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1.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 141-144, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977059

ABSTRACT

Headache is a frequent complaint in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. Nevertheless, no detailed information on the pathophysiology of headache in COVID-19 infection is currently limited. We encountered a patient developing headache, diplopia, and intracranial hypertension after COVID-19 infection. The patient no more complained of headache and diplopia after the intracranial pressure was normalized. Our case suggests that intracranial hypertension is a mechanism of headache in COVID-19 infection. We report herein a case of transient intracranial hypertension after COCVID-19 infection.

2.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 392-401, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976837

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Excess or insufficient sleep, irregular sleep-wake patterns, and an extreme early or late chronotypes adversely impact physical and mental health. Changes in sleep characteristics should therefore be tracked, and factors that contribute to poor sleep should be identified. We investigated the changes in sleep patterns among South Korean adults during 2009–2018. @*Methods@#Using data of a representative sample of South Korean adults from the 2009 (n= 2,658, 48.5% males; age=44.5±15.0 years old [mean±standard deviation], age range=19–86 years) and 2018 (n=2,389, 49.1% males; age=47.9±16.3 years, age range=19–92 years) Korean Headache-Sleep Study, we explored changes in sleep timing, sleep duration, chronotype, and social jetlag (SJL). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between average sleep duration and depression. @*Results@#From 2009 to 2018, bedtimes were advanced by 10 and 25 min on workdays and free days, respectively. Meanwhile, wake-up times were advanced by 13 min and delayed by 12 min on workdays and free days, respectively. The average sleep duration significantly decreased from 7.45 h to 7.13 h. The prevalence of short sleep duration (<7 h) increased, whereas that of long sleep duration (≥8 h) decreased. A circadian preference toward eveningness and SJL increased. The prevalence of depression increased from 4.6% to 8.4%, and there were significant reverse J-shaped and U-shaped associations between average sleep duration and depression in 2009 and 2018, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Changes in sleep patterns and the association between sleep duration and depressive mood were determined from a representative sample of the South Korean adult population. Interventions to modify sleep behaviors might improve public health.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e237-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001058

ABSTRACT

Background@#Visual aura (VA) occurs mostly in migraine with aura (MA), but some case studies have reported aura in non-migraine headaches. Thus, information of VA in nonmigraine headaches is scarce. Aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and impact of VA in non-migraine headache and compare it with that of migraine headache. @*Methods@#This study was a nationwide population-based study. We used an internet-based headache diagnosis questionnaire to diagnose headache, and various modules to evaluate clinical features and comorbidities of participants with headache. We defined migraine headache as migraine and probable migraine (PM), whereas non-migraine headache was defined as a headache but not migraine or PM. VA was defined as a self-reporting VA rating scale score ≥ 3. @*Results@#Of the 3,030 participants, 1,431 (47.2%) and 507 (16.7%) had non-migraine headache and migraine headache, respectively. VA prevalence was much lower in the non-migraine headache group than in the migraine headache group (14.5% [207/1,431] vs. 26.0% [132/507], P < 0.001). In subjects with non-migraine headache, those with VA had a markedly higher number of headache days per 30 days (median [25th –75th percentiles]: 2.0 [1.0–5.0] vs. 2.0 [1.0–3.0], P < 0.001), and headache-related disability (6.0 [3.0–16.0] vs. 2.0 [0.0–7.0], P < 0.001) than those without VA. VA prevalence did not differ significantly according to age and sex. @*Conclusion@#Non-migraine headache with VA patients had more severe symptoms than those without VA. These findings may improve the understanding of VA and the management of individuals with non-migraine headache.

4.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 483-494, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000862

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The estimated prevalence of migraines in South Korea is 6.0%, with affected patients having unmet needs. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of galcanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, for episodic migraine (EM) prevention was evaluated in South Korean patients. @*Methods@#During the double-blind period of the EVOLVE-2 phase 3 trial, patients with EM were randomized into placebo, 120 mg-galcanezumab, and 240-mg galcanezumab treatment groups. The primary endpoint was the overall mean change from baseline in the number of monthly migraine headache days during the 6-month double-blind period. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the South Korean cohort in EVOLVE-2. @*Results@#Among 98 South Korean patients in the intent-to-treat population, significant changes from baseline were observed in the number of monthly migraine headache days in the 240-mg galcanezumab group compared with the placebo group (-2.64, p=0.013), in the percentage of patients with ≥50% reduction in the number of monthly migraine headache days (120 mg: odds ratio=2.43, p=0.030; 240 mg: odds ratio=2.60, p=0.019), in the number of monthly migraine headache days with acute medication use (120 mg: -2.22, p=0.006; 240 mg: -2.23, p=0.005), and in the Migraine-Specific Quality-of-Life Role Function-Restrictive (120 mg: 8.34, p=0.040). Numerical improvements from baseline were observed relative to the placebo group in at least one galcanezumab group for: the percentage of patients with ≥75% reduction in the number of monthly migraine headache days functional impairment, and disease severity. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the combined galcanezumab group was injection site reaction, which led to treatment discontinuation for one patient. @*Conclusions@#Galcanezumab treatment demonstrated efficacy and a favorable safety and tolerability profile in South Korean patients with EM.

