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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925985

ABSTRACT

Background@#Long-term growth data of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are currently collected in the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) and National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. However, variance in the number of infants, check-up time, and check-up parameters led to decreased credibility of cumulated data. We aimed to compare the data on serial growth outcomes by major morbidities from birth to 5 years in VLBW infants between the KNN and NHIS databases. @*Methods@#We combined the NHIS and KNN data of VLBW infants born between 2013 and 2015. The check-up times in the NHIS database were at 4–6, 9–12, 18–24, 30–36, 42–48, and 54–60 months of age, whereas in the KNN were at 18–24 months of corrected age and at 36 months of age.Result: Among 8,864 VLBW infants enrolled based on the birth certificates from the Statistics Korea, 6,086 infants (69%) were enrolled in the KNN, and 5,086 infants (57%) participated in the NHIS health check-up. Among 6,068 infants, 3,428 infants (56%) were enrolled at a corrected age of 18–24 months and 2,572 infants (42%) were enrolled at a chronological age of 33–36 months according to the KNN follow-up registry. However, based on the national birth statistics data, the overall follow-up rate of the KNN at 36 months of age was as low as 29%. The NHIS screening rate was lower at first (23%); however, it increased over time to exceed the KNN follow-up rate. Growth failure (weight under 10th percentile) at corrected ages of 18–24 months and 36 months were more common in the NHIS than KNN (42% vs. 20%, 37% vs. 34.5%). Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and periventricular leukomalacia showed similar rates of growth failure at 2 years but varying rates at 3 years between the KNN and NHIS. @*Conclusion@#By integrating the KNN and NHIS data indirectly at continuous time points according to morbidities, we found that there are discontinuities and discrepancies between the two databases among VLBW infants. Establishing an integrated system by patient level linking the KNN and NHIS databases can lead to better understanding and improved neonatal outcomes in VLBW infants in Korea.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901047

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We examined differences in the treatment effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injections and intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. @*Methods@#This retrospective analysis included 51 eyes of 49 patients who received intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent injections after initial diagnosis with central serous chorioretinopathy. The patients were divided into two groups: one received an intravitreal bevacizumab injection, and another one received an intravitreal aflibercept injection. Patients with no reaction to treatment or a worsened condition, received repeat treatment with the same therapy. After treatment, patients were monitored for >3 months. Data were collected regarding best- corrected visual acuity (BCVA), subfoveal choroidal thickness, injection number, and treatment duration. @*Results@#Both intravitreal bevacizumab injections and intravitreal aflibercept injections led to significant differences in BCVA (p < 0.0001, p = 0.001) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.0001, p = 0.011), compared between before and after treatment. However, no differences between groups were observed in mean change of BCVA or subfoveal choroidal thickness. In addition, there were no differences between groups in injection number and treatment duration. @*Conclusions@#In patients with central serous chorioretinopathy, both intravitreal bevacizumab injections and intravitreal aflibercept injections are effective treatment methods. There were no differences between the two medicines in terms of functional and anatomical recovery, or the injection number and treatment duration.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893343

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We examined differences in the treatment effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injections and intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. @*Methods@#This retrospective analysis included 51 eyes of 49 patients who received intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent injections after initial diagnosis with central serous chorioretinopathy. The patients were divided into two groups: one received an intravitreal bevacizumab injection, and another one received an intravitreal aflibercept injection. Patients with no reaction to treatment or a worsened condition, received repeat treatment with the same therapy. After treatment, patients were monitored for >3 months. Data were collected regarding best- corrected visual acuity (BCVA), subfoveal choroidal thickness, injection number, and treatment duration. @*Results@#Both intravitreal bevacizumab injections and intravitreal aflibercept injections led to significant differences in BCVA (p < 0.0001, p = 0.001) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.0001, p = 0.011), compared between before and after treatment. However, no differences between groups were observed in mean change of BCVA or subfoveal choroidal thickness. In addition, there were no differences between groups in injection number and treatment duration. @*Conclusions@#In patients with central serous chorioretinopathy, both intravitreal bevacizumab injections and intravitreal aflibercept injections are effective treatment methods. There were no differences between the two medicines in terms of functional and anatomical recovery, or the injection number and treatment duration.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919411

