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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915542

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with different age of onset, disease course, clinical symptoms, severity, and risk of comorbidity. The characteristics of children with AD also vary by age or country. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of AD in Korean school-aged children and adolescents. Furthermore, there are few studies on phenotypic differences according to onset age. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and phenotypes according to onset age and severity of AD in children and adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#AD patients aged 6–18 years who presented to 18 hospitals nationwide were surveyed.The patients were examined for disease severity by pediatric allergy specialists, and data on history of other allergic diseases, familial allergy history, onset age, trigger factors, lesion sites,treatment history and quality of life were collected. The results of the patient’s allergy test were also analyzed. The patients were classified into infancy-onset (< 2 years of age), preschoolonset (2–5 years of age), and childhood-onset (≥ 6 years of age) groups. Study population was analyzed for clinical features according to onset-age groups and severity groups. @*Results@#A total of 258 patients with a mean age of 10.62 ± 3.18 years were included in the study. Infancy-onset group accounted for about 60% of all patients and presented significantly more other allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Food allergy symptoms and diagnoses were highly relevant to both earlier onset and more severe group. Inhalant allergen sensitization was significantly associated with both infancy-onset group and severe group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.024, respectively). A family history of food allergies was significantly associated with infancyonset group (P = 0.036). Severe group was significantly associated with a family history of AD, especially a paternal history of AD (P = 0.048 and P = 0.004, respectively). Facial (periorbital, ear, and cheek) lesions, periauricular fissures, hand/foot eczema, and xerosis were associated with infancy-onset group. The earlier the onset of AD, the poorer the quality of life (P = 0.038). Systemic immunosuppressants were used in only 9.6% of the patients in the severe group. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the clinical features of AD in Korean children and adolescents through a multicenter nationwide study and demonstrated the phenotypic differences according to onset age and severity. Considering the findings that the early-onset group is more severe and accompanied by more systemic allergic diseases, early management should be emphasized in young children and infants.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918876

ABSTRACT

Excessive crown height space increases can cause crestal bone loss and screw loosening after prosthesis is placed. Milled bar and implant overdenture can be used as a treatment method for partially edentulous patients who have severe alveolar bone loss and excessive crown height space. Milled bar can provide primary splinting effect and stability between implants. Also, milled bar with additional retention device such as Advanced Dental Device-Treatment Of Choice (ADD-TOC) and magnet can provide additional retention force for implant overdenture. In this case, the patient has a partially edentulous mandible that has severe alveolar bone loss and multiple number of teeth loss after excision due to leiomyosarcoma. Because of the long-term loss of mandibular molars, the opposing teeth were extruded. Maxillary left molars were corrected to the occlusal plane through molar intrusion, and mandibular left molar region were treated with implant overdenture, using milled bar with ADD-TOC and magnet after implant placement. The clinical result was satisfactory on the aspect of esthetic and masticatory function.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 554-560, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914826

ABSTRACT

Axillary ultrasonography (US) is the most commonly used imaging modality for nodal evaluation in patients with breast cancer. No Axillary Surgical Treatment in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative Patients after Ultrasonography (NAUTILUS) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial investigating whether sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can be safely omitted in patients with clinically and sonographically node-negative T1–2 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. In this trial, a standardized imaging protocol and criteria were established for the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes. Women lacking palpable lymph nodes underwent axillary US to dismiss suspicious nodal involvement.Patients with a round hypoechoic node with effaced hilum or indistinct margins were excluded. Patients with T1 tumors and a single node with a cortical thickness ≥ 3 mm underwent US-guided biopsy. Finally, patients with negative axillary US findings were included. The NAUTILUS axillary US nodal assessment criteria facilitate the proper selection of candidates who can omit SLNB.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914329