5.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 51-54, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916332

ABSTRACT

Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare form of migraine, characterized by migraine with reversible motor weakness. HM can be divided into sporadic and familiar HM based on familiarity. Mutations in CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A were identified in familiar HM. We present a patient with sporadic HM exhibiting recurrent hemiplegia, mental change and fever along with headache attacks. During the hemiplegia, he showed perfusion delay in left middle cerebral artery territory. Genetic panel test revealed a likely pathogenic varia nt in ATP1A2.

6.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 121-126, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926308

ABSTRACT

Several medications are approved to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea including nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and regdanvimab. There is potential drug-drug interaction between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the medications used to treat COVID-19. Several AEDs such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone are strong cytochrome P450 inducers and can inhibit the drugs used for COVID-19. Particularly, these drugs are contraindicated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid®). There is a weaker drug-drug interaction between the AEDs and remdesivir. No significant interaction has been reported between the AEDs and molnupiravir. Pharmacokinetic interactions of the AEDs are important in effective management of COVID-19 in patients with epilepsy.

7.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 137-140, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926306

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors may be associated with various adverse events, including encephalitis. Here, we report a case of encephalopathy associated with pembrolizumab therapy. A 60-year-old male diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma with peritoneal seeding presented altered mentality and cognitive function after using pembrolizumab. Electroencephalogram showed mild diffuse cerebral dysfunction. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed no evidence of infection or autoimmune disease and no paraneoplastic antibody was detected from CSF and serum. After high-dose methylprednisolone intravenous infusion, patient’s mentality was fully recovered.

8.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 228-234, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938290

ABSTRACT

Background@#Migraine patients have a higher frequency of suicidality than people without migraine. The aim of this study was to identify suicidality and its risk factors in migraine patients. @*Methods@#We enrolled 358 migraine patients from 11 hospitals. We collected data regarding their clinical characteristics and the patients completes the questionnaires. We also interviewed patients with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)plus version 5.0.0 to identify their suicidality. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition, beta version was used in headache diagnosis. @*Results@#The frequency of suicidality in migraine patients was 118 (33.0%). Migraine patients with suicidality were more likely to have a major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder than those without suicidality. Among variables, risk factors for suicidality in migraine patients were female (odds ratio [OR], 4.110; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55310.878; p=0.004), attack duration (OR, 2.559; 95% CI, 1.2105.413; p=0.011), Patient Health Questionnaire9 (OR, 1.111; 95% CI, 1.0381.189; p=0.002), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder7 (OR, 1.194; 95% CI, 1.1011.294; p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#Suicidality in migraine patients is common. Therefore, clinicians who take care of migraine patients should be concerned about suicidality and its risk factors such as female gender, attack duration, depression or anxiety.

9.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 571-580, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937837

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Several studies have found that the prevalence of migraine is higher among healthcare professionals than in the general population. Furthermore, several investigations have suggested that the personal experiences of neurologists with migraine can influence their perception and treatment of the disease. This study assessed these relationships in Korea. @*Methods@#A survey was used to investigate the following characteristics among neurologists:1) the prevalence rates of migraine, primary stabbing headache, and cluster headache, and 2) their perceptions of migraine and the pain severity experienced by patients, diagnosing migraine, evaluation and treatment patterns, and satisfaction and difficulties with treatment. @*Results@#The survey was completed by 442 actively practicing board-certified Korean neurologists. The self-reported lifetime prevalence rates of migraine, migraine with aura, primary stabbing headache, and cluster headache were 49.8%, 12.7%, 26.7%, and 1.4%, respectively. Few of the neurologists used a headache diary or validated scales with their patients, and approximately half were satisfied with the effectiveness of preventive medications. Significant differences were observed between neurologists who had and had not experienced migraine, regarding certain perceptions of migraine, but no differences were found between these groups in the evaluation and preventive treatment of migraine. @*Conclusions@#The high self-reported lifetime prevalence rates of migraine and other primary headache disorders among Korean neurologists may indicate that these rates are underreported in the general population, although potential population biases must be considered. From the perspective of neurologists, there is an unmet need for the proper application of headache diaries, validated scales, and effective preventive treatments for patients. While the past experiences of neurologists with migraine might not influence how they evaluate or apply preventive treatments to migraine, they may influence certain perceptions of the disease.