ABSTRACT

YH4808 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker developed for gastric acid-related disorders. Previous studies indicate its potential to improve symptoms of gastric acid-related disorders. The current study was aimed to find the optimal regimen of YH4808 for night time pH control. This study was performed in two parts. Each was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled, multiple-doses, two-treatment, two-period crossover study conducted in 20 healthy Korean volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups.The three groups received different dosage regimens of YH4808 (100 mg twice a day, 200 mg once a day, or 200 mg twice a day), and the fourth group received esomeprazole 40 mg twice a day. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated that the systemic exposure of YH4808 increased in a dose-proportional manner. The difference in the proportion of time above pH 4 over 24 h from the baseline was the greatest in the group receiving YH4808 200 mg twice a day. The values of the area under the effect curve at night time (12 A.M.–7 A.M.) were higher in all YH4808 groups than in the esomeprazole group. However, the differences among the YH4808 groups were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). YH4808 exhibited potential for better pH control during the night in comparison to esomeprazole. The optimal regimen for night time pH control among all the YH4808 regimens was 200 mg twice a day.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915421

ABSTRACT

Background@#Macrosomia, as an infant with birth weight over 4 kg, can have several perinatal, and neonatal complications. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of macrosomia in Korea and to identify the growth and developmental outcomes and other neonatal complications. @*Methods@#In total, 397,203 infants who were born in 2013 with birth weight ≥ 2.5 kg and who underwent infant health check-up between their 1 st and 7 th visit were included from the National Health Insurance Service database. The information was obtained by the International Classification of Diseases-10 codes or self-reported questionnaires in the National Health Screening Program. @*Results@#The distribution of infants by birth weight was as follows: 384,181 (97%) infants in the 2.5–3.99 kg (reference) group, 12,016 (3%) infants in the 4.0–4.49 kg group, 772 (0.2%) infants in the 4.5–4.99 kg group, and 78 (0.02%) infants in the ≥ 5 kg group. Macrosomia showed significantly higher incidence of sepsis, male sex, and mothers with GDM and birth injury. There was a significant difference in weight, height, and head circumference according to age, birth weight group, and combination of age and birth weight, respectively (P < 0.001). The number of infants with the weight above the 90 th percentile in macrosomia at each health check-up showed higher incidence than in reference group. The mean body mass index significantly differed among the groups, as 50.6 in infants with 2.5–3.99 kg of birth weight, 63.5 with 4.0–4.49 kg, 71.0 with 4.5–4.99 kg, and 73.1 with ≥ 5 kg. There was a significant difference in the incidence of poor developmental results between infants with macrosomia and the reference group at 24, 36 and 48 month of age. @*Conclusion@#Macrosomia was significantly associated with the risk of sepsis, birth injury, obesity and developmental problem especially in a boy born from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. Careful monitoring and proper strategies for monitoring growth and development are needed.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 243-250, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811471

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the surveillance reports of adverse events (AEs) due to different types of pneumococcal vaccines, in addition to detecting and validating signals of pneumococcal vaccines by comparing AEs with labels.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the percentages of AEs according to vaccine type [pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPSVs) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs)] in children and adults using data from the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database from 2005 to 2016. A signal was defined as an AE that met all three indices of data mining: proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC). We validated the detected signals by calculating sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of the signals against label information.RESULTS: Of the 39933 AE reports on vaccination, 5718 (7.0%) were related to pneumococcal vaccine. The most frequent AE after vaccination with PPSV was fever (23.9%) in children and injection-site reaction in adults. The most frequent AE after vaccination with PCV in children was pharyngitis (26.2%). In total, 13 AEs met all three indices for signal detection. Among these, hypotension, apathy, sepsis, and increased serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase level were not listed on vaccine labels. In validation analysis, PRR and ROR performed slightly better than IC for adults who were vaccinated with PPSVs.CONCLUSION: Overall, 13 new signals of PPSVs, including four signals not listed on the labels, were detected. Further research based on additional AE reports is required to confirm the validity of these signals for children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apathy , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Child , Data Mining , Fever , Humans , Hypotension , Korea , Odds Ratio , Pharyngitis , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Conjugate
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904122

