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1.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 153-161, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925567

ABSTRACT

Methods@#In this study, we isolated the exosomes using the tangential flow filtration (TFF) system with exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum and performed the characterization tests via western blotting, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and transmission electron microscopy. @*Results@#In transmission electron microscopy, the exosome had a diameter of approximately 100–200 nm and had a spherical shape, whereas in the NTA, the exosome had an average diameter of 142.8 nm with a concentration of 1.27×1010 particles/mL. The flow cytometry analysis showed the expression of CD63 and CD81. The western blotting analysis showed the positive markers. @*Conclusions@#These findings showed that isolating the exosomes via TFF resulted in high-quality EF-MSC exosome yield. Further studies with exosomes from EF-MSC are needed to evaluate the function and role of the EF tissue.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902651

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic human diseases that are challenging to cure and are often unable to be resolved. The inbred mouse strain C57BL/ 6 N has been used in investigations of IBD as an experimental animal model. The purpose of the current study was to compare the inflammatory responsiveness of C57BL/6NKorl mice, a sub-strain recently established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), with those of C57BL/6 N mice from two different sources using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. @*Results@#Male mice (8 weeks old) were administered DSS (0, 1, 2, or 3%) in drinking water for 7 days. DSS significantly decreased body weight and colon length and increased the colon weight-to-length ratio. Moreover, severe colitisrelated clinical signs including diarrhea and rectal bleeding were observed beginning on day 4 in mice administered DSS at a concentration of 3%. DSS led to edema, epithelial layer disruption, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β) in the colon tissues. However, no significant differences in DSS-promoted abnormal symptoms or their severity were found between the three sub-strains. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that C57BL/6NKorl mice responded to DSS-induced colitis similar to the generally used C57BL6/N mice, thus this newly developed mouse sub-strain provides a useful animal model of IBD.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894947

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic human diseases that are challenging to cure and are often unable to be resolved. The inbred mouse strain C57BL/ 6 N has been used in investigations of IBD as an experimental animal model. The purpose of the current study was to compare the inflammatory responsiveness of C57BL/6NKorl mice, a sub-strain recently established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), with those of C57BL/6 N mice from two different sources using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. @*Results@#Male mice (8 weeks old) were administered DSS (0, 1, 2, or 3%) in drinking water for 7 days. DSS significantly decreased body weight and colon length and increased the colon weight-to-length ratio. Moreover, severe colitisrelated clinical signs including diarrhea and rectal bleeding were observed beginning on day 4 in mice administered DSS at a concentration of 3%. DSS led to edema, epithelial layer disruption, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β) in the colon tissues. However, no significant differences in DSS-promoted abnormal symptoms or their severity were found between the three sub-strains. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that C57BL/6NKorl mice responded to DSS-induced colitis similar to the generally used C57BL6/N mice, thus this newly developed mouse sub-strain provides a useful animal model of IBD.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 303-309, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902633

ABSTRACT

The kainic acid-induced seizure mouse model is widely used in epilepsy research. In this study, we applied kainic acid to the subcutaneous injections of three different sources of DBA/2 mice to compare and evaluate the seizure response. The three mouse sources consisted of DBA/2Kor1 (Korea FDA source), DBA/2A (USA source), and DBA/2 (Japan source), and were purchased from different vendors. To compare the responses of DBA/2 mice to kainic acid injections, we examined the survival rate, seizure phenotype scoring, and behavioral changes. We also evaluated brain lesions using histopathological analysis. Following the administration of kainic acid, almost half of the cohort survived, and the seizure phenotype displayed a moderate level of sensitivity (2 ~ 4 out of 6). In the histopathologic analysis, there was no change in morphological features, and levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) increased in the kainic acid-treated groups. However, there was no difference in the neuronal nuclei (NeuN) expression level. All the data showed that the responses in the kainic acid-treated group were similar across the three strains. In conclusion, our results suggest that the three sources of DBA/2 mice (DBA/2Kor1, DBA/2A, and DBA/2B) have similar pathological responses to kainic acid-induced seizures.

