolescents.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 384-394, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977436

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The radiographic assessment of lung edema (RALE) score enables objective quantification of lung edema and is a valuable prognostic marker of adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to evaluate the validity of RALE score in children with ARDS. @*Materials and Methods@#The RALE score was measured for its reliability and correlation to other ARDS severity indices. ARDSspecific mortality was defined as death from severe pulmonary dysfunction or the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. The C-index of the RALE score and other ARDS severity indices were compared via survival analyses. @*Results@#Among 296 children with ARDS, 88 did not survive, and there were 70 ARDS-specific non-survivors. The RALE score showed good reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.809 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.760–0.848]. In univariable analysis, the RALE score had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18–3.11), and the significance was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting with age, ARDS etiology, and comorbidity, with an HR of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.05–2.91). The RALE score was a good predictor of ARDS-specific mortality, with a C-index of 0.607 (95% CI, 0.519–0.695). @*Conclusion@#The RALE score is a reliable measure for ARDS severity and a useful prognostic marker of mortality in children, especially for ARDS-specific mortality. This score provides information that clinicians can use to decide the proper time of aggressive therapy targeting severe lung injury and to appropriately manage the fluid balance of children with ARDS.

5.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 104-113, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977195

ABSTRACT

Objectives@# The purpose of this study was to analyze high-sugar food consumption habits frequency among elementary school students, and their correlations with eating habits and sweet taste assessment. @*Methods@# The participants of the study were 164 elementary school students in Daegu, in the fifth or sixth grade, along with their parents. A questionnaire investigated eating habits, high-sugar food consumption habits and frequency, and sweet taste assessment. @*Results@# The average eating habits score for elementary school students was determined to be 71.7 out of 100. Students with higher eating habits scores had lower high-sugar food consumption habits and frequency compared to those with lower eating habits scores. Sweet taste assessment revealed that students who preferred less sweetness chose a 5% sugar concentration, those with a preference for normal sweetness chose a 10% sugar concentration, and those who preferred sweeter tastes chose a 20% sugar concentration. Sweet taste assessment showed that students who tended to prefer less sweetness had the highest eating habits scores and the lowest scores for high-sugar food consumption habits and frequency.In addition, eating habits scores were found to be negatively correlated with high-sugar food consumption habits, high-sugar food consumption frequency, and sweet taste assessment. The sweet taste assessment was positively correlated with high-sugar food consumption habits and frequency. @*Conclusions@# Our results indicate that students with good eating habits had more desirable overall sugar intake habits, and when the preference for sweetness was high, the frequency of high-sugar food consumption was also high. Our study highlights the importance of educating elementary school students and their parents about the harmful effects of excessive sugar consumption, as well as the benefits of adopting healthy eating habits and creating supportive environments.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 238-248, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969235

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated the role of donor kidney ultrasonography (US) for predicting functional kidney volume and identifying ideal kidney grafts in deceased donor kidney transplantation. @*Methods@#In total, 272 patients who underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation from 2000 to 2020 at Samsung Medical Center were enrolled. Donor kidney information (i.e., right or left) was provided to the radiologist who performed US image re-analysis. To binarize each kidney’s ultrasound parameters, an optimal cutoff value for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 within 1 year after kidney transplantation was selected using the receiver operating characteristic curve with a specificity >60%. Cox regression analysis was performed for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 within 1 year after kidney transplantation and graft failure within 2 years after kidney transplantation. @*Results@#The product of renal length and cortical thickness was a statistically significant predictor of graft function. The odds ratios of an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 within a year after kidney transplantation and the hazard ratio of graft failure within 2 years after kidney transplantation were 5.91 (P=0.003) and 5.76 (P=0.022), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Preoperative US of the donor kidney can be used to evaluate donor kidney function and can predict short-term graft survival. An imaging modality such as US should be included in the donor selection criteria as an additional recommendation. However, the purpose of this study was not to narrow the expanded criteria but to avoid catastrophic consequences by identifying ideal donor kidneys using preoperative US.

