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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 939-951, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929336

ABSTRACT

The lung is one of the most common sites for cancer metastasis. Collagens in the lung provide a permissive microenvironment that supports the colonization and outgrowth of disseminated tumor cells. Therefore, down-regulating the production of collagens may contribute to the inhibition of lung metastasis. It has been suggested that miR-29 exhibits effective anti-fibrotic activity by negatively regulating the expression of collagens. Indeed, our clinical lung tumor data shows that miR-29a-3p expression negatively correlates with collagen I expression in lung tumors and positively correlates with patients' outcomes. However, suitable carriers need to be selected to deliver this therapeutic miRNA to the lungs. In this study, we found that the chemotherapy drug cisplatin facilitated miR-29a-3p accumulation in the exosomes of lung tumor cells, and this type of exosomes exhibited a specific lung-targeting effect and promising collagen down-regulation. To scale up the preparation and simplify the delivery system, we designed a lung-targeting liposomal nanovesicle (by adjusting the molar ratio of DOTAP/cholesterol-miRNAs to 4:1) to carry miR-29a-3p and mimic the exosomes. This liposomal nanovesicle delivery system significantly down-regulated collagen I secretion by lung fibroblasts in vivo, thus alleviating the establishment of a pro-metastatic environment for circulating lung tumor cells.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the virus in children with acute viral diarrhea in Changdu of Tibet, China.@*METHODS@#Fecal specimens were collected from 96 children with acute diarrhea who visited the People's Hospital of Changdu, Tibet, from November 2018 to November 2020 and were tested for adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus. Gene sequencing was performed for the genotypes of these viruses.@*RESULTS@#The overall positive rate of the five viruses was 39% (37/96), among which astrovirus had the highest positive rate of 17%, followed by norovirus (9%), rotavirus (8%), adenovirus (7%), and sapovirus (5%). There was no significant difference in the positive rate of the five viruses among different age groups (P>0.05). Only the positive rate of astrovirus was significantly different among the four seasons (P<0.05). For adenovirus, 6 children had F41 type and 1 had C2 type; for norovirus, 6 had GⅠ.3 type, 1 had GⅠ.7 type, 1 had GⅡ.3 type, and 2 had GⅡ.4 Sydney_2012 type; HAstrV-1 type was observed in all children with astrovirus infection; for sapovirus, 1 child each had sporadic GⅠ.2, GⅠ.6, and GⅡ.1 sapovirus and 2 children had unknown type; 6 children had rotavirus G9[P8].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Astrovirus and norovirus are important pathogens in children with acute diarrhea in Changdu, Tibet. The positive rate of adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus is not associated with age, and only the positive rate of astrovirus has obvious seasonality. F41 type is the dominant genotype of adenovirus; GⅠ.3 is the dominant genotype of norovirus; HAstrV-1 is the dominant genotype of astrovirus; sporadic GⅠ.2, GⅠ.6, and GⅡ.1 are the dominant genotypes of sapovirus; G9[P8] is the dominant genotype of rotavirus.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Tibet/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Animals , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927949

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the detoxification effects of different processing methods on the cardiotoxicity induced by radix Tripterygium wilfordii, and preliminarily explore the detoxification mechanism via the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) pathway. The raw and processed products [stir-fried product, product stir-fried with Lysimachiae Herba(JQC), product stir-fried with Phaseoli Radiati Semen(LD), product stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba(BS), product stir-fried with Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(GC), and product stir-fried with vinegar(CZ)] of radix T. wilfordii were administrated to mice by gavage at a dose of 2 g·kg~(-1)(based on crude drugs) for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, we measured the serum biochemical indexes of mice to evaluate the detoxification effect. Furthermore, we determined the expression of key proteins of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in mouse heart tissue by Western blot and some oxidation/antioxidation-related indexes by corresponding kits to explore the detoxification mechanism. The administration of the raw product elevated the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde, a product of cardiac lipid peroxidation(P<0.01), down-regulated the protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1(P<0.01), and reduced the levels of total superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase(P<0.01). However, after the administration of the products stir-fried with JQC, LD, BS, GC, and CZ, the abnormalities of the above indexes induced by the raw product were recovered(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In particular, the product stir-fried with JQC showed the best performance. Taken all together, the cardiotoxicity induced by radix T. wilfordii could be attenuated by stir-frying with JQC, LD, BS, GC, and CZ, and the stir-frying with JQC showed the best detoxification effect. The mechanism might be associated with the cardiac antioxidant defense and oxidative damage mitigation mediated by the up-regulated Nrf2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiotoxicity , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Tripterygium
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927893

