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1.
Blood Research ; : 144-151, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937245

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nilotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for frontline and 2nd line treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML). This study aimed to confirm the safety and efficacy of nilotinib in routine clinical practice within South Korea. @*Methods@#An open-label, multicenter, single-arm, 12-week observational post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study was conducted on 669 Korean adult patients with Ph + CML from December 24, 2010, to December 23, 2016. The patients received nilotinib treatment in routine clinical practice settings. Safety was evaluated by all types of adverse events (AEs) during the study period, and efficacy was evaluated by the complete hematological response (CHR) and cytogenetic response. @*Results@#During the study period, AEs occurred in 61.3% (410 patients, 973 events), adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in 40.5% (271/669 patients, 559 events), serious AEs in 4.5% (30 patients, 37 events), and serious ADRs in 0.7% (5 patients, 8 events). Furthermore, unexpected AEs occurred at a rate of 6.9% (46 patients, 55 events) and unexpected ADRs at 1.2% (8 patients, 8 events). As for the efficacy results, CHR was achieved in 89.5% (442/494 patients), and minor cytogenetic response or major cytogenetic response was achieved in 85.8% (139/162 patients). @*Conclusion@#This PMS study shows consistent results in terms of safety and efficacy compared with previous studies. Nilotinib was well tolerated and efficacious in adult Korean patients with Ph + CML in routine clinical practice settings.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919191

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Treatment decisions for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) are complicated, and multi-modal treatments are usually indicated. However, it is challenging for older patients to complete treatments. Thus, we investigated disease characteristics, real-world treatment, and outcomes in older LA-HNSCC patients. @*Methods@#Older patients (aged ≥ 70 years) were selected from a large nationwide cohort that included 445 patients with stage III–IVB LA-HNSCC from January 2005 to December 2015. Their data were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of younger patients. @*Results@#Older patients accounted for 18.7% (83/445) of all patients with median age was 73 years (range, 70 to 89). Proportions of primary tumors in the hypopharynx and larynx were higher in older patients and older patients had a more advanced T stage and worse performance status. Regarding treatment strategies of older patients, 44.5% of patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), 41.0% underwent surgery, and 14.5% did not complete the planned treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) was administered to 27.7% (23/83) of older patients; the preferred regimen for IC was fluorouracil and cisplatin (47.9%). For CCRT, weekly cisplatin was prescribed 3.3 times more often than 3-weekly cisplatin (62.2% vs. 18.9%). Older patients had a 60% higher risk of death than younger patients (hazard ratio, 1.6; p = 0.035). Oral cavity cancer patients had the worst survival probability. @*Conclusions@#Older LA-HNSCC patients had aggressive tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment, resulting in poor survival. Further research focusing on the older population is necessary.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913830

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Certain patient subgroups who do not respond to induction chemotherapy (IC) show inherent chemoresistance in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC). This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of IC, and role of IC in guiding the selection of a definitive locoregional therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of the 445 patients in multi-institutional LA-HNSCC cohort, 158 (36%) receiving IC were enrolled. The study outcome was to assess overall survival (OS) through IC responsiveness and its role to select subsequent treatments. @*Results@#Among 135 patients who completed subsequent treatment following IC, 74% responded to IC (complete response in 17% and partial response in 58%). IC-non-responders showed 4.5 times higher risk of mortality than IC-responders (hazard ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 8.81; p < 0.001). Among IC-responders, 84% subsequently received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and OS was not differed by surgery or CCRT (p=0.960). Regarding IC-non-responders, 54% received CCRT and 46% underwent surgery, and OS was poor in CCRT (24-month survival rate of 38%) or surgery (24-month survival rate of 63%). @*Conclusion@#Response to IC is a favorable prognostic factor. For IC-responders, either surgery or CCRT achieved similar survival probabilities. For IC-non-responder, multidisciplinary approach was warranted reflecting patients’ preference, morbidity, and prognosis.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938913

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Dual trigger is used to induce final oocyte maturation during the process of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, yet yielding controversial results. Also, there are yet no data regarding the effect of the dosage of the dual trigger on clinical outcomes. Based on the Patient-Oriented Strategies Encompassing IndividualizeD Oocyte Number (POSEIDON) criteria, this study aimed to determine the clinical difference of a single bolus versus two boluses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in POSEIDON group IV patients using dual trigger. @*Methods@#We screened a total of 1,256 patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles who met the POSEIDON group IV criteria. Six hundred and twenty-nine patients received one bolus of GnRHa, and 627 patients were given two boluses. All patients received the same dose of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin during the dual trigger cycle. @*Results@#Metaphase II oocyte retrieval rate, fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate did not differ between the two groups. However, a lower percentage of at least one top-quality embryo transfer (34.3% vs. 26.0%, P=0.001) in the two bolus-GnRHa group was noted. @*Conclusion@#A double bolus of GnRHa did not show superior clinical results compared to a single bolus of GnRHa in the dual trigger IVF cycle. Therefore, GnRHa doses for use should be decided based on individual clinical situations considering cost-effectiveness and patient compliance, but further investigation will be needed.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937822

