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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937416

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with undiagnosed diabetes through a nationwide survey, compared to those with known diabetes. @*Methods@#Among the participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) from 2017 to 2018, individuals aged ≥40 years with diabetes and fundus exam results were enrolled. Sampling weights were applied to represent the entire Korean population. Newly detected diabetes patients through KNHANES were classified under “undiagnosed diabetes.” @*Results@#Among a total of 9,108 participants aged ≥40 years, 951 were selected for analysis. Of them, 31.3% (standard error, ±2.0%) were classified under “undiagnosed diabetes.” The prevalence of DR in patients with known and undiagnosed diabetes was 24.5%±2.0% and 10.7%±2.2%, respectively (P<0.001). The DR prevalence increased with rising glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with known and undiagnosed diabetes (P for trend=0.001 in both). Among those with undiagnosed diabetes, the prevalence of DR was 6.9%±2.1%, 8.0%±3.4%, 5.6%±5.7%, 16.7%±9.4%, and 42.6%±14.8% for HbA1c levels of <7.0%, 7.0%–7.9%, 8.0%–8.9%, 9.0%–9.9%, and ≥10.0% respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or obesity according to the presence or absence of DR. @*Conclusion@#About one-third of patients with diabetes were unaware of their diabetes, and 10% of them have already developed DR. Considering increasing the prevalence of DR according to HbA1c level was found in patients with undiagnosed diabetes like those with known diabetes, screening and early detection of diabetes and DR are important.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924926

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe. @*Results@#Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy. @*Conclusion@#According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898202

ABSTRACT

Background@#There has been controversy regarding the association between primary aldosteronism (PA) and dyslipidemia and few studies considered the effects of diabetes and renal function on lipid metabolism. We analyzed lipid profiles of PA patients and compared them to propensity-score (PS)-matched essential hypertension (EH) patients adjusting for glycemic status and renal function. @*Methods@#Patients who were diagnosed with PA using a saline-infusion test at Seoul National University Hospital from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. EH patients who had aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) results were selected as controls. Covariates, including diabetes, were PS-matched for patients with PA, lateralized PA, non-lateralized PA, and high ARR to EH patients, respectively. @*Results@#Among a total of 80 PA and 80 EH patients, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower in the PA patients than in the EH patients (least-squares mean±standard error: 185.5±4.4 mg/dL vs. 196.2±4.4 mg/dL, P=0.047, for TC; and 132.3±11.5 mg/dL vs. 157.4±11.4 mg/dL, P=0.035, for TG) in fully adjusted model (adjusting for multiple covariates, including diabetes status, glycosylated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. According to increments in aldosterone levels, an increasing tendency of HDL-C and decreasing tendencies of TG and non-HDL-C were observed. @*Conclusion@#PA patients had lower TC and TG levels than EH patients, independent of glycemic status and renal function.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890498

ABSTRACT

Background@#There has been controversy regarding the association between primary aldosteronism (PA) and dyslipidemia and few studies considered the effects of diabetes and renal function on lipid metabolism. We analyzed lipid profiles of PA patients and compared them to propensity-score (PS)-matched essential hypertension (EH) patients adjusting for glycemic status and renal function. @*Methods@#Patients who were diagnosed with PA using a saline-infusion test at Seoul National University Hospital from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. EH patients who had aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) results were selected as controls. Covariates, including diabetes, were PS-matched for patients with PA, lateralized PA, non-lateralized PA, and high ARR to EH patients, respectively. @*Results@#Among a total of 80 PA and 80 EH patients, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower in the PA patients than in the EH patients (least-squares mean±standard error: 185.5±4.4 mg/dL vs. 196.2±4.4 mg/dL, P=0.047, for TC; and 132.3±11.5 mg/dL vs. 157.4±11.4 mg/dL, P=0.035, for TG) in fully adjusted model (adjusting for multiple covariates, including diabetes status, glycosylated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. According to increments in aldosterone levels, an increasing tendency of HDL-C and decreasing tendencies of TG and non-HDL-C were observed. @*Conclusion@#PA patients had lower TC and TG levels than EH patients, independent of glycemic status and renal function.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

7.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 259-267, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918901

