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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e236-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001059

ABSTRACT

Background@#Lung cancer is associated with significant psychological distress, including fear of progression (FoP). Because insomnia and depression are highly prevalent and associated with FoP, we examined the association between FoP, insomnia, and depression in cancer patients. Furthermore, we tested the mediation effect of cancer-related dysfunctional beliefs about sleep (C-DBS) on this association. @*Methods@#We analyzed data collected from patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer from a single-center randomized controlled study investigating digital healthcare applications. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were collected. In addition, selfreported questionnaires including the Fear of Progression Questionnaire-Short Form, Patients Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), Insomnia Severity Index, and C-DBS were administered. @*Results@#Among the 320 enrolled patients with lung cancer, a regression model showed that FoP was predicted by age (β = −0.13, P = 0.007), PHQ-9 (β = 0.35, P < 0.001), and C-DBS (β = 0.28, P < 0.001). Insomnia did not directly influence FoP, but C-DBS mediated the association. Depression directly influenced FoP, but C-DBS did not mediate this association. @*Conclusion@#Among patients with surgically resected lung cancer, C-DBS mediated the effects of severity of insomnia on FoP. Depression directly influenced FoP, but C-DBS did not influence this association. To reduce FoP among patients with lung cancer, C-DBS should be addressed in the cognitive behavioral therapy module.

2.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 64-74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968979

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the validity of the European Quality of Life-5 dimensions, 3-Level version (EQ-5D-3L) in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) and compared the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these patients with that of the general population in Korea. @*Methods@#Study participants completed several questionnaires, such as the EQ-5D-3L, 12-item short-form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2), Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ), and Pain Numeric Rating Scale (Pain NRS). Spearman’s correlation analyses of the questionnaire results were conducted to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of the EQ-5D-3L. Finally, EQ-5D-3L results from study participants were compared with those from the comparison group of the general population that were match-sampled according to age and sex from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. @*Results@#Spearman’s correlation coefficients between EQ-5D-3L and pain NRS, SF-12v2, and RMQ were statistically significant. The coefficients between the relevant dimensions, such as mobility in the EQ-5D-3L and physical functioning in the SF-12v2, were higher than those between irrelevant ones. Problems reported by study participants in each dimension of EQ-5D-3L showed statistically significant lower scores in pain NRS, PCS, and MCS from the SF-12v2 and RMQ scores. In comparison with the general population, the problems reported in the patient group were statistically higher than those reported by the general population. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that EQ-5D-3L will be useful for patients with OVCF in Korea because it could be valid. The HRQOL of patients with OVCF was very low in all dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L.

3.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 243-252, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926185

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Very limited previous research has investigated the utility weights of prostate-related diseases in the general population in Korea. The purpose of this study was to calculate the utility of prostate-related health states in the Korean general public using the standard gamble (SG) method. @*Methods@#Seven health states for hypothetical prostate cancers, 1 for benign prostate hyperplasia, and 1 for erectile dysfunction were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. In total, 460 responses from the Korean general population were used to analyze the utility of prostate-related health states. Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted, and utility values were measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and SG. Mean utility values were calculated for each prostate-related health state. @*Results@#The mean utility values of prostate cancer derived from SG ranged from 0.281 (metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer) to 0.779 (localized prostate cancer requiring prostatectomy). The utility value of benign prostate hyperplasia was 0.871, and that of erectile dysfunction was 0.812. The utility values obtained using the SG method in all conditions were higher than the values obtained by VAS. There were no significant demographic variables affecting utility values in multivariate analysis. @*Conclusions@#Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation and utility calculation of screening and interventions for prostate-related conditions in the general population.