5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 303-309, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894929

ABSTRACT

The kainic acid-induced seizure mouse model is widely used in epilepsy research. In this study, we applied kainic acid to the subcutaneous injections of three different sources of DBA/2 mice to compare and evaluate the seizure response. The three mouse sources consisted of DBA/2Kor1 (Korea FDA source), DBA/2A (USA source), and DBA/2 (Japan source), and were purchased from different vendors. To compare the responses of DBA/2 mice to kainic acid injections, we examined the survival rate, seizure phenotype scoring, and behavioral changes. We also evaluated brain lesions using histopathological analysis. Following the administration of kainic acid, almost half of the cohort survived, and the seizure phenotype displayed a moderate level of sensitivity (2 ~ 4 out of 6). In the histopathologic analysis, there was no change in morphological features, and levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) increased in the kainic acid-treated groups. However, there was no difference in the neuronal nuclei (NeuN) expression level. All the data showed that the responses in the kainic acid-treated group were similar across the three strains. In conclusion, our results suggest that the three sources of DBA/2 mice (DBA/2Kor1, DBA/2A, and DBA/2B) have similar pathological responses to kainic acid-induced seizures.

6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 239-247, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836904

ABSTRACT

C57BL/6NKorl mice are a novel mouse stock recently developed by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation in Korea. Extensive research into the nature of C57BL/6NKorl mice is being conducted. However, there is no scientific evidence for the phenotypic response to restraint stress (RST), a stress paradigm for modeling depressive disorders, in rodents. In this study, we investigated the repeated RST-induced depressive-like phenotypes in C57BL/6 N mouse substrains (viz., C57BL/6NKorl mice from Korea, C57BL/6NA mice from the United States, and C57BL/6NB mice from Japan) obtained from different sources. The results showed that C57BL/6 N mice derived from various sources exposed to repeated RST resulted in depressive-like phenotypes reflected by a similar degree of behavioral modification and susceptibility to oxidative stress in a duration-dependent manner, except for the distinctive features (increased body weight (BW) and tolerance to the suppression of BW gain by exposure to repeated RST) in C57BL/6NKorl mice. Taken together, the duration-dependent alteration in depressive-like phenotypes by repeated exposure to RST observed in this study may provide valuable insights into the nature of C57BL/6NKorl mice as an alternative animal resource for better understanding of the etiology of depressive disorders and the mechanisms of antidepressant actions.

7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 248-259, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836903

ABSTRACT

Differences in responsiveness of BALB/c substrains have been investigated in various fields, including diabetes induction, corpus callosum deficiency, virus-induced demyelinating disease, aggressive behavior and osteonecrosis. However, induction efficacy of skin tumor remains untried. We therefore investigated the influence of BALB/c substrain backgrounds on the skin tumor induction efficacy in response to DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) cotreatment. Alterations in the levels of tumor growth related factors, histopathological structure, and the expression to tumor related proteins were measured in three BALB/c substrains (BALB/cKorl, BALB/cA and BALB/cB) after exposure to DMBA (25 μg/kg) and three different doses of TPA (2, 4 and 8 μg/kg). The average number and induction efficacy of tumors in response to DMBA+TPA treatment were significantly greater in the BALB/cKorl substrain than in BALB/cA and BALB/cB. However, cotreatment with DMBA+TPA induced similar responses for body and organ weights of all three substrains. Few differences were detected in the serum analyzing factors, while similar responsiveness was observed for blood analyzing factors after DMBA+TPA treatment. Furthermore, the three BALB/c substrains exhibited similar patterns in their histopathological structure in DMBA+TPA-induced tumors. The expression levels of apoptotic proteins and tumor related proteins were constantly maintained in all three BALB/c substrains treated with DMBA+TPA. In addition, the responsiveness to cisplatin treatment was overall very similar in the three BALB/c substrains with DMBA+TPA-induced tumors. Taken together, these results indicate that genetic background of the three BALB/c substrains does not have a major effect on the DMBA+TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis and therapeutic responsiveness of cisplatin, except induction efficacy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918396

ABSTRACT

Botulinum-toxin A (BoNT/A) is a widely used not only for cosmetics but also for various experimental purposes including muscle-related research. In this study, we applied BoNT/A to mouse muscle of three different sources to compare and evaluate the biological and pathological response. The three different mouse sources consist of Korl: ICR (Korea FDA source), A:ICR (USA source) and B:ICR (Japan source) which were purchased from each different vendors. To compare the responses of ICR mice with BoNT/A muscle injection, we examined the body weight, hematological and serum biochemistry analysis. Also, we evaluated the muscle change by histopathological analysis and gene expression patterns of muscle-related target by qPCR. The body weight gain was decreased in the BoNT/ A-treated group compared with the control group. In clinical pathologic analysis and gene expression patterns, the data showed that the responses in the BoNT/A-treated group were similar compared with the control group. Decreased muscle fiber was observed in BoNT/A-treated group compared with control group, while Korl:ICR showed a little low response with the other mouse sources. In conclusion, our results suggest that three different sources ICR mice (Korl:ICR, A:ICR and B:ICR) have a similar biological and pathological responses in BoNT/A muscle injection.