ABSTRACT

YH4808 is a novel selective potassium-competitive acid blocker demonstrated to be safe and to have inhibitory effects against gastric acid secretion in previous studies. A randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 1-period, parallel design study was conducted to compare the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and acid suppression capacities of three regimens in 60 healthy subjects with H. pylori-positive, and the potential of YH4808 to replace proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in standard regimens for H. pylori eradication. Group 1 received YH4808, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin as a novel triple regimen, while Group 2 received YH4808 and amoxicillin only, and Group 3 received esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, as the standard triple regimen. H. pylori eradication rates were 85.0% for Group 1, 25.0% for Group 2, and 83.3% for Group 3. Relative response rate between Group 1 and 3 was 1.02 (0.50–2.07; 95% CI, χ2 test p = 0.8881). Furthermore, the novel triple regimen, YH4808, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, stably inhibited acid secretion and maintained a gastric pH greater than 4 or 5 for 24 hours, which was comparable to the pH range in the standard triple regimen. However, the onset times of the YH4808 regimens were earlier than that for the regimens using esomeprazole. There were no differences in the incidences or severity of adverse events among the three groups. Overall, the novel triple regimen was safe and well-tolerated. YH4808 could replace PPIs in standard triple regimens used for H. pylori eradication.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896418

ABSTRACT

YH4808 is a novel selective potassium-competitive acid blocker demonstrated to be safe and to have inhibitory effects against gastric acid secretion in previous studies. A randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 1-period, parallel design study was conducted to compare the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and acid suppression capacities of three regimens in 60 healthy subjects with H. pylori-positive, and the potential of YH4808 to replace proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in standard regimens for H. pylori eradication. Group 1 received YH4808, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin as a novel triple regimen, while Group 2 received YH4808 and amoxicillin only, and Group 3 received esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, as the standard triple regimen. H. pylori eradication rates were 85.0% for Group 1, 25.0% for Group 2, and 83.3% for Group 3. Relative response rate between Group 1 and 3 was 1.02 (0.50–2.07; 95% CI, χ2 test p = 0.8881). Furthermore, the novel triple regimen, YH4808, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, stably inhibited acid secretion and maintained a gastric pH greater than 4 or 5 for 24 hours, which was comparable to the pH range in the standard triple regimen. However, the onset times of the YH4808 regimens were earlier than that for the regimens using esomeprazole. There were no differences in the incidences or severity of adverse events among the three groups. Overall, the novel triple regimen was safe and well-tolerated. YH4808 could replace PPIs in standard triple regimens used for H. pylori eradication.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837345

ABSTRACT

YH4808 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker that was developed as a therapeutic agent for gastric acid-related diseases; it may replace proton pump inhibitors, which are widely used in combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication. We compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and safety of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and YH4808 used as monotherapies or in combination for evaluating potential drug interactions. An open-label, randomized, single-dose, Latin-square (4 × 4) crossover study was conducted in 32 healthy Korean volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the 4 treatment sequences that consisted of 4 periods separated by 21-day washout intervals. PK parameters of YH4808, amoxicillin and clarithromycin administered in combination were compared with those of the respective monotherapies. The geometric mean ratios of the maximum concentration (Cmax) and the area under the time-concentration curve from time zero to time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) of YH4808 increased during the triple therapy by 48.6% and 29.1%, respectively. Similarly, the Cmax and AUClast of M3 (active metabolite of YH4808) increased by 23.3% and 16.0%, respectively. The Cmax and AUClast of clarithromycin increased by 27.4% and 30.5%, and those of 14-hydroxyclarithromycin were increased by 23.1% and 32.4%, respectively. The corresponding amoxicillin values decreased during the triple therapy by 21.5% and 15.6%, respectively. There was no clinically significant change in safety assessment related to either monotherapies or triple therapy. In conclusion, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and YH4808 administered as triple therapy did not exhibit significant PK interactions and were not associated with safety issues.

