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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 238-247, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968746

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Daratumumab has shown an encouraging antitumor effect in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and was known to alter the immune properties by off-targeting immunosuppressive cells. Here, we aimed to evaluate the change in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as a surrogate marker for predicting survival outcomes of patients treated with daratumumab. @*Methods@#Between 2018 and 2021, the medical records of patients with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) treated with daratumumab monotherapy at 10 centers in South Korea were reviewed. We collected the ALC data at pre-infusion (D0), day 2 after the first infusion (D2), and prior to the third cycle of daratumumab therapy (D56). @*Results@#Fifty patients who were administered at least two cycles of daratumumab were included. Overall response rate was 54.0% after two cycles of daratumumab treatment. On D2, almost all patients experienced a marked reduction in ALC. However, an increase in ALC on D56 (ALCD56) was observed in patients with non-progressive disease, whereas failure of ALC recovery was noted in those with progressive disease. Patients with ALCD56 > 700/μL (n = 39, 78.0%) had prolonged progression- free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with ALCD56 ≤ 700/μL (median PFS: 5.8 months vs. 2.6 months, p = 0.025; median OS: 24.1 months vs. 6.1 months, p = 0.004). In addition, ALCD56 >700/μL was a significant favorable prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.22; p = 0.003) and OS (HR, 0.23; p = 0.012). @*Conclusions@#Increase in ALC during daratumumab treatment was significantly associated with prolonged survival outcomes in patients with RRMM. The ALC value can predict clinical outcomes in patients treated with daratumumab.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e59-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967422

ABSTRACT

Background@#Information on the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against the omicron is limited. The clinical response and viral kinetics to therapy in the real world need to be evaluated. @*Methods@#Mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with risk factors for severe illness were prospectively enrolled as a treatment group with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy versus a control group with supportive care. Serial viral load and culture from the upper respiratory tract were evaluated for seven days, and clinical responses and adverse reactions were evaluated for 28 days. @*Results@#A total of 51 patients were analyzed including 40 in the treatment group and 11 in the control group. Faster symptom resolution during hospitalization (P= 0.048) was observed in the treatment group. Only minor adverse reactions were reported in 27.5% of patients. The viral load on Day 7 was lower in the treatment group (P = 0.002). The viral culture showed a positivity of 67.6% (25/37) vs. 100% (6/6) on Day 1, 0% (0/37) vs. 16.7 (1/6) on Day 5, and 0% (0/16) vs. 50.0% (2/4) on Day 7 in the treatment and control groups, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against the omicron was safe and resulted in negative viral culture conversion after Day 5 of treatment with better symptomatic resolution.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e31-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915534

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 variant B.1.1.529 (omicron) was first reported to the World Health Organization on November 24, 2021, the cases of the omicron variant have been detected in more than 90 countries over the last month. We investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the first 40 patients with the omicron variant who had been isolated at the National Medical Center in South Korea during December 4–17, 2021. The median age of the patients was 39.5 years. Twenty-two patients (55%) were women. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were fully vaccinated, and none were reinfected with the omicron. Eighteen (45%) had recent international travel history. Half of the patients (19, 47.5%) were asymptomatic, while the others had mild symptoms. Six patients (15%) showed lung infiltrations on chest image; however, none required supplemental oxygen. These mild clinical features are consistent with recent case reports on the omicron variant from other countries.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 353-359, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937676

ABSTRACT

Despite the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination roll-out, variant-related outbreaks have occurred repeatedly in Korea. Although public hospitals played a major role in COVID-19 patients’ care, difficulty incorporating evolving COVID-19 treatment guidelines called for a clinical pathway (CP). Eighteen public hospitals volunteered, and a professional review board was created. CPs were formulated containing inclusion/exclusion criteria, application flow charts, and standardized order sets. After CP roll-out, key parameters improved, such as increased patient/staff five-point satisfaction scores (0.41/0.57) and decreased hospital stays (1.78 days)/medical expenses (17.5%). The CPs were updated consistently after roll-out as new therapeutics drugs were introduced and quarantine policies changed.

