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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 513-517, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To provide a reference for the definition of the legal attributes of the provincial Chinese herbal pieces processing norms and the improvement of legal expression for the drug standards in Drug Administration Law. METHODS Based on the legal evolution of local drug standards in China, the composition of national drug standards for Chinese herbal pieces and the composition of current provincial Chinese herbal pieces processing norms were analyzed; at the same time, based on the method of legal interpretation, the legal connotation of the provincial Chinese herbal medicine processing norms in Drug Administration Law was investigated. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS In the practice of drug supervision, the provincial Chinese herbal pieces processing norms are essentially local drug standards. The newly revised Drug Administration Law defines the drug standards specifically, but does not stipulate the legal attribute of drug standards for the provincial Chinese herbal pieces processing norms, and there are certain legislative technical defects. It is suggested that when amending the Drug Administration Law, the legal attributes of the drug standards of the provincial Chinese herbal medicine processing norms should be clarified.

2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5957-5964, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008793

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of Ruyi Zhenbao Pills in the treatment of osteoarthritis, aiming to clarify its clinical advantages and promote rational drug use and related policy transformation. Following the relevant standards in Guidelines for the Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs in Clinical Practice and Technical Specifications for the Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Chinese Patent Medicine, comprehensive research and related data on Ruyi Zhenbao Pills in the treatment of osteoarthritis were collected in the dimensions of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) cha-racteristics(referred to as the "6+1" dimensions). Through evidence-based medicine, questionnaire surveys, health technology assessment, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, and other methods, a multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0 software were used to comprehensively evaluate the clinical value of Ruyi Zhenbao Pills. Spontaneous reporting system data on adverse reactions and literature data indicate that the adverse reactions of Ruyi Zhenbao Pills are mostly general adverse reactions, with no reports of se-rious adverse reactions. The known risks are small, and its safety is rated as class A. It has been shown to effectively relieve joint pain and restore joint function in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, more high-quality, large-sample randomized controlled trials are needed to further validate its effectiveness, which is rated as class B. There is evidence supporting its economic viability, and its economic is rated as class B. It demonstrates good clinical innovation, innovative enterprise service system, and industrial innovation, and innovation is rated as class A. Medical professionals and patients have a favorable perception of the suitability of Ruyi Zhenbao Pills, and further improvement can be made in terms of convenience of administration and promotion to facilitate rational drug use by healthcare professionals and patients. Suitability is rated as class B. The drug has a favorable price level, availability, and affordability, and accessibility is rated as class A. Ruyi Zhenbao Pills are a classic Tibetan medicinal prescription with excellent TCM theoretical characteristics. However, further research is needed on its use in human studies. TCM characteristics are rated as class B. Based on the evaluation results of the "6+1" dimensions, the comprehensive clinical evaluation is rated as grade B. Ruyi Zhenbao Pills have good clinical value in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and it is recommended to undergo the necessary procedures for conditional transformation into a policy for the management of essential clinical drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Nonprescription Drugs , Drugs, Essential , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4493-4507, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008704

ABSTRACT

Meta-analysis and integrative bioinformatics were employed to comprehensively study the efficacy, safety, and mechanism of Huangkui Capsules in treating chronic kidney disease(CKD). CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Huangkui Capsules for CKD from inception to January 3, 2023. The outcome indicators included urine protein, serum creatinine(Scr), and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) levels, and Cochrane Handbook 5.1 and RevMan 5.3 were employed to perform the Meta-analysis of the included RCT. The active ingredients of Huangkui Capsules were retrieved from CNKI, and the targets of CKD from GeneCards, OMIM, and TTD. Cytoscape 3.8.0 was used to build a "component-disease" network and a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network for the screening of core components and targets. Next, a differential analysis of the core targets of Huangkui Capsules for treating CKD was conducted with the clinical samples from GEO to identify the differentially expressed core targets, and correlation analysis and immune cell infiltration analysis were then performed for these targets. A total of 13 RCTs were included for the Meta-analysis, involving 2 372 patients(1 185 in the observation group and 1 187 in the control group). Meta-analysis showed that the Huangkui Capsules group and the losartan potassium group had no significant differences in reducing the urinary protein levels after 12(MD=19.60, 95%CI[-58.66, 97.86], P=0.62) and 24 weeks(MD=-66.00, 95%CI[-264.10, 132.11], P=0.51) of treatment. Huangkui Capsules in combination with conventional treatment was superior to conventional treatment alone(MD=-0.55, 95%CI[-0.86,-0.23], P=0.000 6). Huangkui Capsules combined with conventional treatment was superior to conventional treatment alone in recovering Scr(MD=-9.21, 95%CI[-15.85,-2.58], P=0.006) and BUN(MD=-1.02, 95%CI[-1.83,-0.21], P=0.01). Five patients showed clear adverse reactions, with abdominal or gastrointestinal discomfort. Huangkui Capsules had 43 active ingredients and 393 targets, and the core ingredients were myricetin, quercetin, gossypin, elaidic acid, dihydromyricetin, isochlorogenic acid B, and caffeic acid. CKD and Huangkui Capsules shared 247 common targets, including 25 core targets. The GEO differential analysis predicted 18 differentially expressed core targets, which were mainly positively correlated with immune cell expression and involved in immune inflammation, oxidative stress, pyroptosis, lipid metabolism, sex hormone metabolism, and cell repair. Conclusively, Huangkui Capsules combined with conventional treatment significantly reduced urine protein, Scr, and BUN. Huangkui Capsules alone and losartan potassium had no significant difference in reducing urine protein. This efficacy of Huangkui Capsules may be associated with the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway responses to immune inflammation and oxidative stress. The included RCT had small sample sizes and general quality. More clinical trial protocols with large sample sizes and rigorous design and in line with international norms are needed to improve the evidence quality, and the results of bioinformatics analysis remain to be confirmed by further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Losartan , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Capsules , Inflammation/drug therapy
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5078-5090, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008678