11.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 126-132, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837000

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors of hearing impairments in preterm infants and analyze factors associated with discrepancies between neonatal hearing screening (NHS) and confirmatory test results. @*Methods@#We analyzed the medical records of 352 preterm infants born at 23 to 32 weeks’ gestational age (GA) who underwent both automated auditory brainstem response (aABR) and confirmatory ABR (cABR). @*Results@#Mean GA, mean birth weight, the incidence of small for GA and cesarean section birth were significantly different between the pass and refer groups on aABR and the normal and abnormal groups of cABR. On univariate analysis, bronchopul monary dysplasia (odds ratio [OR], 2.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 7.48), intraventricular hemorrhage (OR, 7.02; 95% CI, 1.59 to 31.05), and use of furosemide (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.38 to 10.73) were the factors related to refer results on aABR. Peri ventricular leukomalacia (PVL; OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.39 to 11.52) and use of vancomycin (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.22 to 6.73) were associated with abnormal cABR. Twenty-five (7.9%) infants had discrepant aABR and cABR results, particularly males and those in whom vancomycin was used. @*Conclusion@#PVL and use of vancomycin were confirmed as independent risk factors for hearing loss in infants born at less than 32 weeks’ GA. Also, discrepancies between the screening and confirmatory test may occur, especially among male infants and those in whom vancomycin was used. The hearing of infants must be assessed more carefully in such groups regardless of NHS results.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831543

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pulmonary surfactant (PS) replacement therapy, as a safe and effective treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) may have further increased with the extended insurance coverage since 2011 in Korea. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic data of PS replacement therapy for RDS in Korea and to analyze the complications associated with RDS. @*Methods@#We included 19,442 infants who were treated with PS and diagnosed with RDS (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes: P22.0) between 2014 and 2018 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment database. Birth certificate data from Statistics Korea were used to estimate the incidence of RDS. @*Results@#The average incidence of RDS within the study period was 0.99% among live births.Repeated doses of PS were administered to 1,688 infants (8.7%), ranging from 2 doses in 929 infants (4.8%) to 9 doses in 1 infant (0.01%). The incidence of RDS in term infants markedly increased over 5 years from 0.2% to 0.34%. The incidence was similarly increased among the preterm infants. The RDS mortality rate was 6.3% and showed a decreasing trend according to year. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the lower gestational age group. A decreasing trend was observed in the incidence of the complications, such as patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, except for pneumothorax in term infants. The complications were also higher in the lower gestational age group and the lower birth weight group. However, pneumothorax was the most frequent complication in the term infant group and in infants with birth weight ≥ 2,500 g. @*Conclusion@#Advancements in neonatal care and extended insurance coverage have increased the use of PS replacement therapy for RDS. This, in turn, decreased neonatal mortality and the incidence of the associated complications. The appropriate therapeutic strategy for RDS should be decided according to the gestational age and lung pathology.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1061-1066, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762053

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Newborn screening (NBS) programs are important for appropriate management of susceptible neonates to prevent serious clinical problems. Neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) are at a potentially high risk of false-positive results, and repetitive NBS after total parenteral nutrition is completely off results in delayed diagnosis. Here, we present the usefulness of a targeted next-generation sequencing (TNGS) panel to complement NBS for early diagnosis in high-risk neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TNGS panel covered 198 genes associated with actionable genetic and metabolic diseases that are typically included in NBS programs in Korea using tandem mass spectrometry. The panel was applied to 48 infants admitted to the NICU of Severance Children's Hospital between May 2017 and September 2017. The infants were not selected for suspected metabolic disorders. RESULTS: A total of 13 variants classified as likely pathogenic or pathogenic were detected in 11 (22.9%) neonates, including six genes (DHCR7, PCBD1, GAA, ALDOB, ATP7B, and GBA) associated with metabolic diseases not covered in NBS. One of the 48 infants was diagnosed with an isobutyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, and false positive results of tandem mass screening were confirmed in two infants using the TNGS panel. CONCLUSION: The implementation of TNGS in conjunction with conventional NBS can allow for better management of and earlier diagnosis in susceptible infants, thus preventing the development of critical conditions in these sick infants.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Korea , Mass Screening , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Oxidoreductases , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761542