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most-common cause of neurodegenerative dementia, and it is characterized by abnormal amyloid and tau accumulation, which indicates neurodegeneration. AD has mostly been diagnosed clinically. However, ligand-specific positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, such as amyloid PET, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are needed to accurately diagnose AD, since they supplement the shortcomings of clinical diagnoses. Using biomarkers that represent the pathology of AD is essential (particularly when disease-modifying treatment is available) to identify the corresponding pathology of targeted therapy and for monitoring the treatment response. Although imaging and CSF biomarkers are useful, their widespread use is restricted by their high cost and the discomfort during the lumbar puncture, respectively. Recent advances in AD blood biomarkers shed light on their future use for clinical purposes. The amyloid β (Aβ)42/Aβ40 ratio and the concentrations of phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 and at threonine 217, and of neurofilament light in the blood were found to represent the pathology of Aβ, tau, and neurodegeneration in the brain when using automatic electrochemiluminescence technologies, single-molecule arrays, immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, etc. These blood biomarkers are imminently expected to be incorporated into clinical practice to predict, diagnose, and determine the stage of AD. In this review we focus on advancements in the measurement technologies for blood biomarkers and the promising biomarkers that are approaching clinical application.We also discuss the current limitations, the needed further investigations, and the perspectives on their use.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875436

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Organization revised the diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) based on the discovery of disease-driving genetic aberrations and extensive analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with MPNs. Recent studies have suggested that additional somatic mutations have a clinical impact on the prognosis of patients harboring these genetic abnormalities. Treatment strategies have also advanced with the introduction of JAK inhibitors, one of which has been approved for the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis and those with hydroxyurea-resistant or intolerant polycythemia vera. Recently developed drugs aim to elicit hematologic responses, as well as symptomatic and molecular responses, and the response criteria were refined accordingly. Based on these changes, we have revised the guidelines and present the diagnosis, treatment, and risk stratification of MPNs encountered in Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874625

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immense therapeutic potential for treating intractable and immune diseases. They also have applications in regenerative medicine in which distinct treatments do not exist. Thus, MSCs are gaining attention as important raw materials in the field of cell therapy. Importantly, the number of MSCs in the bone marrow is limited and they are present only in small quantities. Therefore, mass production of MSCs through long-term culture is necessary to use them in cell therapy. However, MSCs undergo cellular senescence through repeated passages during mass production. In this study, we explored methods to prolong the limited lifetime of MSCs by culturing them with different seeding densities. @*Methods@#and Results: We observed that in long-term cultures, low-density (LD, 50 cells/cm2) MSCs showed higher population doubling level, leading to greater fold increase, than high-density (HD, 4,000 cells/cm2) MSCs. LD-MSCs suppressed the expression of aging-related genes. We also showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were decreased in LD-MSCs compared to that in HD-MSCs. Further, proliferation potential increased when ROS were inhibited in HD-MSCs. @*Conclusions@#The results in this study suggest that MSC senescence can be delayed and that life span can be extended by controlling cell density in vitro. These results can be used as important data for the mass production of stem cell therapeutic products.

8.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 509-533, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903823

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a refractory complication of herpes zoster (HZ). To prevent PHN, various strategies have been aggressively adopted. However, the efficacy of these strategies remains controversial. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the relative efficacy of various strategies used in clinical practice for preventing PHN using a network meta-analysis (NMA). @*Methods@#We performed a systematic and comprehensive search to identify all randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was the incidence of PHN at 3 months after acute HZ. We performed both frequentist and Bayesian NMA and used the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values to rank the interventions evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 39 studies were included in the systematic review and NMA. According to the SUCRA value, the incidence of PHN was lower in the order of continuous epidural block with local anesthetics and steroids (EPI-LSE), antiviral agents with subcutaneous injection of local anesthetics and steroids (AV + sLS), antiviral agents with intracutaenous injection of local anesthetics and steroids (AV + iLS) at 3 months after acute HZ. EPI-LSE, AV + sLS and AV + iLS were also effective in preventing PHN at 1 month after acute HZ. And paravertebral block combined with antiviral and antiepileptic agents was effective in preventing PHN at 1, 3, and 6 months. @*Conclusions@#The continuous epidural block with local anesthetics and steroid, antiviral agents with intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection of local anesthetics and a steroid, and paravertebral block combined with antiviral and antiepileptic agents are effective in preventing PHN.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897629