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)/eukaryotic extension factor kinase 2 (eEF2K) signaling pathway on the process of pulmonary fibrosis through in vivo experiments, and find new ideas for clinical treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: The pulmonary fibrosis model of C57BL/6 male mice was induced by bleomycin with intratracheal injection at the dose of 2 mg/kg. After 14 days of modeling, animals were divided into model group, negative inhibition group and inhibition group (n=5 for each group), and control group was not processed. The inhibition group was treated with TDZD-8 (4 mg/kg) after modeling, the negative inhibition group was given DMSO solution after modeling, and the samples were collected after 28 days. Hematoxylin-eosin staining method was used to detect lung fibrosis in mice and scored according to Ashcroft scale. Expression levels of GSK3β, p-GSK3β, eEF2K, p-eEF2K (Ser70, Ser392, Ser470), precursor protein of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (pro-MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), collagen I (Col I), collagen Ⅲ (Col Ⅲ) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with control group, the fibrosis score was up-regulated, the expression levels of GSK3β, p-GSK3β, p-eEF2K (Ser70, Ser392, Ser470), pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, Col I, Col Ⅲ and α-SMA were increased, while that of eEF2K was decreased in model group (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the fibrosis score, expression levels of GSK3β, p-GSK3β, p-eEF2K (Ser70, Ser392, Ser470), pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, Col I, Col Ⅲ and α-SMA were decreased, but the expression level of eEF2K was increased in inhibition group (P<0.05). Conclusion: GSK3β can activate eEF2K by phosphorylation at the sites of Ser70, Ser392 and Ser470, increase the contents of fibrosis indicators, promote the formation of pulmonary fibrosis, and aggravate lung tissue lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen , Collagen Type I , Elongation Factor 2 Kinase/metabolism , Eukaryota/metabolism , Fibrosis , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Signal Transduction
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1235-1244, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924734

ABSTRACT

The advantages of local administration are as follow: release drugs directly at the lesion, increase the drug concentration in lesion location and reduce the side effects of systemic administration. Thermosensitive gel is one of typical local administration agents. It exhibits the different physical characteristics with the change of temperature. It is sol-gel at low temperature or storage temperature, while when the temperature rises to the transition temperature or near the body temperature, it is semisolid gel with a certain viscoelasticity, and can recover rapidly. It can enhance the local adhesion, which prolongs the local retention time of drugs. As a result, thermosensitive gel can control and display the release of drugs, which can significantly improve the bioavailability of drugs. This review summarizes the characteristics of thermosensitive gel, thermosensitive materials, and its application in different parts: nasal cavity, eye, vagina, periodontal, skin, tumor and joint cavity, based on clinical needs.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923779

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the health-seeking behaviors of imported malaria cases after returning to China, and to investigate the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis, so as to provide the scientific evidence for early identification of imported malaria cases and prevention of severe cases development and secondary transmission. Methods The individual demographic features, and the disease onset and the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China. The characteristics of health-seeking behaviors and epidemiological features of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed, and the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases after returning to China were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 244 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and the time to initial diagnosis of the cases were 1-12 days, with mean time of (1.53 ± 1.65) days, with median time of one day. The highest number of malaria cases seeking healthcare services were found on the day of developing primary symptoms (76 cases, 31.1%), followed by on the second day (68 cases, 27.9%), on the third day (46 cases, 18.9%), and 54 cases (22.1%) received initial diagnosis 3 days following presence of primary symptoms, including 3 cases with initial diagnosis at more than one week. High proportions of imported malaria cases with a delay in the time to initial diagnosis were seen in migrant workers who returned to China in January (14 cases, 5.7%) and December (13 cases, 5.3%) and those aged between 41 and 50 years (32 cases, 13.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed relative short time to initial diagnosis among imported malaria cases returning to China on March [odds ratio (OR) = 0.16, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.03, 0.85)] and those with a history of overseas malaria parasite infections [OR = 0.36, P = 0.001, 95% CI: (0.19, 0.67)]. Conclusions Timely health-seeking behaviors should be improved among imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, patients with a history of overseas malaria infections require faster health-seeking activities.