ABSTRACT

Tamoxifen (TAM) is an anticancer drug used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)‒positive breast cancer. However, its ER-independent cytotoxic and antifungal activities have prompted debates on its mechanism of action. To achieve a better understanding of the ER-independent antifungal action mechanisms of TAM, we systematically identified TAM-sensitive genes through microarray screening of the heterozygous gene deletion library in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Secondary confirmation was followed by a spotting assay, finally yielding 13 TAM-sensitive genes under the drug-induced haploinsufficient condition. For these 13 TAM-sensitive genes, we conducted a comparative analysis of their Gene Ontology (GO) ‘biological process’ terms identified from other genome-wide screenings of the budding yeast deletion library and the MCF7breast cancer cell line. Several TAM-sensitive genes overlapped between the yeast strains and MCF7 in GO terms including ‘cell cycle’ (cdc2, rik1, pas1, and leo1), ‘signaling’ (sck2, oga1, and cki3), and ‘vesicle-mediated transport’ (SPCC126.08c, vps54, sec72, and tvp15), suggesting their roles in the ER-independent cytotoxic effects of TAM. We recently reported that the cki3 gene with the ‘signaling’ GO term was related to the ER-independent antifungal action mechanisms of TAM in yeast. In this study, we report that haploinsufficiency of the essential vps54 gene, which encodes the GARP complex subunit, significantly aggravated TAM sensitivity and led to an enlarged vesicle structure in comparison with the SP286 control strain. These results strongly suggest that the vesicle-mediated transport process might be another action mechanism of the ER-independent antifungal or cytotoxic effects of TAM.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913375

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can be a treatment option for intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), obtaining proper stimulation at the thoracic dermatome is difficult. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation may be an effective treatment for patients with insufficient efficacy in SCS only.Case: A 54-year-old man with intractable PHN was referred to our clinic. Pain was localized to the distribution of the T1–3 dermatomes. SCS trial was conducted, and lead was placed within the epidural space over the C6–T1 level; however, the stimulation was inadequate for his pain site. Therefore, another lead was placed within the left T1 and T2 DRG for trial, and T1 DRG stimulation provided adequate stimulation. T1 DRG stimulation and SCS could cover the entire pain site with paresthesia, and his pain was decreased by over 50%. @*Conclusions@#DRG stimulation combined with SCS may be a good treatment option for intractable thoracic PHN.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913324

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Allergen sensitization is constantly changing, and understanding these changes can help manage and prevent allergic diseases. This research analyzed and compared the changes in allergen sensitization in children diagnosed with allergic diseases using the skin test and the multiple allergen simultaneous test. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the data on children who were diagnosed with allergic diseases and received immunotherapy at Yonsei Medical Center from 1980 to 1998 and they were screened for allergen sensitization at Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2019. @*Results@#Between 1980 and 1998, and between 2005 and 2019, data on 3,205 (male, 70.3%; mean age, 7.2 ± 2.9 years) and 15,318 children (male, 62.8%; mean age, 8.8 ± 4.5 years) were analyzed. The sensitized allergens that appeared in the 1980–1998 included Dermatophagoides farinae (91.0%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (76.3%), cockroach (13.5%), and Alternaria (11.5%), in order of frequency; further, the sensitized allergens that appeared in the 2005–2019 included D. farinae (45.0%), D. pteronyssinus (39.6%), cat dander (12.2%), and dog dander (9.1%), in order of frequency. D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus demonstrated the highest sensitization rates, although the rates decreased gradually. The sensitization to cat dander and dog dander showed a growing trend, and sensitization to Humulus japonicus, Candida, and cockroach decreased after 2005. @*Conclusion@#Over the past 40 years, the allergen sensitization in Korean children with allergic diseases has increased. These changes reflect lifestyle and environmental changes and influence allergic disease management approaches. Thus, changes in allergic sensitization should be monitored continuously.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913323

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sleep-disordered breathing is one of the complicating characteristics in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). No detailed description and risk factors are suggested on breathing problems during sleep in Korean children with PWS. @*Methods@#We reviewed clinical and sleep-study data in patients with PWS who underwent polysomnography before they took the growth hormone therapy. @*Results@#Of the 27 patients with PWS, 25 (92.6%) had sleep-disordered breathing, of whom 14 showed moderate to severe sleep apnea. Obstructive dominance was prevalent (64%), followed by central dominance (24%). The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) increased with increasing weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) (r = 0.50, P = 0.009), but did not differ by age. Apnea duration of over 12 months was longer in the patient group than in the infant group (15.1 ± 4.3 seconds vs. 9.4 ± 1.7 seconds, P = 0.001) and in the obese than nonobese groups (16.8 ± 4.3 seconds vs. 10.0 ± 2.0 seconds, P = 0.003). Desaturation below 70% was more common in the obese than nonobese subjects (3/9 vs. 0/18, P = 0.029). Age was not different between the central and obstructive apnea groups, but patients with central apnea tended to be younger than patients with obstructive apnea (median [range]: 8.0 months [6.0–12.0 months] vs.16.5 months [8.5–79.5 months], P = 0.092). In addition, patients with obstructive apnea showed higher AHI (12.8 [5.9–19.2] vs. 3.9 [3.4–4.5], P = 0.045). @*Conclusion@#Sleep-disordered breathing is common in PWS children with different intensity and patterns according to age and BMI. Close monitoring of breathing problems during sleep is required in PWS patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898848