9.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 361-367, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762957

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PURPOSE: To determine whether epidural fat (EF) tissue contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Spine surgeons are unaware of the contents of EF tissue and the reason for its presence between the ligamentum flavum and the dura mater; therefore, EF tissues are routinely eliminated during surgical procedures. However, EF removal causes certain postoperative problems, such as post-laminectomy syndrome. We hypothesized that the EF tissue may play a significant supportive role for the neural structures and other nearby conditions. METHODS: EF tissues were obtained from consenting patients (n=3) during posterior decompression surgery of the lumbar spine. The primary cells were isolated and cultured as per previously described methods with some modifications, and the cell morphology and cumulation were examined. Thereafter, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, and differentiation potency for differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocytes were investigated to identify whether the cells derived from EF are MSC. RESULTS: The cells from the EF tissue had a fibroblast or neuron-like morphology that persisted until the senescence at p18. MSC-specific genes, such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, MYC, and GAPDH were expressed in the RT-PCR study, while MSC-specific surface markers such as CD105, CD90, and CD73 were exhibited in the FACS analysis. The differentiation properties of EF-MSC for differentiation into the three types of cells (osteoblast, chondroblast, and adipocyte) were also confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the cell culture, FACS analysis, RT-PCR analysis, and differentiation potent outcomes, all the features of the cells corresponded to MSC. This is the first study to identify EF-MSC derived from the EF tissue.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Aging , Cell Culture Techniques , Chondrocytes , Decompression , Dura Mater , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Ligamentum Flavum , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteoblasts , Spine , Surgeons
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224458

ABSTRACT

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major component of the eye. This highly specialized cell type facilitates maintenance of the visual system. Because RPE loss induces an irreversible visual impairment, RPE generation techniques have recently been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach to RPE degeneration. The microRNA-based technique is a new strategy for producing RPE cells from adult stem cell sources. Previously, we identified that antisense microRNA-410 (anti-miR-410) induces RPE differentiation from amniotic epithelial stem cells. In this study, we investigated RPE differentiation from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) via anti-miR-410 treatment. We identified miR-410 as a RPE-relevant microRNA in UCB-MSCs from among 21 putative human RPE-depleted microRNAs. Inhibition of miR-410 induces overexpression of immature and mature RPE-specific factors, including MITF, LRAT, RPE65, Bestrophin, and EMMPRIN. The RPE-induced cells were able to phagocytize microbeads. Results of our microRNA-based strategy demonstrated proof-of-principle for RPE differentiation in UCB-MSCs by using anti-miR-410 treatment without the use of additional factors or exogenous transduction.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells , Basigin , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , MicroRNAs , Microspheres , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinaldehyde , Stem Cells , Umbilical Cord , Vision Disorders
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120931

ABSTRACT

Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) may be a promising modality for treating medial temporal lobe epilepsy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a noninvasive method for monitoring in vivo glucose metabolism. We evaluated the efficacy of hUCB-MSCs transplantation in chronic epileptic rats using FDG-PET. Rats with recurrent seizures were randomly assigned into three groups: the stem cell treatment (SCT) group received hUCB-MSCs transplantation into the right hippocampus, the sham control (ShC) group received same procedure with saline, and the positive control (PC) group consisted of treatment-negative epileptic rats. Normal rats received hUCB-MSCs transplantation acted as the negative control (NC). FDG-PET was performed at pre-treatment baseline and 1- and 8-week posttreatment. Hippocampal volume was evaluated and histological examination was done. In the SCT group, bilateral hippocampi at 8-week after transplantation showed significantly higher glucose metabolism (0.990 +/- 0.032) than the ShC (0.873 +/- 0.087; P < 0.001) and PC groups (0.858 +/- 0.093; P < 0.001). Histological examination resulted that the transplanted hUCB-MSCs survived in the ipsilateral hippocampus and migrated to the contralateral hippocampus but did not differentiate. In spite of successful engraftment, seizure frequency among the groups was not significantly different. Transplanted hUCB-MSCs can engraft and migrate, thereby partially restoring bilateral hippocampal glucose metabolism. The results suggest encouraging effect of hUCB-MSCs on restoring epileptic networks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chronic Disease , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/metabolism , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Hippocampus/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tissue Distribution , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169633