8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 350-354, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923103

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effects and patterns of cumulative ecological risk on currrent and 6 month follow up healthy lifestyle among college students.@*Methods@#A total of 1 156 freshmen and sophomores students randomly selected from 3 universities in Hebei Province were administered with College Students Health Lifestyle Scale and the Cumulative Ecological Risk Scale in November 2020 and May 2021 respectively. SPSS 24.0 statistical software was used for hierarchical regression analysis.@*Results@#Cumulative ecological risk was both negatively associated with current healthy lifestyle ( β =-0.29, P <0.01), and healthy lifestyle 6 month after ( β =-0.11, P <0.01). The effects of cumulative ecological risks on current healthy lifestyle showed non linear pattern, with healthy lifestyle rapidly decline after accumulated more than 4 factors. The effects of umulative ecological risks on 6 month follow up healthy lifestyle showed a linear pattern. No moderating effect of gender was observed in the linear relationship between the cumulative ecological risk and 6 month follow up healthy lifestyle( β =-0.02, P >0.05), however, significant moderating effects of gender was found in the nonlinear relationship between cumulative ecological risk and current healthy lifestyle( β =0.12, P < 0.01).@*Conclusion@#Cumulative ecological risk is negatively associated with healthy lifestyle of college students cross sectionally and longitudinally, in a non linear and linear association pattern, respectively. Gender plays a moderating effect on the cross sectional asscociation between cumulative ecological risk and healthy lifestyle.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 456-464, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873773

ABSTRACT

Biomarkers are defined as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can help the decision-making process for new drug research and development, provide guidance for the early clinical development of candidate drugs and reduce the risk of failure. Therefore, as a key factor in the development of new drugs, the discovery and research on biomarkers has increased the interest of the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Guidelines on the development and use of biomarkers have been issued by drug regulatory agencies including the EMA, FDA and ICH. Biomarkers are encouraged to be used to facilitate drug development by these relevant regulatory agencies, and also to be used to monitor the safety and efficacy of drugs in post-marketing drug surveillance. The application of biomarkers is encouraged at different stages of a drug's life cycle, including at the stage of basic science research and target identification, prototype design or discovery, preclinical development, clinical development, FDA filling/approval and launch, as well as post-marketing was reviewed. The identification, development, and application of biomarkers in pharmaceutical research is discussed.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907962

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the prognostic value of serum levels of miR-320 in sepsis children complicated with acute kidney injury (AKI).Methods:A total of 158 sepsis children with complicated with AKI who were admitted to Hainan Women and Children′s Medical Center from January 2017 to June 2019 were divided into survival group (105 cases) and death group (53 cases) according to their 28-day survival.Serum levels of miR-320, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and serum creatinine (Scr) were detected in the two groups.Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of death in children with sepsis complicated with AKI.The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to analyze the value of serum levels of miR-320, NGAL, KIM-1 and Scr in predicting the death of children with sepsis complicated with AKI.The correlation between serum levels of miR-320 and NGAL, KIM-1 and Scr was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Results:The serum levels of miR-320 (1.28±0.47 vs. 0.54±0.12), NGAL [(537.40±48.26) mg/L vs. (285.60±29.40) mg/L], KIM-1 [(26.80±5.72) μg/ L vs. (16.35±3.17) μg/L] and Scr[(573.70±105.46) μmol/L vs. (390.64±74.38) μmol/L] in the death group were significantly higher than those in the survival group (all P<0.001). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that serum levels of miR-320 ( OR=2.280, 95% CI: 1.483-4.380), NGAL ( OR=2.753, 95% CI: 1.826-5.227), KIM-1 ( OR=1.985, 95% CI: 1.274-3.518) and Scr ( OR=1.714, 95% CI: 1.105-2.986) were independent risk factors for death in sepsis children with AKI (all P<0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (0.952, 95% CI: 0.894-0.990) of serum miR-320, NGAL, KIM-1 and Scr levels combined to predict the death of children with sepsis and AKI was the largest, with a high sensitivity and specificity of 95.8% and 90.6%.Correlation analysis showed that the expression level of serum miR-320 in the death group was positively correlated with NGAL, KIM-1 and Scr ( r=0.874, 0.830, 0.702, all P<0.01). Conclusions:Serum levels of miR-320 are significantly increased in sepsis children with AKI, which is an independent risk factor for death in sepsis children with AKI.The combination of NGAL, KIM-1 and Scr levels has important value in predicting the prognosis of children with AKI.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3268-3276, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906841