4.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 234-242, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926184

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 8 Items (HINT-8) in patients with diabetes. HINT-8 is a newly-developed, generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. @*Methods@#Three HRQoL instruments—HINT-8, EuroQoL 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L), and Short Form Health Survey version 2.0 (SF-36v2)—were provided to 300 patients with diabetes visiting a tertiary hospital for follow-up visits in Korea. The HRQoL scores obtained using the HINT-8 were evaluated for subgroups with known differences based on demographics and diabetes-related characteristics (known-group validity). The mean scores of the instruments were compared between groups segmented by their responses to the HINT-8 (discriminatory ability). Correlation coefficients of the HINT-8 with other instruments were calculated (convergent and divergent validity). The Cohen kappa and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were also evaluated (test-retest reliability). @*Results@#The average HINT-8 indexes were lower among women, older, and less-educated subjects. Subjects who did not list any problems on the HINT-8 had significantly higher HRQoL scores than those who did. The correlation coefficients of the HINT-8 with the EQ-5D-5L index and EuroQoL visual analogue scale were 0.715 (p<0.001) and 0.517 (p<0.001), respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HINT-8 index and the scores of 8 domains of the SF-36v2 ranged from 0.478 (p<0.001) to 0.669 (p<0.001). The Cohen kappa values for the HINT-8 ranged from 0.268 to 0.601, and the ICC of the HINT-8 index was 0.800 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.720 to 0.860). @*Conclusions@#This study showed that the HINT-8 is a valid and reliable HRQoL instrument for patients with diabetes.

5.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 213-225, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926180

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how members of the general public in Korea interpret the concept of health, and which dimensions of health are most important to them. We also explored their perceptions of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension (EQ-5D), including the EuroQoL visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). @*Methods@#We conducted face-to-face, in-depth interviews with 20 individuals from the general population, using a semi-structured interview guide. Content analysis was performed with verbatim transcripts and field notes to identify codes and categorize them according to their similarities and associations. @*Results@#In total, 734 different codes were derived and classified into 4 categories. Participants cited the importance of both the mental and physical aspects of health, although they emphasized that the physical aspects appeared to play a larger role in their conceptualization of health. Participants noted that the EQ-5D has the advantage of being composed of 5 dimensions that are simple and contain both physical and mental areas necessary to describe health. However, some of them mentioned the need to add more dimensions of mental health and social health. Participants showed great satisfaction with the visually well-presented EQ-VAS. However, participants opined that the EQ-VAS scores might not be comparable across respondents because of different ways of responding to the scale. @*Conclusions@#While physical health is a fundamental aspect of health, mental and social aspects are also important to Koreans. The content of the EQ-5D broadly matched the attributes of health considered important by Koreans.

6.
Korean Journal of Head and Neck Oncology ; (2): 43-50, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917695

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#Shoulder function is an important aspect of health related quality of life (QOL). Neck dissection impairment index (NDII) is a simple shoulder-specific questionnaire. This study aimed to evaluate the association between QOL and NDII in patients who underwent neck dissection to validate the Korean version of NDII.Materials & Methods: This study enrolled 74 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent neck dissection from December 2013 to April 2014. Patients completed questionnaires on QOL including the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item Core QOL questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and NDII which was translated into Korean. Validity was evaluated by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between NDII and EORTC QLQ-C30. @*Results@#We compared preoperative, postoperative within a week, 1st and 3rd months NDII scores. The total NDII scores were 14.7, 47.4, 33.7 and 34.3 each. Clinical variables including gender, site of primary tumor, performing revision neck dissection, radiotherapy and flap reconstruction were not significantly associated with NDII. However NDII mean score of patients who underwent unilateral neck dissection over 3 levels is most increased after operation. During all periods NDII scores were significantly associated with functioning score. Although other scores are lower correlation than function scores, global health status scores and symptom scores are also correlation with NDII. @*Conclusion@#NDII was valid instrument and can be used not only in the clinical practice to assess shoulder dysfunction but also in the simple instrument to evaluate global QOL in Korea patients with having neck dissection.

7.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 254-263, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Health-Related Quality of Life Instrument with 8 Items (HINT-8) in postoperative breast cancer patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#The study included 300 breast cancer patients visiting a tertiary hospital. We measured health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the HINT-8, the 5-level EQ-5D version (EQ-5D-5L), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B). Discriminatory ability, known-group validity, and convergent validity were assessed. Reliability was evaluated with the Cohen kappa, weighted kappa, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). @*Results@#The EQ-5D-5L indexes (p<0.001) and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) scores (p<0.001) were significantly higher in subjects with no problems in each item of the HINT-8 than in those with problems. The FACT-B total scores were also higher in subjects without problems on the HINT-8. Older age, lower education level, and comorbidities were associated with a lower HINT-8 index. The HINT-8 index was correlated with the EQ-5D-5L index and the EQ VAS, with correlation coefficients of 0.671 (p<0.001) and 0.577 (p<0.001), respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HINT-8 and the FACT-B ranged from 0.390 to 0.714. The ICC was 0.690 (95% confidence interval, 0.580–0.780). @*Conclusion@#The HINT-8 showed appropriate validity for capturing HRQoL in postoperative breast cancer patients.