7.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 71-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918876

ABSTRACT

Excessive crown height space increases can cause crestal bone loss and screw loosening after prosthesis is placed. Milled bar and implant overdenture can be used as a treatment method for partially edentulous patients who have severe alveolar bone loss and excessive crown height space. Milled bar can provide primary splinting effect and stability between implants. Also, milled bar with additional retention device such as Advanced Dental Device-Treatment Of Choice (ADD-TOC) and magnet can provide additional retention force for implant overdenture. In this case, the patient has a partially edentulous mandible that has severe alveolar bone loss and multiple number of teeth loss after excision due to leiomyosarcoma. Because of the long-term loss of mandibular molars, the opposing teeth were extruded. Maxillary left molars were corrected to the occlusal plane through molar intrusion, and mandibular left molar region were treated with implant overdenture, using milled bar with ADD-TOC and magnet after implant placement. The clinical result was satisfactory on the aspect of esthetic and masticatory function.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e30-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915542

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with different age of onset, disease course, clinical symptoms, severity, and risk of comorbidity. The characteristics of children with AD also vary by age or country. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of AD in Korean school-aged children and adolescents. Furthermore, there are few studies on phenotypic differences according to onset age. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and phenotypes according to onset age and severity of AD in children and adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#AD patients aged 6–18 years who presented to 18 hospitals nationwide were surveyed.The patients were examined for disease severity by pediatric allergy specialists, and data on history of other allergic diseases, familial allergy history, onset age, trigger factors, lesion sites,treatment history and quality of life were collected. The results of the patient’s allergy test were also analyzed. The patients were classified into infancy-onset (< 2 years of age), preschoolonset (2–5 years of age), and childhood-onset (≥ 6 years of age) groups. Study population was analyzed for clinical features according to onset-age groups and severity groups. @*Results@#A total of 258 patients with a mean age of 10.62 ± 3.18 years were included in the study. Infancy-onset group accounted for about 60% of all patients and presented significantly more other allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Food allergy symptoms and diagnoses were highly relevant to both earlier onset and more severe group. Inhalant allergen sensitization was significantly associated with both infancy-onset group and severe group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.024, respectively). A family history of food allergies was significantly associated with infancyonset group (P = 0.036). Severe group was significantly associated with a family history of AD, especially a paternal history of AD (P = 0.048 and P = 0.004, respectively). Facial (periorbital, ear, and cheek) lesions, periauricular fissures, hand/foot eczema, and xerosis were associated with infancy-onset group. The earlier the onset of AD, the poorer the quality of life (P = 0.038). Systemic immunosuppressants were used in only 9.6% of the patients in the severe group. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the clinical features of AD in Korean children and adolescents through a multicenter nationwide study and demonstrated the phenotypic differences according to onset age and severity. Considering the findings that the early-onset group is more severe and accompanied by more systemic allergic diseases, early management should be emphasized in young children and infants.

9.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 450-463, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Adolescents who skip breakfast have an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the intake of rice-based breakfast had positive effects on blood glucose indices and to determine the possibility of diabetes prevalence in Korean youths who habitually skip breakfast. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#In this randomized parallel-group controlled trial, 81 subjects who were suitable for compliance among 105 middle-and high-school students aged 12-18 years who usually skipped breakfast were included in this study (rice-meal group [RMG], n = 26; wheat-meal group [WMG], n = 29; general-meal group [GMG], n = 26). The RMG and WMG received a rice-based breakfast and a wheat-based breakfast for 12 weeks, respectively. The anthropometric indices, blood glucose indices, and metabolites were measured at baseline and the endpoint, respectively. @*RESULTS@#The mean body weights in the RMG, WMG, and GMG groups at the endpoint were 62.44 kg, 61.80 kg, and 60.28 kg, respectively, and the mean body weights of the WMG and GMG groups at the endpoint were significantly higher than that at baseline (P < 0.05). The levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly decreased in the RMG group at the endpoint compared to baseline (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). The levels of tryptophan and tyrosine in the WMG group at the endpoint were significantly higher than that those at baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Rice-based breakfast has positive effects on fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in Korean adolescents who skip breakfast. Additionally, it was found that a skipping breakfast could increase the prevalence of diabetes in adolescents who skip breakfast. Therefore, in addition to reducing breakfast skipping, it is vital to develop a ricebased menu that fits teenage preferences to prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes.