ABSTRACT

Cryptotanshinone (CPT), an active ingredient with the inhibitory effect on brain glioma cells, is trapped with poor solubility and low tumor permeability. Therefore, it is urgent to design nano drug delivery systems characterized with deep penetration and accurate targeting. In the present study, tLyp-1 modified liposomes loaded with CPT (tLipo/CPT) was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. Peptide tLyp-1 which targeting tumor angiogenesis and neuropilin receptors (NRP) was modified on surface of CPT liposomes, with the aim of active targeting brain glioma cells and further release CPT precisely. The size and polymer dispersity index (PDI) of tLipo/CPT were (162.2 ± 14.6) nm and 0.24 ± 0.03. The optimal molar ratio of tLyp-1 modified on CPT liposomes was 0.5% determined by intracellular fluorescence parameters. The morphology displayed a smooth sphericity structure as determined by transmission electron microscope. Efficiency of CPT encapsulated in tLipo/CPT was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The encapsulation efficiency of CPT was (70.06 ± 7.22) %. Liposomes modified with tLyp-1 peptide (tLipo) were internalized more than liposomes not modified with tLyp-1 (Lipo) by GL261 cells. Fluorescence intensity of tLipo in GL261 cells increased 40% than that of Lipo. Furthermore, we proved that the intake of tLipo/CPT in GL261 cells was mediated by NRP-1 receptor. MTT analysis indicated that tLipo/CPT significantly inhibit the proliferation of GL261 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 5.70 μmol·L-1. In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model experiment indicated that tLipo/CPT could penetration across BBB. Moreover, in vivo fluorescence biodistribution study indicated tail vein injection of DiR labeled tLipo after 0.5 h, DiR fluorescence could be observed in the brain of mice. Even after 24 h, DiR fluorescence still was observed in the brain. Our research certified that tLipo/CPT can penetrate the BBB and show effect of anti-glioma by inhibiting the proliferation of GL261 cells. The animal experiment was carried out in accordance with protocol evaluated and approved by the Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906238

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of different extracts of Lysimachiae Herba on the main toxicity induced by Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma. Method:Ninety male SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into 9 groups according to their body weight,control group, Lysimachiae Herba water extract group, Lysimachiae Herba 30% ethanol extract group, Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma group, Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma combined with Lysimachiae Herba water extract group, Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma combined with Lysimachiae Herba 30% ethanol extract group, Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma combined with Lysimachiae Herba 60% ethanol extract group, Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma combined with Lysimachiae Herba 95% ethanol extract group and Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma combined with Lysimachiae Herba ethyl acetate extract group. The dosage of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma and Lysimachiae Herba were 2,1 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> based on crude drugs, respectively. The control group was given an equal volume of solvent, and each group was given by gavage for 14 consecutive days. The blood and liver tissues were taken 24 hours after the last administration. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum biochemical indexes and liver lipid peroxidation/antioxidant indexes in mice. Meanwhile, principal component analysis was used to evaluate the attenuating effect and the mechanism of Lysimachiae Herba extract on toxicity of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma. Result:Compared with control group, Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma caused the levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartic acid amino transferase(AST),alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in serum of mice, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver, and comprehensive score of toxicity (Z value) produced by the above four indexes increased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD),glutathione-peroxidase (GPX),glutathione-S transferase (GST) decreased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01) in liver. Compared with Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma group, after intervention with extracts of two solvents (water, 30% ethanol) of Lysimachiae Herba, the levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP and liver MDA were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the levels of liver T-SOD, GPX and GST were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). After intervention with extracts of two solvents (60% ethanol, 95% ethanol) of Lysimachiae Herba, the levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and liver GPX levels were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). After the intervention with ethyl acetate extract of Lysimachiae Herba, only the level of serum AST was significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05) and the level of GPX was significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05). After the intervention with extracts of different solvents (water, 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol, 95% ethanol, ethyl acetate) of Lysimachiae Herba, it can significantly reduce the comprehensive score of toxicity (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The overall decline rates of toxicity were 127.5%, 113.4%, 98.1%, 56.3% and 31.0% respectively. Among them, the toxicity reduction rate of the extracts with water as a solvent was 14.1%, 29.4%, 71.2%, 96.5% higher than those of other solvent extracts with ethanol. Conclusion:The extracts of different solvents (water, 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol, 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Lysimachiae Herba can reverse the toxicity induced by Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma in varying degrees. Among them, water and 30% ethanol are the best solvents for detoxification, especially water as the extraction solvent, and with the increase of ethanol content or fat solubility of extraction solvent, the detoxification shows a downward trend.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906160