10.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 470-477, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937815

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The relationship between napping and cognition remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between napping and cognition according to sleep debt in the Korean adult population. @*Methods@#A population-based nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2018. A two-stage stratified random sample of Koreans aged ≥19 years was selected and evaluated using questionnaires by trained interviewers. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mail-In Cognitive Function Screening Instrument (MCFSI). Sleep habits on weekdays and weekends, napping, and subjective sleep requirements were assessed using the questionnaires. Accumulated sleep debt was calculated by subtracting the weekly average sleep duration from subjective sleep requirements. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, insomnia, depression, demographics, and comorbidities were assessed. Participants were grouped into those with sleep debt ≤60 min and those with sleep debt >60 min. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the independent association between the factors and cognition. @*Results@#In total, 2,501 participants were included in the analysis. Naps were reported in 726 (29.0%) participants (nappers). The mean MCFSI score was higher in nappers (3.4±3.6) than in non-nappers (2.3±3.0) (p60 min of napping was associated with better cognitive function in participants with sleep debts >60 min. @*Conclusions@#In general, naps are associated with worse cognitive function in the Korean adult population. However, for those with sleep debt of >60 min, naps for >60 min were associated with better cognitive function.f

11.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 77-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874681

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Identifying changes in the prevalence, disability, and management patterns of migraine is important for reducing the burden of this disease. However, data on the changes in these variables are scarce. @*Methods@#We compared data obtained in the 2009 Korean Headache Survey and the 2018 Korean Sleep-Headache Survey. @*Results@#The 1-year migraine prevalence did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2009 [5.2% (114/2,200) vs. 6.0% (91/1,507), p=0.492]. The number of days with missed activity due to headache during the previous 3 months was larger in the 2018 survey than in the 2009 survey [1.1±2.9 vs. 0.3±1.0 days (mean±standard deviation), p=0.013]. The number of days with reduced productivity during the previous 3 months did not differ significantly between the two surveys (0.8±2.8 vs. 1.4±1.4 days, p=0.679). The proportion of subjects with a substantialto-severe headache impact (Headache Impact Test-6 score ≥56) was marginally larger in the 2018 survey than in the 2009 survey [42.1% (48/114) vs. 29.7% (27/91), p=0.066]. The rate of lifetime medical consultations did not differ between the 2018 and 2009 surveys [34.2% (39/ 114) vs. 30.8% (28/91), p=0.615]. @*Conclusions@#Migraine prevalence was stable over the 9-year period between the surveys, but disability due to missed activity was greater in 2018 than in 2009 in Korea.

12.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 546-557, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891467

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeHeadache disorders are a leading cause of disability globally. However, there is inadequate information available about these disorders and the related economic loss in the workplace in Asian countries. Information technology (IT) jobs are intellectually and cognitively challenging, and hence IT workers are a suitable population for assessing headache disorders and related economic loss. @*Methods@#We sent invitation emails to all employees of selected IT companies. A comprehensive Web-based questionnaire regarding headache characteristics, disability, quality of life, and economic loss was completed by 522 participants from 8 companies. @*Results@#The participants included 450 (86.2%) who had experienced headache more than once during the previous year. The frequencies of migraine, probable migraine (PM), and tension-type headache (TTH) were 18.2%, 21.1%, and 37.0%, respectively. The Migraine Disability Assessment score was higher for participants with migraine [median and interquartile range, 3.0 (0.0–6.0)] than for those with PM [0.0 (0.0–2.0), p<0.001] and TTH [0.0 (0.0–1.0), p<0.001]. The estimated annual economic losses caused by migraine per person associated with absenteeism and presenteeism were USD 197.5±686.1 and USD 837.7±22.04 (mean±standard deviation), respectively. The total annual economic loss per person caused by migraine (USD 1,023.3±1,972.7) was higher than those caused by PM (USD 424.8±1,209.1, p<0.001) and TTH (USD 197.6±636.4, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#Migraine, PM, and TTH were found to be prevalent among IT workers in Korea. Disability and economic loss were significantly greater in participants with migraine than in those with PM or TTH