8.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 293-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900568

ABSTRACT

The study aims to examine the current status and differences in the burden of disease in Korea during 2008-2018. We calculated the burden of disease for Koreans from 2008 to 2018 using an incidence-based approach. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were expressed in units per 100 000 population by adding years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALY calculation results were presented by gender, age group, disease, region, and income level. To explore differences in DALYs by region and income level, we used administrative district and insurance premium information from the National Health Insurance Service claims data. The burden of disease among Koreans showed an increasing trend from 2008 to 2018. By 2017, the burden of disease among men was higher than that among women. Diabetes mellitus, low back pain, and chronic lower respiratory disease were ranked high in the burden of disease; the sum of DALY rates for these diseases accounted for 18.4% of the total burden of disease among Koreans in 2018. The top leading causes associated with a high burden of disease differed slightly according to gender, age group, and income level. In this study, we measured the health status of Koreans and differences in the population health level according to gender, age group, region, and income level. This data can be used as an indicator of health equity, and the results derived from this study can be used to guide community-centered (or customized) health promotion policies and projects, and for setting national health policy goals.

9.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 293-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892864

ABSTRACT

The study aims to examine the current status and differences in the burden of disease in Korea during 2008-2018. We calculated the burden of disease for Koreans from 2008 to 2018 using an incidence-based approach. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were expressed in units per 100 000 population by adding years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALY calculation results were presented by gender, age group, disease, region, and income level. To explore differences in DALYs by region and income level, we used administrative district and insurance premium information from the National Health Insurance Service claims data. The burden of disease among Koreans showed an increasing trend from 2008 to 2018. By 2017, the burden of disease among men was higher than that among women. Diabetes mellitus, low back pain, and chronic lower respiratory disease were ranked high in the burden of disease; the sum of DALY rates for these diseases accounted for 18.4% of the total burden of disease among Koreans in 2018. The top leading causes associated with a high burden of disease differed slightly according to gender, age group, and income level. In this study, we measured the health status of Koreans and differences in the population health level according to gender, age group, region, and income level. This data can be used as an indicator of health equity, and the results derived from this study can be used to guide community-centered (or customized) health promotion policies and projects, and for setting national health policy goals.

10.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 254-263, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895298

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Health-Related Quality of Life Instrument with 8 Items (HINT-8) in postoperative breast cancer patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#The study included 300 breast cancer patients visiting a tertiary hospital. We measured health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the HINT-8, the 5-level EQ-5D version (EQ-5D-5L), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B). Discriminatory ability, known-group validity, and convergent validity were assessed. Reliability was evaluated with the Cohen kappa, weighted kappa, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). @*Results@#The EQ-5D-5L indexes (p<0.001) and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) scores (p<0.001) were significantly higher in subjects with no problems in each item of the HINT-8 than in those with problems. The FACT-B total scores were also higher in subjects without problems on the HINT-8. Older age, lower education level, and comorbidities were associated with a lower HINT-8 index. The HINT-8 index was correlated with the EQ-5D-5L index and the EQ VAS, with correlation coefficients of 0.671 (p<0.001) and 0.577 (p<0.001), respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HINT-8 and the FACT-B ranged from 0.390 to 0.714. The ICC was 0.690 (95% confidence interval, 0.580–0.780). @*Conclusion@#The HINT-8 showed appropriate validity for capturing HRQoL in postoperative breast cancer patients.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 533-540, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832550

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to estimate the progress of insomnia prevalence and incidence over the past several years. Also, this study compared survival rates between individuals with and without insomnia. @*Methods@#The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) from 2002–2013 was used for this study. Prevalent cases of insomnia were defined using ICD-10 codes F51.0 or G47.0, or a prescription of sedatives. Cox’s proportional hazard analysis was conducted to compare survival rates between insomnia patients and people without insomnia. @*Results@#In 2013, there were 46,167 (5.78%) insomnia patients over 20 years old in this cohort. Insomnia was more common among women and the elderly. Annual incidence over the past several years remained steady but the prevalence increased. The survival of insomnia patients was lower than that of people without insomnia, and the hazard ratio for overall mortality was 1.702 (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#This large-scale population-based cohort study provided current epidemiologic indicators of insomnia in the Korean general population.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e199-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831612