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a great treasure house, exhibiting unique advantages in the treatment of some difficult and critical diseases. The incidence rate of membranous nephropathy has increased year by year in recent years, and has become the first cause of primary glomerular diseases. However, its pathogenesis is not clear. Modern medicine often uses immunosuppressive therapy, but it often faces the problems of high side effects and high recurrence rate. The China Association of Chinese Medicine (CACM) invited clinical experts of TCM and western medicine to fully discuss membranous nephropathy, which was later confirmed to be one of the clinical diseases responding specifically to TCM. Apart from summarizing the pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis and treatment of membranous nephropathy in both TCM and western medicine, this paper also detailed TCM cognition, syndrome differentiation, and therapeutic schemes of membranous nephropathy, aiming to improve the clinical remission rate of membranous nephropathy and provide reference for its clinical treatment.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905061

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Shaofu Zhuyutang on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) /antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway in blood vessels by establishing the model of rats with cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome, and to explore the protective effect and mechanism of Shaofu Zhuyutang on vascular endothelial injury. Method:The 50 SPF rats were randomly divided into high dose group (4.8 g·kg-1), middle dose group (2.4 g·kg-1), low dose group (1.2 g·kg-1), model group and normal group (ten of each group). The rat model of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome was established by subcutaneous injection of epinephrine hydrochloride combined with ice bath. At the same time of modeling, the drug was administered by gavage. After 28 days of continuous administration, the hemorheology indexes were detected by automatic hemorheology instrument. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET)-1, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH-Px), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF) in serum were determined by ELISA. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the endothelial injury of vascular tissue of thoracic aorta. The protein expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in vascular tissue of thoracic aorta was detected by Western blot. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR)was used to observe the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA in vascular tissue of thoracic aorta. Result:Compared with the blank group, model group rats whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.01), vWF, ICAM 1, VCAM 1 content increased significantly (P<0.01), NO, SOD, gsh-px levels decreased significantly (P<0.01), significantly increased the content of ET-1(P<0.01), thoracic aorta vascular tissue Nrf2, HO-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased (P<0.01), Nrf2 protein expression in the cell nucleus increased significantly (P<0.05), The protein expression level of Nrf2 in cytoplasm was significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the protein expression level of HO-1 was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the whole blood viscosity (high and middle cut), plasma viscosity, were significantly reduced in high and meduim-dose Shaofu Zhuyutang groups(P<0.05,P<0.01). The levels of vWF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ET-1 in serum were significantly reduced (P<0.05,P<0.01), NO, SOD and GSH-Px increased significantly (P<0.05,P<0.01). The pathological changes such as hyperplasia, swelling and shedding of endothelial cells of thoracic aorta, rupture of internal elastic membrane and disorder of smooth muscle arrangement were improved. The expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1 protein and gene were significantly increased in vascular tissue of thoracic aorta (P<0.01). Conclusion:Shaofu Zhuyutang has a protective effect on vascular endothelial injury in rats with cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome. The mechanism of action is related to the activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which leading to the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the expression of adhesion factors.