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate and analyze the adequacy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)s taken before publication of the 2018 recommendation in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 87 cases of breast MRIs, from January 2010 to November 2013, taken at external hospitals in the study. Breast MRI protocol elements are divided into three categories based on the recommendation by the Breast Imaging Study Group of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance: (1) Essential elements for breast MRI protocol; (2) Element to consider when evaluating imaging quality; and (3) Optional element for breast MRI protocol. Also, we divided enrolled cases into three groups based on their conducting locations -- (1) Primary hospitals, (2) Secondary hospitals, and (3) Tertiary hospitals-and analyzed them for the adequacy of imaging protocols based on the 2018 recommendation. We used a Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test to identify differences between categorical variables. @*Results@#Over 98% of the criteria for 'essential elements for breast MRI protocol' were satisfied when compared with the 2018 Recommendation. Over 96% of the criteria for 'elements to consider when evaluating imaging quality' were also satisfied, except for the slice thickness (83.9%). Optional elements for breast MRI protocol were satisfied with various percentages. There were no statistically significant differences between groups of tertiary, secondary, and primary hospitals; however, 3 tesla of MRI (P = 0.04), subtraction image protocol (P = 0.032), and DWI protocol (P = 0.03) were used more frequently in the tertiary hospitals than in the others. @*Conclusion@#We found that the categories of 'essential elements' and 'elements to consider when evaluating imaging quality' were satisfied at 98% and 96%, respectively, when compared with the 2018 Recommendation by the Breast Imaging Study Group of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875264

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to compare the survival rates of Korean females aged 40 to 49 years with breast cancer detected by supplemental screening ultrasound (US) or screening mammography alone. @*Materials and Methods@#This single-institution retrospective study included 240 patients with breast cancer (mean age, 45.1 ± 2.8 years) detected by US or mammography who had undergone breast surgery between 2003 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed for clinicopathologic characteristics and detection methods. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with breast cancer in the US and mammography groups using the log-rank test. Multivariable cox regression analysis was used to identify independent variables associated with DFS and OS. @*Results@#Among the 240 cases of breast cancer, 43 were detected by supplemental screening US and 197 by screening mammography (mean follow-up: 7.4 years, 93.3% with dense breasts). There were 19 recurrences and 16 deaths, all occurring in the mammography group. While the US group did not differ from the mammography group in tumor stage, the patients in this group were more likely to undergo breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy than the mammography group.The US group also showed better DFS (p = 0.016); however, OS did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.058). In the multivariable analysis, the US group showed a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.097; 95% confidence interval, 0.001–0.705) compared to the mammography group. @*Conclusion@#Our study found that Korean females aged 40–49 years with US-detected breast cancer showed better DFS than those with mammography-detected breast cancer. However, there were no statistically significant differences in OS.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874919

ABSTRACT

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) presents with proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and markedly high creatine kinase level. It is caused by the loss of dysferlin due to mutations in the DYSF gene. Due to its similar clinical features as inflammatory myopathy, it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. We present a case of a 48-year-old male who developed progressive proximal muscle weakness, papulosquamous lesions on the knuckles, elevated levels of muscle enzymes, and electromyogram abnormalities. Based on the clinical presentation, the initial impression was dermatomyositis, yet it was refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Subsequently, dysferlin immunostaining and genetic analysis led to the final diagnosis of LGMD2B. This case shows that LGMD2B can present with extramuscular symptoms mimicking inflammatory myopathy in later stages of life. Dysferlin immunostaining and/or genetic analysis of the DYSF gene are essential for its diagnosis.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874539