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 7th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2021. Intense multifactorial intervention including adequate control of glycemia, blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level and use of antiplatelet agents has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In these recent guidelines, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) with proven benefits were recommended in patients with heart failure and/or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) as mono- or combination therapy. SGLT2 inhibitors such as dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and ertugliflozin were recommended preferentially in patients with heart failure. In those with ASCVD, treatment including SGLT2 inhibitors such as empagliflozin and dapagliflozin or GLP-1 RAs such as dulaglutide, liraglutide, and semaglutide as a combination therapy was recommended.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874825

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol according to triglyceride (TG) levels in young adults. @*Methods@#Subjects aged 30–49 years with data from routine health check-ups provided by the National Health Insurance Service during 2009 were selected. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined as a composite of ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke during the follow-up period from 2009 to 2018. @*Results@#The mean age of study subjects (n=1,823,537) was 40.1±5.7 years, and the median follow-up period was 8.3 years. The quartiles of serum TG levels at the baseline were calculated: Q1, 166 mg/dL.The highest quartile of TG levels (Q4) had a significantly higher risk of the primary outcome than Q1 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.40 [95% confidence interval; CI, 2.33–2.47]). Q2 and Q3 also experienced the primary outcome more frequently than Q1 (HR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.33–1.42] and HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.75–1.86], respectively). Even after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, alcohol drinking amount, smoking, LDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, lipidlowering medication use, and family history of CVD, there was a significant dose-response relationship between TG quartiles and the risk of the primary outcome (HR per quartile, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.12–1.14]). @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, in the Korean population aged 30–49 years, high TG levels independently increased future CVD risk in both men and women.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1029-1041, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914262

ABSTRACT

Background@#We estimated the effect of obesity on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in women according to menopausal status. @*Methods@#Women aged 40 to 69 years under routine health check-ups provided by the National Health Insurance Service in 2009 were followed up till 2018 (n=2,208,559). @*Results@#In premenopausal women, a significant increment of mortality rate was found in underweight and obesity class II (hazard ratio [HR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 1.67; and HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.39) compared to normal body mass index (BMI); overweight and obesity class I did not affect mortality rate. In postmenopausal women, obesity as well as overweight status reduced the risk of mortality compared to normal BMI (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.88; and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.86). By contrast, there was a linear association between CVD and BMI above the normal range irrespective of menopausal status, which was attenuated in diabetic women. @*Conclusion@#The current study replicated the J-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality, being more prominent in the postmenopausal group. The risk of CVD was linearly increased as BMI was increased above the normal range irrespective of menopausal status.

10.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 105-115, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903533

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease commonly develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care that includes optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for premature death and complications due to cardiorenal causes. Recent studies using sodiumglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effects, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and lower cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may also be associated with improved renal outcomes during long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in patients with T2DM using meta-analysis.

11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836650

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease is developed commonly in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care including optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for death and complications from cardiorenal causes. The recent studies using sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effect, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and a lowering cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitor slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may be also associated with improved renal outcomes with long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in the patients with T2DM using meta-analysis. (Korean J Med 2020;95:236-243)

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834961

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, prevention of renal dysfunction is an important treatment goal in the management of diabetes. The data of landmark cardiovascular outcome trials of sodiumglucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed profound reno-protective effects. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology reviewed clinical trials and performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the preservation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We limited the data of SGLT2 inhibitors which can be prescribed in Korea. Both eGFR value and its change from the baseline were significantly more preserved in the SGLT2-inhibitor treatment group compared to the control group after 156 weeks. However, some known adverse events were increased in SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, such as genital infection, diabetic ketoacidosis, and volume depletion. We recommend long-term use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for attenuation of renal function decline. However, we cannot generalize our recommendations due to the lack of long-term clinical trials testing the reno-protective effects of every SGLT2 inhibitor in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This recommendation can be revised and updated after the publication of several large-scale renal outcome trials.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832362

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM). @*Methods@#In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM. @*Results@#The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men. @*Conclusion@#In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832329

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, prevention of renal dysfunction is an important treatment goal in the management of diabetes. The data of landmark cardiovascular outcome trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor showed profound reno-protective effects. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology reviewed clinical trials and performed meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the preservation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We limited the data of SGLT2 inhibitors which can be prescribed in Korea. Both eGFR value and its change from the baseline were significantly more preserved in the SGLT2 inhibitor treatment group compared to the control group after 156 weeks. However, some known adverse events were increased in SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, such as genital infection, diabetic ketoacidosis, and volume depletion. We recommend the long-term use SGLT2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for attenuation of renal function decline. However, we cannot generalize our recommendation due to lack of long-term clinical trials testing reno-protective effects of every SGLT2 inhibitor in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This recommendation can be revised and updated after publication of several large-scale renal outcome trials.