15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1330-1333, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the serological detection characteristics and antibody specific distribution of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) caused by irregular antibodies through retrospective case analysis.@*METHODS@#A total of 3 047 suspected cases of HDN were submitted by the Neonatal Department of our hospital from January 2014 to December 2019. Non ABO-HDN cases confirmed in our laboratory were taken as the research objects, while some cases of ABO-HDN were randomly selected as control. Disease-causing antibody specificity, serological detection characteristics, total bilirubin change trend and gender ratio of non ABO-HDN patients were explored.@*RESULTS@#Sixty-seven cases of non ABO-HDN were confirmed from the suspected cases of HDN, Among which 45 males and 22 females were detected with the positive rate 1.48% and 0.72%, respectively. The mothers of 65 cases had two or more pregnancies. The detected irregular antibodies were mainly involved with Rh system, MNS system, Kidd system and Lewis system, among which Rh system accounted for 88.07% of the total antibody detection rate. Compared with that of ABO-HDN patients, the total bilirubin of non ABO-HDN patients developed more rapidly with a higher peak and a longer duration (P<0.001). In terms of serological detection, the positive rate of non ABO-HDN direct antibody test was 97.01%, which was higher than 47.00% of ABO-HDN (P<0.001), and the agglutination strength was often ≥ 2+, but there were still weak positive or negative cases of direct antibody test.@*CONCLUSION@#Non ABO-HDN caused by irregular antibodies mostly occurs in fetuses whose mothers experience multiple pregnancies, and the number of males is more than females. The irregular antibodies detected are mainly attributed to Rh system. The peak value of bilirubin in non ABO-HDN patients is higher and lasts longer than that in ABO-HDN patients. Direct antiglobulin test may be used to roughly distinguish ABO-HDN from non ABO-HDN.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Blood Group Incompatibility , Coombs Test , Erythroblastosis, Fetal , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887951

ABSTRACT

NRT1 family proteins play an important roles for absorbing and transporting of nitrate in different plants. In order to identify the NRT1 family genes of Rehmannia glutinosa, this study used 11 NRT1 homologous proteins of Arabidopsis as probe sequences and aligned with the transcriptome data of R. glutinosa by using NCBI BLASTN software. Resulting there were 18 NRT1 proteins were identified in R. glutinosa. On basis of this, a series of the molecular characteristics of R. glutinosa NRT1 proteins including the conserved domains, the transmembrane structure, the subcellular location and phylogenetic features were in detail analyzed. At same time, it were systematically analyzed that the temporal and spatial expression patterns and characteristics of R. glutinosa NRT1 family genes in response to different stress factors. The results indicated that 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 family genes with the length of coding region from 1 260 bp to 1 806 bp, encoded proteins ranging from 419 to 601 amino acids, and all of they owned the domains of typical peptide transporter with 7 to 12 transmembrane domains. These R. glutinosa NRT1 family proteins mostly were found to locate on cellular plasma membrane, and belonged to the hydrophobic proteins. Furthermore, the evolutionary analysis found that the 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 protein family could be divided into two subfamilies, of which 14 NRT1 family genes might occur the positive selection, and 4 genes occur the passivation selection during the evolution process of R. glutinosa. In addition the expression analysis showed that 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 family genes have the distinct expression patterns in different tissues of R. glutinosa, and their expression levels were also obvious difference in response to various stress. These findings infield that 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 family proteins might have obviously different functional roles in nitrate transport of R. glutinosa. In conclusion, this study lays a solid theoretical foundation for clarifying the absorption and transport molecular mechanism of N element during R. glutinosa growth and development, and at same time for deeply studying the molecular function of R. glutinosa NRT1 proteins in absorption and transport of nitrate.


Subject(s)
Anion Transport Proteins , Membrane Transport Proteins , Nitrates , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Rehmannia/genetics , Transcriptome
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1460-1469, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887078

ABSTRACT

The development of printing ink is a challenge for binder jetting 3D printed preparations, which directly determines the quality of the printed product. This study adopted a 23 full-factor Design of Experiment (DoE) with three central points to optimize the printing ink composition of levetiracetam 3D printed dispersible tablet based on the concept of Quality by Design. Firstly, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30, glycerin and polysorbate 20 as independent variables based on 40% (v/v) isopropanol aqueous solution, and weight variation, hardness, friability and dispersion uniformity of the printed tablets were used as dependent variables. Then obtained the design space of the printing ink prescription by DoE model analysis, and the response optimizer was used to obtain the optimal printing ink prescription: isopropanol aqueous solution containing 0.1% (w/w) polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 and 4.0% (w/w) glycerin. The jetting mechanism and wettability of the printing ink were analyzed, and different strengths of personalized 3D printed tablets were prepared and characterized, which verified the rationality of the printing ink formulation. This study provided a reference for the development of printing ink for binder jetting 3D printed preparations.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1921-1926, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887006