ABSTRACT

Background@#The world is currently experiencing a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In Korea, as in other countries, the number of confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 have been rising. This study aimed to calculate the burden of disease due to COVID-19 in Korea. @*Methods@#We used data on confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 between January 20 and April 24, 2020 provided by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the local governments and the public media to determine disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by sex and age. Morbidity was estimated directly among the confirmed, cured, and fatal cases. Disability weights were adopted from previous similar causes on the severity of COVID-19 for the years of life lived with disability (YLDs). The years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated using the standard life expectancy from the 2018 life tables for each sex and age. @*Results@#The YLDs were higher in females (155.2) than in males (105.1), but the YLLs were higher in males (1,274.3) than in females (996.4). The total disease burden attributable to COVID-19 in Korea during the study period, was estimated to be 2,531.0 DALYs, and 4.930 DALYs per 100,000 population. The YLDs and the YLLs constituted 10.3% and 89.7% of the total DALYs, respectively. The DALYs per 100,000 population were highest in people aged ≥ 80 years, followed by those aged 70–79, 60–69, and 50–59 years, but the incidence was the highest in individuals aged 20–29 years. @*Conclusion@#This study provided the estimates of DALYs due to COVID-19 in Korea. Most of the disease burden from COVID-19 was derived from YLL; this indicates that decision-makers should focus and make an effort on reducing fatality for preparing the second wave of COVID-19.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e219-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831585

ABSTRACT

Background@#The present study aimed to update the methodology to estimate cause-specific disability weight (DW) for the calculation of disability adjusted life year (DALY) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) based on the opinion of medical professional experts. Furthermore, the study also aimed to compare and assess the size of DW according to two analytical methods and estimate the most valid DW from the perspective of years lost due to disability and HALE estimation. @*Methods@#A self-administered web-based survey was conducted ranking five causes of disease. A total of 901 participants started the survey and response data of 806 participants were used in the analyses. In the process of rescaling predicted probability to DW on a scale from 0 to 1, two models were used for two groups: Group 1 (physicians and medical students) and Group 2 (nurses and oriental medical doctors). In Model 1, predicted probabilities were rescaled according to the normal distribution of DWs. In Model 2, the natural logarithms of predicted probabilities were rescaled according to the asymmetric distribution of DWs. @*Results@#We estimated DWs for a total of 313 causes of disease in each model and group. The mean of DWs according to the models in each group was 0.490 (Model 1 in Group 1), 0.378 (Model 2 in Group 1), 0.506 (Model 1 in Group 2), and 0.459 (Model 2 in Group 2), respectively. About two-thirds of the causes of disease had DWs of 0.2 to 0.4 in Model 2 in Group 1. In Group 2, but not in Group 1, there were some cases where the DWs had a reversed order of severity. @*Conclusion@#We attempted to calculate DWs of 313 causes of disease based on the opinions of various types of medical professionals using the previous analysis methods as well as the revised analysis method. The DWs from this study can be used to accurately estimate DALY and health life expectancy, such as HALE, in the Korean population.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e300-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831537