15.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 105-115, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895829

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease commonly develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care that includes optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for premature death and complications due to cardiorenal causes. Recent studies using sodiumglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effects, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and lower cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may also be associated with improved renal outcomes during long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in patients with T2DM using meta-analysis.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Associations between non-fasting triglyceride (TG) levels and a risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) have been suggested in Caucasians. We aimed to investigate whether non-fasting TG levels reflect the risk of IHD/CVA in Koreans.@*METHODS@#We conducted an analysis of patients aged ≥ 30 years from the nationwide survey database. Fasting TG was defined as a measurement taken ≥ 12 hours since the last meal. Non-fasting TG was categorized by fasting duration of 0 to 3, 4 to 7, and 8 to 11 hours.@*RESULTS@#In subjects without history of IHD/CVA, diabetes, or lipid-lowering medication, the TG level was significantly elevated for 7 hours in men compared to fasting TG levels (p = 0.011); the mean TG levels were 154.9 mg/dL (standard error [SE], 13.0), 177.0 mg/dL (SE, 12.1), 148.8 mg/dL (SE, 2.8), and 141.5 mg/dL (SE, 1.4) for 0 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 11, and ≥12 hours’ fasting, respectively. In women, there was no difference in TG level according to fasting duration after adjustment for confounders. In men without diabetes, the TG level from 4 to 7 hours’ fasting showed a significant difference between subjects with or without IHD/CVA even after adjustments for age, body mass index, lipid medication, exercise, and dietary factors (215.1 mg/dL vs. 177.3 mg/dL, p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In men, non-fasting TG levels from 4 to 7 hours’ fasting were significantly associated with IHD/CVA, and were superior to fasting TG levels level in the significant association with the history of IHD or CVA.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in Korean patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: We included 410 patients who started SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin or dapagliflozin) as add-on therapy or switch therapy between February 2015 and June 2017. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 12. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles, body weight, and blood pressure (BP). RESULTS: The mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.5% (8.6% in the add-on group and 8.4% in the switch group). At week 12, the mean adjusted HbA1c decreased by −0.68% in the overall patients (P<0.001), by −0.94% in the add-on group, and by −0.42% in the switch group. Significant reductions in FPG were also observed both in the add-on group and switch group (−30.3 and −19.8 mg/dL, respectively). Serum triglyceride (−16.5 mg/dL), body weight (−2.1 kg), systolic BP (−4.7 mm Hg), and diastolic BP (−1.3 mm Hg) were significantly improved in the overall patients. Approximately 18.3% of the patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% at week 12. A low incidence of hypoglycemia and genital tract infection was observed (6.3% and 2.2%, respectively). CONCLUSION: SGLT2 inhibitors can be a suitable option as either add-on or switch therapy for Korean patients with inadequately controlled T2DM.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Reproductive Tract Infections , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Triglycerides
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin and metformin on vascular endothelial function and renal injury markers. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, open-label, crossover study included drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were randomized to receive 8 weeks of initial treatment using metformin or dapagliflozin and crossed over for another 8 weeks of treatment after a 1-week washout period. Systemic endothelial function was evaluated via the reactive hyperemic index (RHI). RESULTS: The 22 participants included 10 males (45.5%) and had a median age of 58 years. The RHI values were not significantly changed during both 8-week treatment periods and there was no significant difference between the treatments. Relative to the metformin group, 8 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment produced significantly higher median N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase levels (10.0 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 6.8 to 12.1 ng/mL] vs. 5.6 ng/mL [IQR, 3.8 to 8.0 ng/mL], P=0.013). Only the dapagliflozin group exhibited improved homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and body weight, while serum ketone and β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin treatment did not affect systemic endothelial function or renal injury markers except N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase.


Subject(s)
Acetylglucosaminidase , Body Weight , Cross-Over Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Management , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Male , Metformin , Prospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
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