10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 298-307, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937670

ABSTRACT

Background@#Securing an available healthcare workforce is critical to respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, research investigating Korea’s COVID-19 staffing response is rare. To present the fundamental data of healthcare staff in response to the surge in COVID-19 cases, we investigated the healthcare workforce response in Daegu, South Korea, which experienced the first largest outbreak of COVID-19 outside of China. @*Materials and Methods@#In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, this retrospective crosssectional study analyzed data on the scale and characteristics of healthcare workers (HCWs). Additionally, it analyzed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HCWs infected with COVID-19 in six major teaching hospitals (five tertiary and one secondary) in Daegu from January 19 to April 30, 2020. @*Results@#During this study period, only 1.3% (n = 611) of the total hospitalized patients (n = 48,807) were COVID-19 inpatients, but they occupied 6.0% (n = 303) of the total hospital beds (n = 5,056), and 23.7% (n = 3,471) of all HCWs (n = 14,651) worked in response to COVID-19.HCWs participating in COVID-19-related works comprised 50.6% (n = 1,203) of doctors (n = 2,379), 26.3% (n = 1,571) of nurses (n = 5,982), and 11.4% (n = 697) of other HCWs (n = 6,108).Only 0.3% (n = 51) of HCWs (n = 14,651) developed COVID-19 infections from communityacquired (66.7%) or hospital-acquired (29.4%). Nurses were affected predominantly (33.3%), followed by doctors (9.8%), caregivers (7.8%), radiographers (5.9%), and others (45.1%), including nurse aides and administrative, facility maintenance, telephone appointment centers, and convenience store staff. All HCWs infected with COVID-19 recovered completely. The 32.7% (n = 333) of individuals (n = 1,018) exposed to HCWs who had COVID-19 were quarantined, and only one case of secondary transmission among them occurred. @*Conclusion@#The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated significant staffing and facility usage, which is disproportionate to the relatively low number of COVID-19 inpatients, imposing a substantial burden on healthcare resources. Therefore, beyond the current reimbursement level of the Korean National Health Insurance, a new type of rewarding system is needed to prepare hospitals for the emerging outbreaks of infectious diseases. Keeping HCWs safe from COVID-19 is crucial for maintaining the healthcare workforce during a sudden massive outbreak. Further studies are needed to determine the standards of required HCWs through detailed research on the working hours and intensity of HCWs responding to COVID-19.

11.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 160-167, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926952

ABSTRACT

One of the treatment options for edentulous state patients with residual ridge resorption is implant overdenture using milled bar and attachment. It not only provides improved retention and stability but can also reduce the coverage of palatal surface. In addition, when a small number of implants are used, milled bar has the effect of being splinted between implant fixtures, which makes it mechanically advantageous under functions such as mastication. The patient in this case was a maxillary edentulous state patient with a considerable amount of residual alveolar bone resorption after removing the existing failed implants. Three implants were planted on both sides and an implant overdenture was fabricated using milled bar and ADD-TOC attachment.

12.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 79-88, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926194

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess pre-biologic treatments with conventional synthetic disease-modifying drugs (csDMARDs) prior to biologics initiation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). @*Methods@#Using Korea National Health Insurance database, we examined pre-biologic treatments of RA patients on the following four items: whether 1) initial methotrexate (MTX) therapy was given, 2) MTX dose was escalated up to ≥15 mg/week within 1-year post-diagnosis, 3) prednisone-equivalent glucocorticoid was used at a dose of ≤7.5 mg/day, and 4) glucocorticoid was discontinued within 6 months of treatment. Multivariable logistic regressions identified predictors of items 2) and 4) fulfillment. @*Results@#Among 6,986 biologics initiators with RA, 54.9% used MTX as the 1st csDMARD. Within 1-year post-diagnosis, 85.2% used MTX with half of them achieving a dose of ≥15 mg/week. The majority (75.2%) of patients used glucocorticoids initially and 64.5% were still on glucocorticoids at 6 months, mostly at a dose of ≤7.5 mg/day. csDMARD combination was observed in 85.7%. Item 2) fulfillment was associated with males, younger age, glucocorticoid, combination therapy, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, and viral hepatitis. Item 4) fulfillment was associated with males, MTX dose of ≥15 mg/week, combination therapy, viral hepatitis, and hospitalizations. @*Conclusion@#RA patients in Korea were predominantly treated with MTX-based csDMARD combination plus glucocorticoids before initiating biologics, without sufficient MTX dose escalation or glucocorticoid discontinuation. Items 2) and 4) fulfillments were associated with patient age and gender, concomitant treatments, and comorbidities.