ABSTRACT

Background@#The microencapsulation is an ideal solution to overcome immune rejection without immunosuppressive treatment. Poor biocompatibility and small molecular antigens secreted from encapsulated islets induce fibrosis infiltration. Therefore, the aims of this study were to improve the biocompatibility of microcapsules by dexamethasone coating and to verify its effect after xenogeneic transplantation in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice. @*Methods@#Dexamethasone 21-phosphate (Dexa) was dissolved in 1% chitosan and was cross-linked with the alginate microcapsule surface. Insulin secretion and viability assays were performed 14 days after microencapsulation. Dexa-containing chitosan-coated alginate (Dexa-chitosan) or alginate microencapsulated porcine islets were transplanted into diabetic mice. The fibrosis infiltration score was calculated from the harvested microcapsules. The harvested microcapsules were stained with trichrome and for insulin and macrophages. @*Results@#No significant differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet viability were noted among naked, alginate, and Dexa-chitosan microencapsulated islets. After transplantation of microencapsulated porcine islets, nonfasting blood glucose were normalized in both the Dexa-chitosan and alginate groups until 231 days. The average glucose after transplantation were lower in the Dexa-chitosan group than the alginate group. Pericapsular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration of microcapsules were significantly reduced in Dexa-chitosan compared with alginate microcapsules. Dithizone and insulin were positive in Dexa-chitosan capsules. Although fibrosis and macrophage infiltration was noted on the surface, some alginate microcapsules were stained with insulin. @*Conclusion@#Dexa coating on microcapsules significantly suppressed the fibrotic reaction on the capsule surface after transplantation of xenogenic islets containing microcapsules without any harmful effects on the function and survival of the islets.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874321

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma is a malignant cancer of plasma cells. Despite recent progress with immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors, it remains an incurable disease that requires other strategies to overcome its recurrence and non-response. Based on the high expression levels of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in human multiple myeloma isolated from bone marrow and the murine myeloma cell lines, NS-1 and MOPC-315, we propose PD-L1 molecule as a target of anti-multiple myeloma therapy. We developed a novel anti-PD-L1 antibody containing a murine immunoglobulin G subclass 2a (IgG2a) fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain that can induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The newly developed anti-PD-L1 antibody showed significant antitumor effects against multiple myeloma in mice subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or intravenously inoculated with NS-1 and MOPC-315 cells. The anti-PD-L1 effects on multiple myeloma may be related to a decrease in the immunosuppressive myeloidderived suppressor cells (MDSCs), but there were no changes in the splenic MDSCs after combined treatment with lenalidomide and the anti-PD-L1 antibody. Interestingly, the newly developed anti-PD-L1 antibody can induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in the myeloma cells, which differs from the existing anti-PD-L1 antibodies. Collectively, we have developed a new anti-PDL1 antibody that binds to mouse and human PD-L1 and demonstrated the antitumor effects of the antibody in several syngeneic murine myeloma models. Thus, PD-L1 is a promising target to treat multiple myeloma, and the novel anti-PD-L1 antibody may be an effective anti-myeloma drug via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity effects.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904163

ABSTRACT

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)‒associated necrotizing vasculitis, which mainly affects small vessels in various organs, especially the lungs. The two key pulmonary manifestations, interstitial lung disease (ILD) and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), increase the morbidity and death rate of patients with MPA. ILD is more common in MPA than in other ANCA-associated vasculitis subsets and is primarily associated with myeloperoxidase-ANCA. Unlike alveolar hemorrhage due to pulmonary capillaritis, ILD can initially manifest as isolated pulmonary fibrosis. Of note, its most frequent radiographic pattern is the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, similar to the characteristic pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review we present the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and radiographic and histopathologic features of ILD and DAH in MPA. We also briefly summarize the outcome and therapeutic options for the two conditions.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903765

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. @*Methods@#The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. @*Results@#The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. @*Conclusions@#Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 156-184, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902660

ABSTRACT

Since its debut in the biomedical research fields in 1981, zebrafish have been used as a vertebrate model organism in more than 40,000 biomedical research studies. Especially useful are zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent proteins in a molecule, intracellular organelle, cell or tissue specific manner because they allow the visualization and tracking of molecules, intracellular organelles, cells or tissues of interest in real time and in vivo. In this review, we summarize representative transgenic fluorescent zebrafish lines that have revolutionized biomedical research on signal transduction, the craniofacial skeletal system, the hematopoietic system, the nervous system, the urogenital system, the digestive system and intracellular organelles.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918670