13.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 229-235, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891400

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Epidemiologic data suggest that cluster headache (CH) is significantly associated with cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to determine differences in features between patients with a smoking history and those who are never-smokers, using data from a prospective multicenter registry. @*Methods@#Data used in this study were obtained from the Korean Cluster Headache Registry that collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with CH. We compared clinical and demographic features between ever-smokers (current or former smokers) and never-smokers. @*Results@#This study enrolled 250 patients who were diagnosed with CH, of which 152 (60.8%) were ever-smokers and 98 (39.2%) were never-smokers. The age at CH onset was significantly lower in the never-smoker group than in the ever-smoker group [27.1±12.9 years vs. 30.6± 10.9 years (mean±standard deviation), p=0.024]. Seasonal rhythmicity (58.1% vs. 44.7%, p= 0.038) and triptan responsiveness (100% vs. 85.1%, p=0.001) were higher in never-smokers, while other clinical features such as pain severity, duration, attack frequency, and associated autonomic symptoms did not differ significantly between the groups. The male-to-female ratio was markedly higher in ever-smokers (29.4:1) than in never-smokers (1.7:1). @*Conclusions@#Most of the clinical features did not differ significantly between patients with a smoking history and never-smokers. However, the age at CH onset, sex ratio, and seasonal rhythmicity were significantly associated with smoking history.

14.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 546-557, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899171

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeHeadache disorders are a leading cause of disability globally. However, there is inadequate information available about these disorders and the related economic loss in the workplace in Asian countries. Information technology (IT) jobs are intellectually and cognitively challenging, and hence IT workers are a suitable population for assessing headache disorders and related economic loss. @*Methods@#We sent invitation emails to all employees of selected IT companies. A comprehensive Web-based questionnaire regarding headache characteristics, disability, quality of life, and economic loss was completed by 522 participants from 8 companies. @*Results@#The participants included 450 (86.2%) who had experienced headache more than once during the previous year. The frequencies of migraine, probable migraine (PM), and tension-type headache (TTH) were 18.2%, 21.1%, and 37.0%, respectively. The Migraine Disability Assessment score was higher for participants with migraine [median and interquartile range, 3.0 (0.0–6.0)] than for those with PM [0.0 (0.0–2.0), p<0.001] and TTH [0.0 (0.0–1.0), p<0.001]. The estimated annual economic losses caused by migraine per person associated with absenteeism and presenteeism were USD 197.5±686.1 and USD 837.7±22.04 (mean±standard deviation), respectively. The total annual economic loss per person caused by migraine (USD 1,023.3±1,972.7) was higher than those caused by PM (USD 424.8±1,209.1, p<0.001) and TTH (USD 197.6±636.4, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#Migraine, PM, and TTH were found to be prevalent among IT workers in Korea. Disability and economic loss were significantly greater in participants with migraine than in those with PM or TTH

15.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 229-235, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899104

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Epidemiologic data suggest that cluster headache (CH) is significantly associated with cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to determine differences in features between patients with a smoking history and those who are never-smokers, using data from a prospective multicenter registry. @*Methods@#Data used in this study were obtained from the Korean Cluster Headache Registry that collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with CH. We compared clinical and demographic features between ever-smokers (current or former smokers) and never-smokers. @*Results@#This study enrolled 250 patients who were diagnosed with CH, of which 152 (60.8%) were ever-smokers and 98 (39.2%) were never-smokers. The age at CH onset was significantly lower in the never-smoker group than in the ever-smoker group [27.1±12.9 years vs. 30.6± 10.9 years (mean±standard deviation), p=0.024]. Seasonal rhythmicity (58.1% vs. 44.7%, p= 0.038) and triptan responsiveness (100% vs. 85.1%, p=0.001) were higher in never-smokers, while other clinical features such as pain severity, duration, attack frequency, and associated autonomic symptoms did not differ significantly between the groups. The male-to-female ratio was markedly higher in ever-smokers (29.4:1) than in never-smokers (1.7:1). @*Conclusions@#Most of the clinical features did not differ significantly between patients with a smoking history and never-smokers. However, the age at CH onset, sex ratio, and seasonal rhythmicity were significantly associated with smoking history.