13.
Soonchunhyang Medical Science ; : 90-95, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968625

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Bone marrow (BM) examinations are performed to evaluate hematological abnormalities. Focusing on patients with cytopenia, we aimed to determine the circumstances under which a BM examination can assist in the diagnosis of hematologic diseases. @*Methods@#The medical records of 738 patients who underwent BM examination from March 2011 to March 2019 at Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital were reviewed. In total, 234 patients underwent a BM examination to identify the cause of cytopenia. Excluded from the analysis were BM examinations performed to diagnose specific diseases and evaluate disease status. @*Results@#Results suggesting suboptimal outcome (n=6) or BM invasion of solid tumors (n=13) were excluded. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura patients (n=52) with normal BM examination results were also excluded. One hundred sixty-three patients who underwent BM examination to determine the cause of cytopenia were included in the analysis. A comparison of non-specific results (n=56) to those pointing to an underlying hematologic disease (n=107) showed that patients with severe neutropenia or severe thrombocytopenia were more likely to be diagnosed with a hematologic disease. Specifically, as the number of severe cytopenias increased, the likelihood of a hematologic disease diagnosis was significantly augmented. Patients with end-stage renal disease, autoimmune disease, or liver cirrhosis were more likely to receive non-specific results. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, seeking the underlying disease or drug should be a primary target for patients with cytopenia. In cases of severe cytopenia in more than one lineage, BM examination should be strongly considered to diagnose an underlying hematologic disease.

14.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 255-262, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904163

ABSTRACT

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)‒associated necrotizing vasculitis, which mainly affects small vessels in various organs, especially the lungs. The two key pulmonary manifestations, interstitial lung disease (ILD) and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), increase the morbidity and death rate of patients with MPA. ILD is more common in MPA than in other ANCA-associated vasculitis subsets and is primarily associated with myeloperoxidase-ANCA. Unlike alveolar hemorrhage due to pulmonary capillaritis, ILD can initially manifest as isolated pulmonary fibrosis. Of note, its most frequent radiographic pattern is the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, similar to the characteristic pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review we present the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and radiographic and histopathologic features of ILD and DAH in MPA. We also briefly summarize the outcome and therapeutic options for the two conditions.

15.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 77-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903765

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. @*Methods@#The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. @*Results@#The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. @*Conclusions@#Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

16.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 156-184, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902660

ABSTRACT

Since its debut in the biomedical research fields in 1981, zebrafish have been used as a vertebrate model organism in more than 40,000 biomedical research studies. Especially useful are zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent proteins in a molecule, intracellular organelle, cell or tissue specific manner because they allow the visualization and tracking of molecules, intracellular organelles, cells or tissues of interest in real time and in vivo. In this review, we summarize representative transgenic fluorescent zebrafish lines that have revolutionized biomedical research on signal transduction, the craniofacial skeletal system, the hematopoietic system, the nervous system, the urogenital system, the digestive system and intracellular organelles.

17.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 35-42, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898848

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate and analyze the adequacy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)s taken before publication of the 2018 recommendation in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 87 cases of breast MRIs, from January 2010 to November 2013, taken at external hospitals in the study. Breast MRI protocol elements are divided into three categories based on the recommendation by the Breast Imaging Study Group of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance: (1) Essential elements for breast MRI protocol; (2) Element to consider when evaluating imaging quality; and (3) Optional element for breast MRI protocol. Also, we divided enrolled cases into three groups based on their conducting locations -- (1) Primary hospitals, (2) Secondary hospitals, and (3) Tertiary hospitals-and analyzed them for the adequacy of imaging protocols based on the 2018 recommendation. We used a Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test to identify differences between categorical variables. @*Results@#Over 98% of the criteria for 'essential elements for breast MRI protocol' were satisfied when compared with the 2018 Recommendation. Over 96% of the criteria for 'elements to consider when evaluating imaging quality' were also satisfied, except for the slice thickness (83.9%). Optional elements for breast MRI protocol were satisfied with various percentages. There were no statistically significant differences between groups of tertiary, secondary, and primary hospitals; however, 3 tesla of MRI (P = 0.04), subtraction image protocol (P = 0.032), and DWI protocol (P = 0.03) were used more frequently in the tertiary hospitals than in the others. @*Conclusion@#We found that the categories of 'essential elements' and 'elements to consider when evaluating imaging quality' were satisfied at 98% and 96%, respectively, when compared with the 2018 Recommendation by the Breast Imaging Study Group of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 159-167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875264