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multi-lineage cells such as adipocytes, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts. Amniotic membrane from whole placenta is a good source of stem cells in humans. This membrane can potentially be used for wound healing and corneal surface reconstruction. Moreover, it can be easily obtained after delivery and is usually discarded as classified waste. In the present study, we successfully isolated and characterized equine amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eAM-MSCs) that were cultured and maintained in low glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The proliferation of eAM-MSCs was measured based on the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL). Immunophenotyping of eAM-MSCs by flow cytometry showed that the major population was of mesenchymal origin. To confirm differentiation potential, a multi-lineage differentiation assay was conducted. We found that under appropriate conditions, eAM-MSCs are capable of multi-lineage differentiation. Our results indicated that eAM-MSCs may be a good source of stem cells, making them potentially useful for veterinary regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Amnion/cytology , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Lineage , Cell Proliferation , Chondrogenesis , Female , Flow Cytometry/veterinary , Horses , Immunophenotyping/veterinary , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Osteogenesis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35276

ABSTRACT

Tendinitis of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is a significant cause of lameness in horses; however, recent studies have shown that stem cells could be useful in veterinary regenerative medicine. Therefore, we isolated and characterized equine umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (eUCB-MSCs) from equine umbilical cord blood obtained from thoroughbred mares during the foaling period. Horses that had tendinitis of the SDFT were treated with eUCB-MSCs to confirm the therapeutic effect. After eUCB-MSCs transplantation, the core lesion in the SDFT was found to decrease. These results suggest that transplantation using eUCB-MSCs could be another source of cell treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/veterinary , Horse Diseases/surgery , Horses , Male , Tendinopathy/surgery
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151428

ABSTRACT

Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to possess the potential for multiple differentiations abilities in vitro and in vivo. In canine system, studying stem cell therapy is important, but so far, stem cells from canine were not identified and characterized. In this study, we successfully isolated and characterized MSCs from the canine umbilical cord and its fetal blood. Canine MSCs (cMSCs) were grown in medium containing low glucose DMEM with 20% FBS. The cMSCs have stem cells expression patterns which are concerned with MSCs surface markers by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. The cMSCs had multipotent abilities. In the neuronal differentiation study, the cMSCs expressed the neuronal markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal class III beta tubulin (Tuj-1), neurofilament M (NF160) in the basal culture media. After neuronal differentiation, the cMSCs expressed the neuronal markers Nestin, GFAP, Tuj-1, microtubule-associated protein 2, NF160. In the osteogenic & chondrogenic differentiation studies, cMSCs were stained with alizarin red and toluidine blue staining, respectively. With osteogenic differentiation, the cMSCs presented osteoblastic differentiation genes by RT-PCR. This finding also suggests that cMSCs might have the ability to differentiate multipotentially. It was concluded that isolated MSCs from canine cord blood have multipotential differentiation abilities. Therefore, it is suggested that cMSCs may represent a be a good model system for stem cell biology and could be useful as a therapeutic modality for canine incurable or intractable diseases, including spinal cord injuries in future regenerative medicine studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Chondrogenesis , Dogs/blood , Fetal Blood/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Neurons/cytology , Osteogenesis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53252

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated if the implantation of allogenic adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) improved neurological function in a canine spinal cord injury model. Eleven adult dogs were assigned to three groups according to treatment after spinal cord injury by epidural balloon compression: C group (no ASCs treatment as control), V group (vehicle treatment with PBS), and ASC group (ASCs treatment). ASCs or vehicle were injected directly into the injured site 1 week after spinal cord injury. Pelvic limb function after transplantation was evaluated by Olby score. Magnetic resonance imaging, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), histopathologic and immunohistichemical examinations were also performed. Olby scores in the ASC group increased from 2 weeks after transplantation and were significantly higher than C and V groups until 8 weeks (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the C and V groups. Nerve conduction velocity based on SEP was significantly improved in the ASC group compared to C and V groups (p < 0.05). Positive areas for Luxol fast blue staining were located at the injured site in the ASC group. Also, GFAP, Tuj-1 and NF160 were observed immunohistochemically in cells derived from implanted ASCs. These results suggested that improvement in neurological function by the transplantation of ASCs in dogs with spinal cord injury may be partially due to the neural differentiation of implanted stem cells.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/cytology , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Neurons/cytology , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation/veterinary , Stem Cells/cytology
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