5.
Journal of Menopausal Medicine ; : 85-91, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967563

ABSTRACT

The concept of a super-aged society has led to a steady increase in the average lifespan and hence, interest in a healthy life has increased. Aging is a major risk factor for many diseases, including osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures have a significant impact on the quality of life of the elderly and hence, it is pivotal to provide effective treatment of osteoporosis after menopause. Osteoporosis requires proper management and the treatment must be centered on long-term goals. New drugs with diverse mechanisms have been developed for treating osteoporosis. Current management of osteoporosis generally focuses on the importance of risk-based strategies to maximize the effectiveness of existing treatments and mitigate potential negative side-effects. Additionally, there is a need for sequential treatment of osteoporosis in the future. This review discusses the dynamic strategies for osteoporosis treatment and the importance of long-term management in postmenopausal women.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e70-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925948

ABSTRACT

Concerns about the effectiveness of current vaccines against the rapidly spreading severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant are increasing. This study aimed to assess neutralizing antibody activity against the wild-type (BetaCoV/Korea/ KCDC03/2020), delta, and omicron variants after full primary and booster vaccinations with BNT162b2. A plaque reduction neutralization test was employed to determine 50% neutralizing dilution (ND 50 ) titers in serum samples. ND 50 titers against the omicron variant (median [interquartile range], 5.3 [50 titers than the detection threshold (50 titers against BetaCoV/Korea/KCDC03/2020, delta, and omicron, although titers against omicron remained lower than those against the other variants (P < 0.001). Our study suggests that booster vaccination with BNT162b2 significantly increases humoral immunity against the omicron variant.

7.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education ; : 179-192, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925260

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of a standardized educational program to improve nursing competency on newly graduated nurses in a children's hospital after developing and applying a pediatric nurse education program. The effectiveness of the program was confirmed by evaluating the clinical competency and field adaptation. @*Methods@#In the first step, an education program was developed using the analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation (ADDIE) model. As a second step, a similar experimental study of a single group repeat measures design was conducted to evaluate the clinical competency and field adaptation over time after application of the program. Additionally, a focus group interviews were conducted to collect subjective data on the effects and improvement points of the program. @*Results@#As a result of applying the program, there was a significant change in the clinical competence and the field adaptation of newly graduated nurses in a children’s hospital. The categories derived from the focus group interviews were “getting special guidance,” “better care,” “becoming a nurse at a children's hospital” and “winning together.” @*Conclusion@#It was confirmed that the education program enhances the clinical competency of new nurses in children's hospitals. In addition, it provided the necessary data to understand the experiences of new nurses, help them adapt effectively, and establish appropriate interventions.

8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 146-149, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916570

ABSTRACT

Papillary cystadenoma is a rare, benign salivary gland neoplasm containing cystic cavities with intraluminal papillary projections. In the head and neck area, it occurs mainly in major and intraoral minor salivary glands, but rarely in the larynx. We report a case of a 67-year-old female with a chief complaint of hoarse voice diagnosed as laryngeal papillary cystadenoma. This paper emphasizes the need to consider papillary cystadenoma as one of differential diagnosis when benign looking lesions are observed in the larynx, where it uncommonly occurs.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e318-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915469