ABSTRACT

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether intralipid administration improved the outcomes of in vitro fertilization. Online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase) were searched until March 2020. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the role of intralipid administration during in vitro fertilization were considered. We analyzed the rates of clinical pregnancy and live birth as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the rates of chemical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and missed abortion. We reviewed and assessed the eligibility of 180 studies. Five RCTs including 840 patients (3 RCTs: women with repeated implantation failure, 1 RCT: women with recurrent spontaneous abortion, 1 RCT: women who had experienced implantation failure more than once) met the selection criteria. When compared with the control group, intralipid administration significantly improved the clinical pregnancy rate (risk ratio [RR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–1.79), ongoing pregnancy rate (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.31–2.53), and live birth rate (RR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.44–2.38). However, intralipid administration had no beneficial effect on the miscarriage rate (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48–1.17). A funnel plot analysis revealed no publication bias. Our findings suggest that intralipid administration may benefit women undergoing in vitro fertilization, especially those who have experienced repeated implantation failure or recurrent spontaneous abortion. However, larger, well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

10.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897359

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 509-533, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896119

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a refractory complication of herpes zoster (HZ). To prevent PHN, various strategies have been aggressively adopted. However, the efficacy of these strategies remains controversial. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the relative efficacy of various strategies used in clinical practice for preventing PHN using a network meta-analysis (NMA). @*Methods@#We performed a systematic and comprehensive search to identify all randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was the incidence of PHN at 3 months after acute HZ. We performed both frequentist and Bayesian NMA and used the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values to rank the interventions evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 39 studies were included in the systematic review and NMA. According to the SUCRA value, the incidence of PHN was lower in the order of continuous epidural block with local anesthetics and steroids (EPI-LSE), antiviral agents with subcutaneous injection of local anesthetics and steroids (AV + sLS), antiviral agents with intracutaenous injection of local anesthetics and steroids (AV + iLS) at 3 months after acute HZ. EPI-LSE, AV + sLS and AV + iLS were also effective in preventing PHN at 1 month after acute HZ. And paravertebral block combined with antiviral and antiepileptic agents was effective in preventing PHN at 1, 3, and 6 months. @*Conclusions@#The continuous epidural block with local anesthetics and steroid, antiviral agents with intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection of local anesthetics and a steroid, and paravertebral block combined with antiviral and antiepileptic agents are effective in preventing PHN.

12.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 264-273, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918578

ABSTRACT

Simultaneous quantification of multiple marker compounds in herbal medicine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis is still a challenge due to the complexity in various parameters to be considered and co-existing multi-components. As a case study, a reliable HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin from Paeoniae Radix and decursin from Angelicae Gigantis Radix in various commercial herbal medicine was developed based on analytical quality by design (AQbD) strategy. As a first step, risk assessment was performed to select the critical method parameters (CMPs) which were decided as organic mobile phase ratio and column oven temperature. In order to evaluate the effect of the CMPs on critical method attributes (CMAs) of peak resolution and tailing, central composite design (CCD) was employed. The final chromatographic conditions were optimized as follows: column- C 18 , 4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm particle size; mobile phase- A: acetonitrile, B: 0.1% acetic acid water; detection wavelength- 235 nm for paeoniflorin, 325 nm for decursin; column oven temperature- 25 o C; flow rate- 1.0 mL/min; gradient mobile phase system as Time (min) : % A, 0:14, 25:14, 30:50, 60:50, 61:100, 65:100, 66:14, 75:14. The method was successfully validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and piloted for ten commercial herbal medicines.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917834

ABSTRACT

This study presents a case of sudden cardiac death due to cardiac small vessel vasculitis after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2). The deceased was a 76-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic hypertension (HTN), who experienced generalized pain for a month after the first dose of vaccination, and unexpectedly died. Postmortem examination revealed small vessel vasculitis in the heart, lungs and vaccinated site of the left arm. These features were similar to those observed in a previously reported case of a patient with COVID-19 and cardiac endotheliitis and multisystem inflammatory syndrome. In addition, DM and HTN may contribute to vaccine-induced immunologic changes and vascular dysfunction. However, further studies with additional cases are needed.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889925

ABSTRACT

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether intralipid administration improved the outcomes of in vitro fertilization. Online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase) were searched until March 2020. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the role of intralipid administration during in vitro fertilization were considered. We analyzed the rates of clinical pregnancy and live birth as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the rates of chemical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and missed abortion. We reviewed and assessed the eligibility of 180 studies. Five RCTs including 840 patients (3 RCTs: women with repeated implantation failure, 1 RCT: women with recurrent spontaneous abortion, 1 RCT: women who had experienced implantation failure more than once) met the selection criteria. When compared with the control group, intralipid administration significantly improved the clinical pregnancy rate (risk ratio [RR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–1.79), ongoing pregnancy rate (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.31–2.53), and live birth rate (RR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.44–2.38). However, intralipid administration had no beneficial effect on the miscarriage rate (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48–1.17). A funnel plot analysis revealed no publication bias. Our findings suggest that intralipid administration may benefit women undergoing in vitro fertilization, especially those who have experienced repeated implantation failure or recurrent spontaneous abortion. However, larger, well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