ABSTRACT

In this study, a rat morphine drug discrimination model with a fixed ratio (FR) of 10 (FR10) was established using different methods to explore which methods can shorten the modeling time and test the dose-response relationship and median effective dose (ED50) value. Animal welfare and experimental procedures are in accordance with the provision of the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanghai InnoStar Bio-tech Co., Ltd. Forty rats were initially shaped to press lever under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement. The animals that were successfully trained under a FR10 schedule of food reinforcement were divided into two groups, namely the single-lever + double-lever training group 1 and the double-lever training group 2. In each group, rats were trained to discriminate morphine at 5.6 mg·kg-1 from saline by the intraperitoneal route. After training, different doses of morphine were used to substitute for training dose of morphine, the dose-response curve for morphine were identified in rats, and the ED50 value was calculated. The results showed that, in food training phase: 34 rats successfully entered the discrimination training during food training; in discrimination training phase: 14 animals in group 1 met the discrimination training standard for the first time, which took about (40.71 ± 2.93) days, and there were 13 animals in group 2 that met the discrimination training criteria for the first time, and it took about (51.15 ± 2.55) days. It can be seen that the method of single-lever + double-lever training is better than single-lever training, and the difference is significant compared with group 1 (P ˂ 0.05); in generalization test phase: there are 17 rats completed morphine generalization test, and the percentages of morphine-lever responses produced by the generalization test of different doses of morphine (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 5.6, and 10 mg·kg-1) were (9.56 ± 3.13) %, (9.01 ± 5.83) %, (13.82 ± 7.95) %, (29.04 ± 10.13) %, (41.70 ± 10.65) %, (85.36 ± 7.16) %, (94.56 ± 2.76) %, respectively. The results showed that the discriminative stimulative effect induced by morphine dose between 0-10 mg·kg-1 increased in a dose-dependent manner, producing a good dose-response curve, and the ED50 value of morphine was 4.74 mg·kg-1 by linear fitting. The above results showed that, the FR10 morphine drug discrimination model has been successfully established using different methods; the single-lever + double-lever training method is better than the single-lever training, and can relatively shorten the discrimination training cycle.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1155-1162, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886984

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish the design space of the key processes for drop-on-powder 3D printing based on design of experiment (DoE). By utilizing Minitab, an experimental scheme with three factors, two levels and three center points was designed to analyze the factors that significantly affected the tablet quality attributes. Furthermore, the factor interactions were analyzed using Minitab. subsequently, the computer aided drafting (CAD) software was used to adjust the model volume with fixed radius/height ratio (r/h = 1.25) and establish a linear regression equation between model volume and dose. As a result, the drug dose could be controlled in a flexible manner. The finally determined process parameters were: ink-jet level is 12, layer thickness is 150 μm, and the X-axis printing head speed of 635 mm·s-1. Regression equation between drug content (y) and model volume (x) was y = 0.062 x - 0.582 7 (R2 = 0.999 9) showing good linear relationship. This indicated that robust and feasible process parameters were obtained through DoE, and the preparation of personalized-dose tablets was realized with good reproducibility.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886650

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the relationship between breastfeeding knowledge, self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding behavior among mothers of one-month old babies. Methods:Random sampling method was conducted for choosing 5 out of 13 community service health centers in Jiading district of Shanghai. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among the mothers. Results:A total of 456 valid questionnaires were received, the full score of breastfeeding knowledge was set at 60, with an average of 47.17±5.65, ranging from 12 to 60. The full score of self-efficacy was set at 70, with an average of 47.70±14.48, ranging from 14 to 70. The exclusive breastfeeding rate of one-month old infants was 55.3%(252/456). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that mothers with higher scores of breastfeeding knowledge had significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=1.717, 95%CI 1.034-2.851, P=0.037). Those with higher scores of breastfeeding self-efficacy also had significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=5.736, 95%CI 3.455-9.522, P=0.001). Conclusions:The breastfeeding knowledge and self-efficacy of mothers of one-month old babies were significantly associated with the rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Medical staff should strengthen the delivery and cultivation of breastfeeding knowledge and skills for mothers to improve breastfeeding self-efficacy, and ultimately promote the rate of exclusive breastfeeding.

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