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health problem of international concern. It is important to estimate its impact of COVID-19 for health policy decision-making. We estimated the years of life lost (YLLs) due to COVID-19 in high-incidence countries. @*Methods@#We collected the YLLs due to COVID-19 in 30 high-incidence countries as of April 13, 2020 and followed up as of July 14, 2020. Incidence and mortality were collected using each country's formal reports, articles, and other electronic sources. The life expectancy of Japanese females by age and the UN population data were used to calculate YLLs in total and per 100,000. @*Results@#As of April 22, 2020, there were 1,699,574 YLLs due to COVID-19 in 30 high-incidence countries. On July 14, 2020, this increased to 4,072,325. Both on April 22 and July 14, the total YLLs due to COVID-19 was highest in the USA (April 22, 534,481 YLLs; July 14, 1,199,510 YLLs), and the YLLs per 100,000 population was highest in Belgium (April 22, 868.12 YLLs/100,000;July 14, 1,593.72 YLLs/100,000). YLLs due to COVID-19 were higher among males than among females and higher in those aged ≥ 60 years than in younger individuals. Belgium had the highest proportion of YLLs attributable to COVID-19 as a proportion of the total YLLs and the highest disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 population. @*Conclusion@#This study estimated YLLs due to COVID-19 in 30 countries. COVID-19 is a high burden in the USA and Belgium, among males and the elderly. The YLLs are very closely related with the incidence as well as the mortality. This highlights the importance of the early detection of incident case that minimizes severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 fatality.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e60-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#For the Korean Burden of Disease (KBD) 2015 study, we have amended disability weights for causes of disease adapting the methodology of the KBD disability weight 2012 study.@*METHODS@#We conducted a self-administered web-based survey in Korea using ranking five causes of disease. A total of 605 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course performed the survey. We converted the ranked data into paired comparison data and ran a probit regression. The predicted probabilities for each cause of disease were calculated from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. ‘Being dead (1)’ and ‘Full health (0)’ were utilized as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability on a scale from 0 to 1.@*RESULTS@#As a result, disability weights for a total of 289 causes of disease were estimated. In particular, we calculated the disability weights of 60 causes of disease considering severity level. These results show that prejudice about the severity of cause of disease itself can affect the estimation of disability weight, when estimating the disability weight for causes of disease without consideration of severity. Furthermore, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a ranking method which can maximize efficiency of data collection.@*CONCLUSION@#Disability weights from this study can be used to estimate disability adjusted life year and healthy life expectancy. Furthermore, we expected that the use of the ranking method will increase gradually in disability weight studies.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e74-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Duration of type 2 diabetes is clinically important. Duration of morbidity is an independent and critical predictor of developing its complications. This study aims to explore an applicability of a Markov model to estimate the duration of diabetes in the Korean population.@*METHODS@#We constructed the Markov model with two Markov states, diabetes and death, for estimation of duration of diabetes. The cycle of the Markov model was 1 year. Each diabetes onset by 5 years was considered from 30 to 85 years old or above. The endpoint of the Markov was 100 years old. Type 2 diabetes was operationally defined using the 10th revision of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and prescriptions of anti-diabetic drugs from the National Health Insurance Services-National Sample cohort. In each incident and existing prevalence cases, survival probabilities were obtained. Durations of diabetes from the Markov model were compared with those from the DisMod II program. Reductions of life expectancy due to diabetes were defined as differences of life expectancies between diabetic patients and the general public. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted using a cure rate and 95% confidence interval of survival probability.@*RESULTS@#The duration of diabetes gradually decreased with incident age in both genders. In the early 30s, the duration was the largest at 48.9 and 41.9 years in women and men, respectively. In the average incident age group of type 2 diabetes, the late 50s, the reduction of life expectancy due to diabetes was estimated to be about two years in both genders. As annual cure probabilities increased, the durations of diabetes were reduced.@*CONCLUSION@#This study estimated the duration of diabetes using a Markov model. The model seems to work well and diabetes could reduce life expectancy by about 2 years on average. This approach could be useful to estimate the duration of illness, calculate disability-adjusted life years, and conduct economic evaluation studies on interventions for diabetic patients.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e75-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#It is extremely important to objectively take a view of population health to provide useful information to decision makers, health-sector leaders, researchers, and informed citizens. This study aims to examine the burden of disease in Korea as of 2015, and to study how the burden of disease changes with the passage of time.