15.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889655

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835779

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Duodenal atresia (DA) and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) are well known ultrasonographic findings associated with Down syndrome. The risk of Down syndrome in fetuses with these anomalies has been reported as 30% to 40%. However, on the basis of our clinical experience, the risk of Down syndrome of DA may be lower in Korean population. To clarify this issue, we compared the risk of Down syndrome between cases with DA and AVSD. @*Materials and Methods@#The study population consisted of neonates who were confirmed as DA or AVSD by postnatal diagnosis. Postnatal diagnosis was made by surgery, postnatal echocardiography, or autopsy. Medical record was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 213 neonates with DA or AVSD were included: 67 cases with DA and 146 cases with AVSD. The risk of Down syndrome was 4.5% (3/67) in DA vs. 29.5% (43/146) in AVSD. When confining analysis to those whose karyotyping were not performed during antenatal period, the risk of Down syndrome were 7.9% (3/38) in DA and 35.4% (35/99) in AVSD. @*Conclusion@#The risk of Down syndrome in cases with DA was much lower in Korean population than previously reported risk in the literature. The significance of some antenatal sonographic markers for Down syndrome may be different according to ethnicity.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897649

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The report of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Korea has continued since 1994, and the most frequently reported cases of AEFI of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) is bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Meanwhile, various inoculation methods and strains have been used in the past 6 years in Korea. Therefore, we investigated AEFI of BCG by strain types and inoculation methods using immunization safety surveillance of KCDC. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed BCG AEFIs registered in the KCDC from January 2013 to June 2018. @*Results@#There were 336 AEFI cases during the period, and average time interval from vaccination to symptom onset was within 2 months. AEFI proportion was 6.4 cases per 100,000 doses for BCG percutaneous Tokyo strain, 41.6 cases per 100,000 doses of BCG intradermal Danish strain, and 25.9 cases per 100,000 doses of BCG intradermal Tokyo strain. Intradermal type was more reported AEFI than percutaneous type in the same strain. The most common adverse events were local reaction like BCG lymphadenitis and severe adverse reactions such as osteomyelitis or disseminated BCG disease were 0.1 to 0.2 cases per 100,000 doses which are correlated with the range of World Health Organization published AEFI rates. @*Conclusion@#The AEFI reporting rate does not equal the actual proportion of AEFI occurrence. Because AEFI monitoring is a passive surveillance system, various factors might influence the number of events reported. Nevertheless, it is important to analyze BCG AEFI by vaccine strains and inoculation method using surveillance data of KCDC.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889945

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The report of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Korea has continued since 1994, and the most frequently reported cases of AEFI of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) is bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Meanwhile, various inoculation methods and strains have been used in the past 6 years in Korea. Therefore, we investigated AEFI of BCG by strain types and inoculation methods using immunization safety surveillance of KCDC. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed BCG AEFIs registered in the KCDC from January 2013 to June 2018. @*Results@#There were 336 AEFI cases during the period, and average time interval from vaccination to symptom onset was within 2 months. AEFI proportion was 6.4 cases per 100,000 doses for BCG percutaneous Tokyo strain, 41.6 cases per 100,000 doses of BCG intradermal Danish strain, and 25.9 cases per 100,000 doses of BCG intradermal Tokyo strain. Intradermal type was more reported AEFI than percutaneous type in the same strain. The most common adverse events were local reaction like BCG lymphadenitis and severe adverse reactions such as osteomyelitis or disseminated BCG disease were 0.1 to 0.2 cases per 100,000 doses which are correlated with the range of World Health Organization published AEFI rates. @*Conclusion@#The AEFI reporting rate does not equal the actual proportion of AEFI occurrence. Because AEFI monitoring is a passive surveillance system, various factors might influence the number of events reported. Nevertheless, it is important to analyze BCG AEFI by vaccine strains and inoculation method using surveillance data of KCDC.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719671

ABSTRACT

Cervical varix is rare and can develop due to various conditions in pregnancy. Most cases of cervical varix during pregnancy are diagnosed in the second or third trimester and are usually associated with abnormal placental location, such as placenta previa or low-lying placenta. A 23-year-old woman with cervical varix bleeding visited our institution at 8 weeks of gestation. This case report describes cervical varix bleeding that developed into a venous thrombus in the first trimester. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging could be helpful in diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Placenta , Placenta Previa , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography , Uterine Hemorrhage , Varicose Veins , Young Adult
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