ABSTRACT

Background@#Older adults are given high priority for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination; however, little is known about the safety of vaccines. This study was conducted to examine the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine for people who were ≥ 75 years of age, specifically those who first took two doses of the vaccine at the COVID-19 central vaccination center in South Korea. @*Methods@#Safety monitoring after the BNT162b2 vaccine was conducted in three ways for older adults who received the first dose of the vaccine at our center between April 5 and April 23, 2021. For immediate adverse reactions, every person who was vaccinated was observed for 15–30 minutes after injection at the center. For active surveillance, a telephone interview was conducted for stratified randomly sampled people after 7 days of each vaccination to enquire regarding types of adverse reactions they experienced, and its severity and duration. For passive surveillance, reported adverse event data were collected from the COVID-19 vaccine adverse event following immunization (AEFI) surveillance system—run by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA). The data were then reviewed. @*Results@#In total, 2,123 older adults received at least one vaccine dose during the study period. The frequency of acute adverse reactions that developed during the observed 15–30 minutes after injection was 8.5 cases per 1,000 doses. None of the reactions was assessed as acute allergic reactions to the vaccine and no cases required special treatment or drug administration. Overall, 638 people were followed up at least once by telephone interview 7 days post vaccination. The overall response rate was 82.3%. The rates of local reactions were 50.3% after the first dose and 45.2% after the second dose, and the rates of systemic reactions were 15.2% and 26.0%, respectively. During the study period, 23 medically attended adverse events (5.4 cases per 1,000 administered doses) were reported to the KDCA AEFI surveillance system. The most common symptoms of medically attended cases were nonspecific general weakness (26%) and dizziness (26%), followed by muscle pain (22%), headache (13%), fever (13%), and skin rash or urticaria (13%). Among them, there were five serious adverse events reported, which required hospitalization, including one death. However, most of them were not related to the vaccines. @*Conclusion@#BNT162b2 vaccination was tolerable among adults who were ≥ 75 years of age.

10.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 297-305, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914805

ABSTRACT

Background@#Protein methylation has important role in regulating diverse cellular responses, including differentiation, by affecting protein activity, stability, and interactions. AZ505 is an inhibitor of the SET and MYND domain-containing protein 2 lysine methylase. In this study, we investigated the effect of AZ505 on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation in vitro and evaluated the effect of AZ505 in vivo on the long bones in mice. @*Methods@#Osteoblast differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red staining after culturing calvarial preosteoblasts in an osteogenic medium. Osteoclast differentiation was analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining in bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured with macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AZ505 and femurs were examined by micro-computed tomography. @*Results@#AZ505 increased ALP and Alizarin red staining in cultured osteoblasts and the expression of osteoblast marker genes, including Runx2 and osteocalcin. AZ505 resulted in decreased TRAP-staining of osteoclasts and expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells transcription factors and osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein. Unexpectedly, in vivo administration of AZ505 markedly decreased the trabecular bone mass of femurs. In support of this catabolic result, AZ505 strongly upregulated RANKL expression in osteoblasts. @*Conclusions@#The results indicate that AZ505 has a catabolic effect on bone metabolism in vivo despite its anabolic effect in bone cell cultures. The findings indicate that cell culture data should be extrapolated cautiously to in vivo outcomes for studying bone metabolism.

11.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 209-218, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890372

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThis study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes.MethodsWe used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index ResultsThe MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile.ConclusionThese results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

12.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 209-218, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898076

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThis study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes.MethodsWe used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index ResultsThe MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile.ConclusionThese results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

13.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 154-163, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835954

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based guideline for stoma management providing institutional policy, assessment, complications and follow-up care. Methods: The guideline adaptation manual consisting of 23 steps developed by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency was used for this study. It presents an overview of the process used to develop the guideline and lists specific recommendations from the guideline. @*Results@#It provides 55 recommendations that include the following 8 topics: 1) Organization and policy recommendations, 2) Preoperative nursing; Ostomy education, stoma site marking, 3) Ostomy formation, 4) Postpoperative nursing; education, assessment, high output stoma management, 5) Selection of ostomy products, 6) Colostomy irrigation, 7) Stomal and peristomal complications, 8) Follow-up care after discharge. @*Conclusion@#The guideline can be used to address stoma management in hospital settings. The intent of the guideline is to provide information that will assist healthcare providers to manage adult patients with ostomies, prevent or decrease complications, and improve patients’ outcomes.