16.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 37-43, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836306

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Older adults have more sleep disorders than younger individuals and are more vulnerable to environmental factors affecting sleep. We sought to study sleep status among older adults in Korea according to the residential area. @*Methods@#The present study used data from a nationwide, cross-sectional study on sleep status among older Koreans aged 65 to 86 years. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) values were used to classify sleepiness. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was applied to evaluate insomnia symptoms, and the Berlin Questionnaire was utilized to identify those at high risk of sleep apnea. The Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of restless legs syndrome. @*Results@#Study participants were divided according to the residential area: metropolitan city, city, or rural area. Total sleep time on weekdays and weekend days showed no difference. ESS and PSQI scores did not differ among residential area groups. Meanwhile, the average ISI score was higher among residents in rural areas. The risk of obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence of restless legs syndrome were similar in all groups. @*Conclusions@#Our results indicate that poor sleepers and high ISI are more common in rural areas of Korea. Future studies of the causes and proper treatments thereof are warranted.

17.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 66-72, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836302

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study is to evaluate relationship of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with chronotype along with quality and quantity of sleep in Korean middle adults. @*Methods@#Data was derived from the nationwide, cross-sectional study on sleep surveyed 2,501 representative adult Koreans. We collected data from 1,435 participants aged ≥35 years and <65 years to represent Korean middle adults. The Chronotype Questionnaire was used to assess phase and distinctiveness of the circadian rhythm. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Quantity of sleep was investigated by questions regarding sleep habits during workdays and free days. EuroQol-5D 3-level version was used to measure HRQoL. @*Results@#On univariable analyses, eveningness is associated with younger age (47.7±8.2 vs. 51.3±8.1 years, p<0.001), and higher PSQI total score (4.3±2.7 vs. 3.6±2.2, p<0.001) compared with morningness. Strong distinctiveness also associated with higher PSQI total score (4.2±2.3 vs. 3.6±2.5, p< 0.001) compared with weak distinctiveness. Age was not different between the two groups of distinctiveness. On multivariable analyses, strong distinctiveness is an independent factor predicting impairment of pain/discomfort [odd ratio (OR) 1.589, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.182–2.130] and depression/anxiety (OR 1.412, 95% CI 1.003–1.987). Poor sleep quality was the most powerful independent factor predicting impairments in all five domains of the HRQoL. @*Conclusions@#Sleep quality is an important factor independently related to the HRQoL. Among chronotype variables, only distinctiveness has an independent relation with the HRQoL.

18.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 29-32, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834825

ABSTRACT

Cluster headache attacks can be successfully treated with oxygen. We report four patients with episodic cluster headache were treated with oxygen therapy from one or two oxygen concentrators. Oxygen therapy with two oxygen concentrators seems to be effective in reduction or cessation of pain of cluster headaches. Patients expressed excellent satisfaction to oxygen therapy with two oxygen concentrators. Oxygen concentrators can be considered as an effective and safe alternative of oxygen cylinder for patients with cluster headache.

19.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 222-229, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833611

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeDeciding whether or not to perform neuroimaging in primary headache is a dilemma for headache physicians. The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictors of incidental neuroimaging abnormalities in new patients with primary headache disorders. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective multicenter headache registry, and it classified 1,627 consecutive first-visit headache patients according to the third edition (beta version) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3β). Primary headache patients who underwent neuroimaging were finally enrolled in the analysis. Serious intracranial pathology was defined as serious neuroimaging abnormalities with a high degree of medical urgency. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with incidental neuroimaging abnormalities. @*Results@#Neuroimaging abnormalities were present in 170 (18.3%) of 927 eligible patients. In multivariable analysis, age ≥40 years [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.37, 95% CI=2.07–6.83], male sex (aOR=1.61, 95% CI=1.12–2.32), and age ≥50 years at headache onset (aOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.24–2.78) were associated with neuroimaging abnormalities. In univariable analyses, age ≥40 years was the only independent variable associated with serious neuroimaging abnormalities (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.17–9.66), which were found in 34 patients (3.6%). These associations did not change after further adjustment for neuroimaging modality. @*Conclusions@#Incidental neuroimaging abnormalities were common and varied in a primary headache diagnosis. A small proportion of the patients incidentally had serious neuroimaging abnormalities, and they were predicted by age ≥40 years. These findings can be used to guide the performing of neuroimaging in primary headache disorders.

20.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 101-107, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892914

ABSTRACT

Headaches and sleep problems are burdensome in daily life. They can co-occur and aggravate each other. The prevalence of sleep disorders is high in chronic headache and migraine patients, suggesting a close clinical relationship between these conditions. Structures from the brainstem to the cerebral cortex are related to sleep and headache modulation. In addition, various neurochemicals are related to and overlapped in the modulation of sleep and headache. In this paper, we briefly review the association between migraine and sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, central disorders of hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder, parasomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders.

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