ABSTRACT

Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is a rare but critical disease with a high mortality rate. The diagnostic dilemma of PPP syndrome is the fact that symptoms occur unexpectedly. A 48-year-old man presented with fever and painful swelling of the left foot that was initially mistaken for cellulitis and gouty arthritis. The diagnosis of PPP syndrome was made based on the abdominal CT findings and elevated pancreatic enzyme levels, lobular panniculitis with ghost cells on a skin biopsy, and polyarthritis on a bone scan. The pancreatitis and panniculitis disappeared spontaneously over time, but the polyarthritis followed its own course despite the use of anti-inflammatory agents. In addition to this case, 30 cases of PPP syndrome in the English literature were reviewed. Most of the patients had initial symptoms other than abdominal pain, leading to misdiagnosis. About one-third of them were finally diagnosed with a pancreatic tumor, of which pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was the most dominant. They showed a mortality rate of 32.3%, associated mainly with the pancreatic malignancy. Therefore, PPP syndrome should be considered when cutaneous or osteoarticular manifestations occur in patients with pancreatitis. Active investigation and continued observations are needed for patients suspected of PPP syndrome.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Arthritis , Arthritis, Gouty , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Cellulitis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Fever , Foot , Humans , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Panniculitis , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787190

ABSTRACT

Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is a rare but critical disease with a high mortality rate. The diagnostic dilemma of PPP syndrome is the fact that symptoms occur unexpectedly. A 48-year-old man presented with fever and painful swelling of the left foot that was initially mistaken for cellulitis and gouty arthritis. The diagnosis of PPP syndrome was made based on the abdominal CT findings and elevated pancreatic enzyme levels, lobular panniculitis with ghost cells on a skin biopsy, and polyarthritis on a bone scan. The pancreatitis and panniculitis disappeared spontaneously over time, but the polyarthritis followed its own course despite the use of anti-inflammatory agents. In addition to this case, 30 cases of PPP syndrome in the English literature were reviewed. Most of the patients had initial symptoms other than abdominal pain, leading to misdiagnosis. About one-third of them were finally diagnosed with a pancreatic tumor, of which pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was the most dominant. They showed a mortality rate of 32.3%, associated mainly with the pancreatic malignancy. Therefore, PPP syndrome should be considered when cutaneous or osteoarticular manifestations occur in patients with pancreatitis. Active investigation and continued observations are needed for patients suspected of PPP syndrome.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Arthritis , Arthritis, Gouty , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Cellulitis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Fever , Foot , Humans , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Panniculitis , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 138-146, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760588

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM)—a rare developmental anomaly—affects the lower respiratory tract in newborns. By comparing the reliability of diagnostic tools and identifying predictive factors for symptoms, we provide comprehensive clinical data for the proper management of CPAM. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 66 patients with prenatally diagnosed CPAM delivered at Severance Children's Hospital between January 2005 and July 2017. RESULTS: We enrolled 33 boys and 33 girls. Their mean gestational age and birth weight were 38.8 weeks and 3,050 g, respectively. Prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal radiography, lung ultrasonography, and chest computed tomography (CT) showed inconsistent findings. Chest CT showed superior sensitivity (100%) and positive predictive value (90%). Among the 66 patients, 59 had postnatally confirmed CPAM, three had pulmonary sequestration, one had cystic teratoma, and one had a normal lung. Of the 59 patients with CPAM, 21 (35%; mean age, 23.4 months) underwent surgery, including 15 who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy. Twenty-five and 12 patients exhibited respiratory symptoms at birth and during infancy, respectively. Apgar scores and mediastinal shift on radiography were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms at birth. However, none of the factors could predict respiratory symptoms during infancy. CONCLUSION: Radiography or ultrasonography combined with chest CT can confirm an unclear or inconsistent lesion. Apgar scores and mediastinal shift on radiography can predict respiratory symptoms at birth. However, symptoms during infancy are not associated with prenatal and postnatal factors. Chest CT combined with periodic symptom monitoring is important for diagnosing and managing patients with prenatally diagnosed CPAM and to guide appropriate timing of surgery.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Medical Records , Parturition , Radiography , Respiratory System , Teratoma , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracoscopy , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 395-398, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742542

ABSTRACT

Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a rare disorder characterized by patellar hypoplasia, flexion contractures of the lower limbs, psychomotor retardation and genital and renal anomalies. We report the case of a female infant diagnosed with GPS to a KAT6B gene mutation, which was identified using whole exome sequencing.