14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : e38-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832347

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes. @*Methods@#We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index <7 kg/m2 in men and <5.5 kg/m2 in women. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia and ABSI for CVD events according to the obesity phenotype. @*Results@#The MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e337-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831745

ABSTRACT

Background@#A national immunization program (NIP) to prevent disease and reduce mortality from vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) is very important. @*Methods@#We analyzed only the anaphylaxis cases that occurred between 2001 and 2016 that Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) determined had a definite causal relationship with a vaccine. The clinical symptoms were assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration case definition (BCCD) level. @*Results@#During the period, there were 13 cases of vaccine-related anaphylaxis. The median age was 9 years (range, 1 month to 59 years). The incidence of anaphylaxis per million doses was 0.090 in 2005, 0.079 in 2012, 0.071 in 2013, 0.188 in 2015, and 0.036 in 2016. Of those cases, 23.1% were influenza vaccines, and 76.9% were BCCD level 2. Epinephrine was used in 46.2%. @*Conclusion@#Vaccine-related anaphylaxis seems to have been very rare in the past, but health care professionals must always be aware of anaphylaxis.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e272-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831541

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exposure to ozone (O3) induces neutrophilic inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia in humans and experimental animals. Because the solute carrier family 26-member 4 (Slc26a4; pendrin) gene induces mucin production and intraluminal acidification in the airways, it was hypothesized to be a key molecule in O3-induced airway injury. Thus, we evaluated the role of Slc26a4 and the protective effects of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in O3 -induced airway injury in mice. @*Methods@#Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were exposed to filtered air or O3 for 21 days (2 ppm for 3 hr/day). NH4Cl (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mM) was administered intratracheally into the airways. Airway resistance was measured using a flexiVent system, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells were differentially counted. Slc26a4 and Muc5ac proteins and mRNA were measured via western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunostaining. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, and caspase-1 were analyzed via western blotting. @*Results@#The levels Slc26a4 protein and mRNA significantly increased in lung tissues from Day 7 to Day 21 of O3exposure, with concomitant increases in lung resistance, numbers of goblet cells in lung tissues, and inflammatory cells and thiocyanate (SCN− ) levels in BALF in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with NH4Cl significantly reduced these changes to levels similar to those of sham-treated mice, with a concomitant reduction of Slc26a4 proteins in lung lysates and SCN − levels in BALF. Slc26a4 protein was co-expressed with muc5ac protein in the bronchial epithelium, as indicated by immunofluorescence staining. NH4 Cl treatment also significantly attenuated the O3 -induced increases in IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-1β, and p20-activated caspase-1. @*Conclusion@#Slc26a4 may be involved in O3 -induced inflammatory and epithelial changes in the airways via activation of the inflammasome and the induction of IL-17 and IFN-γ. NH4 Cl shows a potential as a therapeutic agent for controlling O3 -induced airway inflammation and epithelial damage by modulating Slc26a4 expression.

17.
Journal of Agricultural Medicine & Community Health ; : 115-123, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764204