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The authors aimed to investigate the utility of blood culture (BC) for children with simple febrile seizure (SFS) in the emergency department (ED) in the post-10/13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. @*Methods@#This study was performed at the ED of a tertiary care university-affiliated women and children’s hospital, and involved 3,237 previously healthy children aged 6-60 months who visited the ED with SFS from January 2013 through December 2017. The SFS was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision codes related to seizure. The children were divided into 2 groups according to the vaccination rates of the period of their visit: the 70-PCV (70%, 2013-2014) and 97-PCV (97%, 2015-2017) groups. The primary outcome was the yield, defined as a true positivity of BC. In addition, we collected information on baseline characteristics, ED length of stay, inflammatory biomarkers, and ED outcomes. @*Results@#Of the 1,578 children with SFS who underwent BC, 1,357 belonged to the 97-PCV group. The median age of the study population was 22 months (interquartile range, 16.0-30.0), and 935 children (59.3%) were boys. Of the 41 children (2.6%) with positive BC results, 3 had the yield (0.2%): Staphylococcus aureus in 2 children and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the other. All 3 children belonged to the 97-PCV group. There were 38 contaminated BCs (2.4%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-3.2%). The 97-PCV group showed a shorter median ED length of stay (166.0 minutes [108.0-279.5] vs. 143.0 [109.5-209.5]; P = 0.010) and a lower rate of hospitalization (39.4% vs. 12.8%; P < 0.001). No differences between the 2 groups were found in the baseline characteristics and biomarkers. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests a low utility of BC in previously healthy children with SFS in emergency settings in the post-10/13-valent PCV era.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896990

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to compare the oncologic outcomes between nonradical management and total mesorectal excision in good responders after chemoradiotherapy. @*Methods@#We analyzed 75 patients, who underwent 14 watch-and-wait, 30 local excision, and 31 total mesorectal excision, in ycT0–1N0M0 based on magnetic resonance imaging after chemoradiotherapy for advanced mid-to-low rectal cancer in 3 referral hospitals. The nonradical management group underwent surveillance with additional sigmoidoscopy and rectal magnetic resonance imaging every 3–6 months within the first 2 years. @*Results@#Nonradical management group had more low-lying tumors (P < 0.001) and less lymph node metastasis based on magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.004). However, cT stage, ycT, and ycN stage were not different between the 2 groups. With a median follow-up period of 64.7 months, the 5-year locoregional failure rate was higher in the nonradical management group than in the total mesorectal excision group (16.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.013). However, the 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates of the nonradical management and total mesorectal excision groups were not different (95.2% vs. 93.5%, P = 0.467; 76.4% vs. 83.6%, P = 0.665; respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study shows that nonradical management for ycT0–1N0 mid-to-low rectal cancer may be an alternative treatment to total mesorectal excision under proper surveillance and management for oncologic events.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896988

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to evaluate the risk of readmission in the first year after low anterior resection (LAR) for patients with rectal cancer and to identify the contributing factors for readmission related to dehydration specifically. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of 570 patients who underwent LAR for rectal cancer at National Cancer Center, Republic of Korea. A diverting loop ileostomy was performed in 357 (62.6%) of these patients. Readmission was defined as an unplanned visit to the emergency room or admission to the ward. The reasons for readmission were reviewed and compared between the ileostomy (n = 357) and no-ileostomy (n = 213) groups. The risk factors for readmission and readmission due to dehydration were analyzed using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Dehydration was the most common cause of readmission in both groups (ileostomy group, 6.7%, and no-ileostomy group, 4.7%, P = 0.323). On multivariable analysis, risk factors for readmission were an estimated intraoperative blood loss of ≥400 mL (odds ratio [OR], 1.757; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.058–2.918; P = 0.029), and postoperative chemotherapy (OR, 2.914; 95% CI, 1.824–4.653; P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, postoperative chemotherapy, and not a diverting loop ileostomy, was an independent risk factor for dehydration-related readmission (OR, 5.102; 95% CI, 1.772–14.688; P = 0.003). @*Conclusion@#The most common cause of readmission after LAR for rectal cancer was dehydration, as reported previously. Postoperative chemotherapy, not the creation of a diverting ileostomy, was identified as the risk factor associated with readmission related to dehydration.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896459

ABSTRACT

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)‒associated necrotizing vasculitis, which mainly affects small vessels in various organs, especially the lungs. The two key pulmonary manifestations, interstitial lung disease (ILD) and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), increase the morbidity and death rate of patients with MPA. ILD is more common in MPA than in other ANCA-associated vasculitis subsets and is primarily associated with myeloperoxidase-ANCA. Unlike alveolar hemorrhage due to pulmonary capillaritis, ILD can initially manifest as isolated pulmonary fibrosis. Of note, its most frequent radiographic pattern is the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, similar to the characteristic pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review we present the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and radiographic and histopathologic features of ILD and DAH in MPA. We also briefly summarize the outcome and therapeutic options for the two conditions.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896061

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. @*Methods@#The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. @*Results@#The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. @*Conclusions@#Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

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