@*METHODS@#We used results from the Korean National Burden of Disease and Injuries Study 2015 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by gender and age groups from 2007 to 2015. DALYs were calculated as the sum of the years of life lost (YLLs) and the years lived with disability (YLDs).@*RESULTS@#In 2015, the burden of disease for Korean people was calculated at 29,476 DALYs per 100,000 population. DALYs caused by low back pain were the highest, followed by diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The burden of disease showed a consistently increasing trend from 2007 to 2015. Although YLLs have been on the decrease since 2011, the increase in YLDs has contributed to the overall rise in DALYs. The DALYs per 100,000 population in 2015 increased by 28.1% compared to 2007.@*CONCLUSION@#As for the diseases for which the burden of disease is substantially increasing, it is needed to establish appropriate policies in a timely manner. The results of this study are expected to be the basis for prioritizing public health and health care policies in Korea.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e80-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Disease burden can be represented by health-related parameters such as disability-adjusted life years and economic burden. Economic burden is an important index, as it estimates the maximum possible cost reduction if a disease is prevented. This study aimed to determine the economic burden of 238 diseases and 22 injuries in Korea in 2015.@*METHODS@#Economic burden was estimated with a human resources approach from a social perspective, and direct and indirect costs were calculated from insurance claims data and a cause of death database. Direct costs were divided into medical costs (including hospital admission, outpatient visit, and medication use) and nonmedical costs (including transportation and caregiver costs). Indirect costs from lost productivity, either from the use of healthcare service or premature death, were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In 2015, the estimated economic burden was USD 133.7 billion (direct: USD 65.5 billion, indirect: USD 68.2 billion). The total cost of communicable diseases was USD 16.0 billion (11.9%); non-communicable diseases, USD 92.3 billion (69.1%); and injuries, USD 25.4 billion (19.0%). Self-harm had the highest costs (USD 8.3 billion), followed by low back pain (LBP, USD 6.6 billion). For men, self-harm had the highest cost (USD 7.1 billion), while LBP was the leading cost (USD 3.7 billion) for women.@*CONCLUSION@#A high percentage of Korea's total socioeconomic disease burden is due to chronic diseases; however, unnoticed conditions such as infectious diseases, injuries, and LBP are high in certain age groups and differ by gender, emphasizing the need for targeted social interventions to manage and prevent disease risk factors.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e81-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Burden of disease can be used to prioritize the healthcare budget allocation. We analyzed the research and development (R&D) budget of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in 2018 and compared the results with those of the 2015 Korean National Burden of Disease (KNBD) study.@*METHODS@#The 2018 MOHW R&D Project integrated implementation plan was used to analyze the R&D budget of the MOHW. The budget was allocated according to the KNBD disease group and according to the budget lines. The allocated budget was compared with the economic burden and the disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2015. Also, for budget targets for risk factors, DALYs of attributable risk factors were compared with corresponding budgets.@*RESULTS@#In 2018, the MOHW major R&D budget of USD 435.1 million accounted for 3% of the total government budget. Within the disease specific R&D budget, 35.9% was allocated to communicable disease groups, 64.1% to non-communicable diseases, and 0% to injury and violence. Among level 2 disease groups, neoplasm was ranked first. Among risk factors, climate change and behavioral risk were targeted for R&D.@*CONCLUSIONS@#It would be difficult to say that current R&D allocations focus to minimize the burden of disease. A mismatch was observed between the R&D budget and the burden of disease in terms of economic burden and DALYs. There was a similar finding for risk factors R&D. A novel approach for allocating government R&D funding that is based on the goal of minimizing the disease burden in the Korean population should be considered.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e88-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) means life expectancy (LE) reflecting health-related quality of life and is one of the indicators of healthy LE. We determined the trends in QALE in Korea by age, gender, educational level, and subregion from 2005 to 2013.@*METHODS@#We applied the Sullivan method to estimate QALE. We calculated QALE from 2005 to 2013 by gender and QALE for 2005 and 2010 by educational level at the national level. Furthermore, we estimated QALE for 2005, 2008, and 2011 by subregion according to metropolitan and provincial levels.@*RESULTS@#Population health in Korea measured by LE and QALE at age 0 increased steadily from 2005 to 2013. Annual percent changes of LE and QALE in men were 0.52 and 0.73, respectively (P value < 0.05), and those in women were 0.47 and 0.71, respectively (P value < 0.05). Koreans with a higher educational level had longer LE and QALE than those with a lower educational level, but the differences in LE and QALE according to educational level narrowed from 2005 to 2010. The LE and QALE at age 0 for each of the 16 subnational regions in 2011 increased compared to 2005, but there was still a difference of up to 4.57 years in QALE between subnational regions.@*CONCLUSION@#We showed that QALE could be easily calculated and be an appropriate measure for tracking the overall population's health level. The results from this study are expected to aid the Ministry of Health of Republic of Korea in setting up a goal for the National Health Plan.

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