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the effects of a health promotion program on the health condition of rural elderly women implemented at primary health care posts using Korean Frailty Index. METHODS: The research was designed a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest setting. The participants in this study were 50 residents (intervention group: 25, control group: 25) selected from 4 villages 2 primary health care posts in J city Gyeongsangnam-do. The health promotion program was conducted at the primary health care posts twice a week for 12 weeks. This program consisted of basic exercises(Gukseondo + Theraband muscle strength training) and additional activities(including modified Theraband activity, rubber ball exercise, ball massage, nutrition class, singing class). Collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA with SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Results of the health promotion program showed that the health conditions(measured by perceived health status, frailty score, upper/lower flexibility, maximum grip strength, dynamic balance test Timed Up and Go) of the experimental group(25) all statistical significantly improved. CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that the health promotion program implemented at primary health care posts on rural elderly women is effective and can contribute to a developed health promotion program for local residents in the future.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Hand Strength , Health Promotion , Massage , Muscle Strength , Pliability , Primary Health Care , Rubber , Singing
18.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 179-186, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance which is a well-known pathogenic factor in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the TyG index and NAFLD. Thus, we investigated the relationship between the TyG index and NAFLD and the effectiveness of the TyG index compared with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in identifying NAFLD in Korean adults. METHODS: Participants of 4,986 who underwent ultrasonography in a health promotion center were enrolled. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL)×fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2], and HOMA-IR was estimated. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in metabolic parameters among the quartiles of the TyG index. The prevalence of NAFLD significantly increased with increment in the TyG index. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, a logistic regression analysis was performed. When the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index and HOMA-IR were compared, the odds ratios for the prevalence of NAFLD were 2.94 and 1.93 (95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 3.72 and 1.43 to 2.61; both P for trend <0.01), respectively. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the TyG index was superior to HOMA-IR in predicting NAFLD. CONCLUSION: The TyG index and prevalence of NAFLD were significantly related and the TyG index was superior to HOMA-IR in predicting NAFLD in Korean adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Biomarkers , Glucose , Health Promotion , Homeostasis , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Logistic Models , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Triglycerides , Ultrasonography
19.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 201-211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Endotype in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been established in the last decade. However, the exact immunologic profile of CRS still has controversy because it has a considerable immunologic heterogeneity. Therefore, we investigated various inflammatory mediators according to different nasal tissues in chronic rhinosinusitis and compared them within the same subject. METHODS: We collected uncinate process mucosa (UP) and nasal polyp (NP) tissues from controls, CRS without NP (CRSsNP) and CRS with NP (CRSwNP). Expression levels of 28 inflammatory mediators including T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, proinflammatory cytokines and remodeling markers were determined by multiplex immunoassay and were analyzed using paired tests as well as principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate endotype in each subtype of CRS. RESULTS: Signature inflammatory mediators are interleukin (IL)-5, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-24, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in eosinophilic NP, whereas IL-17A, IL-1β, and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 were detected as signature inflammatory markers in non-eosinophilic NP. Despite differences in inflammatory cytokine profile between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic NP, the common upregulation of IL-5, CCL-11, IL-23, IL-2Rα, VCAM-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were shown in NP compared to UP within the same subject. In the PCA, we observed that Th2 immune response was helpful in discriminating between nasal tissues in subtypes of CRS and that there was a partial overlap between non-eosinophilic NP and eosinophilic NP in terms of Th2 mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Commonly upregulated mediators in NP were Th2-associated, compared with UP regardless of CRS subtypes, whereas signature markers were distinct in each NP subtype. These findings imply that Th2 inflammatory responses may play a role in the development of NP regardless of CRSwNP subtypes.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Eosinophils , Immunoassay , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Monocytes , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Population Characteristics , Principal Component Analysis , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Up-Regulation , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
20.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 35-41, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are major public health threats, and the identification of their causative microbes helps clinicians to initiate timely and appropriate antimicrobial therapy and prevent the secondary spread of infection. The main goal of this study was to compare two multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays used to detect respiratory viral pathogens in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. METHODS: Between September and October 2017, a total of 84 nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained consecutively from patients in a tertiary hospital using a flocked swab with 3 mL universal transport medium (COPAN Diagnostics, USA). A total of 64 positive and 20 negative sample results from the LG AdvanSure RV real-time RT-PCR kit (LG Life Sciences, Korea) were further retested using a new AdvanSure RV-plus a real-time RT-PCR kit to compare their performance. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of positive and negative agreement between the two different kits was conducted between the newly introduced AdvanSure RV-plus real-time RT-PCR kit and the AdvanSure RV real-time RT-PCR. The overall agreement was 96.4%, with positive agreement of 98.4% and negative agreement of 90%. The evaluated sensitivity and specificity of AdvanSure RV-plus real-time RT-PCR were 96.9% and 94.7%, respectively, with a kappa value of 0.9 (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The performances of LG AdvanSure RV real-time RT-PCR and the new AdvanSure RV-plus real-time RT-PCR kit showed strong overall agreement. AdvanSure RV-plus real-time RT-PCR had a better detection rate and could detect coronavirus 229E and enterovirus, especially with a high detection rate in coinfection. AdvanSure RV-plus real-time RT-PCR can be considered a useful tool for respiratory virus diagnosis in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Science Disciplines , Coinfection , Coronavirus , Diagnosis , Enterovirus , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pneumonia , Public Health , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers
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