Subject(s)
Contracture , Exome , Female , Humans , Infant , Korea , Lower Extremity
18.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 67-71, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741661

ABSTRACT

Pylorospasm is a cause of delayed gastric emptying in young infants. As in patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, most pylorospasm patients present with projectile vomiting. However, unlike that in case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, no persistent pyloric stenotic lesions are present. As such, follow-up using serial gastrointestinal fluoroscopy or ultrasonography can be helpful in diagnosing patients with clinical signs of gastroparesis. Most cases can be treated conservatively, but some patients require pharmacologic treatment. Antispasmodics have been proposed as a treatment for pylorospasm, but their use in neonates and infants has rarely been reported. Herein, we present a case of pylorospasm diagnosed in the neonatal period and successfully treated with intravenous atropine.


Subject(s)
Atropine , Fluoroscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Gastric Emptying , Gastroparesis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Parasympatholytics , Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic , Pylorus , Spasm , Ultrasonography , Vomiting
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 101-106, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742498

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Removal of CO₂ is much efficient during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for preterm infants. However, an optimal carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO₂) and tidal volume (VT) have not yet been established due to much individual variance. This study aimed to analyze DCO₂ values, VT, and minute volume in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants using HFOV and correlates with plasma CO₂ (pCO₂). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Daily respiratory mechanics and ventilator settings from twenty VLBW infants and their two hundred seventeen results of blood gas analysis were collected. Patients were treated with the Dräger Babylog VN500 ventilator (Drägerwerk Ag & Co.) in HFOV mode. The normocapnia was indicated as pCO₂ ranging from 45 mm Hg to 55 mm Hg. RESULTS: The measured VT was 1.7 mL/kg, minute volume was 0.7 mL/kg, and DCO₂ was 43.5 mL²/s. Mean results of the blood gas test were as follows: pH, 7.31; pCO₂, 52.6 mm Hg; and SpO₂, 90.5%. In normocapnic state, the mean VT was significantly higher than in hypercapnic state (2.1±0.5 mL/kg vs. 1.6±0.3 mL/kg), and the mean DCO₂ showed significant difference (68.4±32.7 mL²/s vs. 32.4±15.7 mL²/s). The DCO₂ was significantly correlated with the pCO₂ (p=0.024). In the receiver operating curve analysis, the estimated optimal cut-off point to predict the remaining normocapnic status was a VT of 1.75 mL/kg (sensitivity 73%, specificity 80%). CONCLUSION: In VLBW infants treated with HFOV, VT of 1.75 mL/kg is recommended for maintaining proper ventilation.


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Female , High-Frequency Ventilation , Humans , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/physiology , Male , ROC Curve , Tidal Volume
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742421

ABSTRACT

For regulatory approval of a new drug, the most preferred and reliable source of evidence would be randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, a great number of drugs, being developed as well as already marketed and being used, usually lack proper indications for children. It is imperative to develop properly evaluated drugs for children. And expanding the use of already approved drugs for other indications will benefit patients and the society. Nevertheless, to get an approval for expansion of indications, most often with off-label experiences, for drugs that have been approved or for the development of pediatric indications, either during or after completing the main drug development, conducting RCTs may not be the only, if not right, way to take. Extrapolation strategies and modelling & simulation for pediatric drug development are paving the road to the better approval scheme. Making the use of data sources other than RCT such as EHR and claims data in ways that improve the efficiency and validity of the results (e.g., randomized pragmatic trial and randomized registry trial) has been the topic of great interest all around the world. Regulatory authorities should adopt new methodologies for regulatory approval processes to adapt to the changes brought by increasing availability of big and real world data utilizing new tools of technological advancement.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval
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