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to compare the survival rates of Korean females aged 40 to 49 years with breast cancer detected by supplemental screening ultrasound (US) or screening mammography alone. @*Materials and Methods@#This single-institution retrospective study included 240 patients with breast cancer (mean age, 45.1 ± 2.8 years) detected by US or mammography who had undergone breast surgery between 2003 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed for clinicopathologic characteristics and detection methods. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with breast cancer in the US and mammography groups using the log-rank test. Multivariable cox regression analysis was used to identify independent variables associated with DFS and OS. @*Results@#Among the 240 cases of breast cancer, 43 were detected by supplemental screening US and 197 by screening mammography (mean follow-up: 7.4 years, 93.3% with dense breasts). There were 19 recurrences and 16 deaths, all occurring in the mammography group. While the US group did not differ from the mammography group in tumor stage, the patients in this group were more likely to undergo breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy than the mammography group.The US group also showed better DFS (p = 0.016); however, OS did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.058). In the multivariable analysis, the US group showed a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.097; 95% confidence interval, 0.001–0.705) compared to the mammography group. @*Conclusion@#Our study found that Korean females aged 40–49 years with US-detected breast cancer showed better DFS than those with mammography-detected breast cancer. However, there were no statistically significant differences in OS.

19.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 101-106, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874919

ABSTRACT

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) presents with proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and markedly high creatine kinase level. It is caused by the loss of dysferlin due to mutations in the DYSF gene. Due to its similar clinical features as inflammatory myopathy, it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. We present a case of a 48-year-old male who developed progressive proximal muscle weakness, papulosquamous lesions on the knuckles, elevated levels of muscle enzymes, and electromyogram abnormalities. Based on the clinical presentation, the initial impression was dermatomyositis, yet it was refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Subsequently, dysferlin immunostaining and genetic analysis led to the final diagnosis of LGMD2B. This case shows that LGMD2B can present with extramuscular symptoms mimicking inflammatory myopathy in later stages of life. Dysferlin immunostaining and/or genetic analysis of the DYSF gene are essential for its diagnosis.

20.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 51-56, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918670

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The authors aimed to investigate the utility of blood culture (BC) for children with simple febrile seizure (SFS) in the emergency department (ED) in the post-10/13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. @*Methods@#This study was performed at the ED of a tertiary care university-affiliated women and children’s hospital, and involved 3,237 previously healthy children aged 6-60 months who visited the ED with SFS from January 2013 through December 2017. The SFS was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision codes related to seizure. The children were divided into 2 groups according to the vaccination rates of the period of their visit: the 70-PCV (70%, 2013-2014) and 97-PCV (97%, 2015-2017) groups. The primary outcome was the yield, defined as a true positivity of BC. In addition, we collected information on baseline characteristics, ED length of stay, inflammatory biomarkers, and ED outcomes. @*Results@#Of the 1,578 children with SFS who underwent BC, 1,357 belonged to the 97-PCV group. The median age of the study population was 22 months (interquartile range, 16.0-30.0), and 935 children (59.3%) were boys. Of the 41 children (2.6%) with positive BC results, 3 had the yield (0.2%): Staphylococcus aureus in 2 children and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the other. All 3 children belonged to the 97-PCV group. There were 38 contaminated BCs (2.4%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-3.2%). The 97-PCV group showed a shorter median ED length of stay (166.0 minutes [108.0-279.5] vs. 143.0 [109.5-209.5]; P = 0.010) and a lower rate of hospitalization (39.4% vs. 12.8%; P < 0.001). No differences between the 2 groups were found in the baseline characteristics and biomarkers. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests a low utility of BC in previously healthy children with SFS in emergency settings in the post-10/13-valent PCV era.

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