ABSTRACT

Bayesian network Meta-analysis was employed to compare the efficacy of different oral Chinese patent medicines in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicines in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease were retrieved from 8 Chinese and English databases including CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, EMbase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science with the time interval from inception to November 2022. The BUGSnet package in R 4.2.1 was used to conduct Meta-analysis. A total of 45 RCTs were included, involving 4 727 patients and 7 oral Chinese patent medicines. Network Meta-analysis showed that the conventio-nal western medicine combined with Chinese patent medicines improved the outcome indicators. Shexiang Baoxin Pills + conventional western medicine had the best effect on reducing the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events, and Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine on reducing the frequency and duration of angina pectoris. The conventional western medicine combined with oral Chinese patent medicines can reduce blood glucose indicators. Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine had the best effect on reducing fasting blood glucose(FBG), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose(PBG), and glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c). The conventional western medicine combined with oral Chinese patent medicines can reduce blood lipid indicators. Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine had the best effect on reducing total cholesterol(TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C), and Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine on reducing triglyceride(TG). Current evidence suggests that the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease could reasonably choose oral Chinese patent medicines on the basis of routine antiplatelet, anticoagulant, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive therapies, which could reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events, alleviate the symptoms of angina pectoris, and reduce the glucose and lipid metabolism indicators. Shexiang Baoxin Pills + conventional treatment and Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine have better effect on angina pectoris, Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine on lowering blood glucose, and Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine and Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine on reducing blood lipid. Due to the lack of direct comparative results between Chinese patent medicines and other factors, high-quality studies remain to be carried out for further verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nonprescription Drugs , Network Meta-Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Bayes Theorem , Blood Glucose , Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Capsules , Lipids , Cholesterol
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4798-4802, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008647

ABSTRACT

This article focused on the significant public health issue of comorbidities in the elderly population and highlighted the important role of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the prevention and treatment of comorbidities in the elderly. It suggested that TCM should fully utilize its advantages in holistic perspective, syndrome differentiation and treatment, and preventive medicine in the process of preventing and treating comorbidities in the elderly. At the same time, in response to the significant shift in the disease spectrum of the elderly, the increasingly innovative concepts in diagnosis and treatment, the growing demand for proactive health by the el-derly population, and the current emphasis on patient-centered evaluation standards, it is necessary to further conduct basic theoretical and experimental research on comorbidities in the elderly using TCM, emphasize clinical research on comorbidities in the elderly, explore appropriate efficacy evaluation systems, improve TCM prevention and treatment strategies and comprehensive intervention programs for comorbidities in the elderly, and leverage the unique role of TCM in the rehabilitation of elderly comorbidity patients. By analyzing the potential of TCM in the field of comorbidities in the elderly, this article is expected to provide new insights for future clinical practice and scientific research.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Public Health , Comorbidity , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3949-3964, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981527

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy(DN) by network Meta-analysis to explore the Chinese patent medicine with optimal efficacy and provide references for preventing renal deterioration and delaying the progression of early DN. Eight databases, including CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, were searched for clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of early DN. After the literature mee-ting the inclusion criteria was screened, the quality of the literature was evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and network Meta-analysis was performed using the BUGSnet package in R 4.2.1. Seventy-two research articles with a sample size of 6 344 cases were included, involving eight Chinese patent medicines and seven outcome indicators. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that(1)in terms of improving urinary albumin excretion rate(UAER), Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment were superior to conventional treatment, and Qiyao Xiaoke Capsules + conventional treatment was optimal.(2)In terms of reducing serum crea-tinine(Scr), Bailing Capsules + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(3)In terms of reducing 24-hour urine total protein(24hUTP), Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional treatment had equivalent efficacy, and Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment was superior.(4)In terms of improving fasting blood glucose(FBG), Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(5)In terms of improving total cholesterol(TC), Qiyao Xiaoke Capsules +conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(6)In terms of reducing triglyceride(TG), Bailing Capsules + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(7)In terms of safety, the occurrence of adverse reactions was reported in seven interventions, but due to the large clinical heterogeneity, the quantitative analysis could not be performed. Overall, Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment were superior to conventional treatment alone in the treatment of early DN. The results showed that Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment had good clinical efficacy, and they could significantly reduce renal function indicators such as UAER, Scr, and 24hUTP, and reduce blood sugar and blood lipid, which can provide evidence-based support for the treatment of early DN. However, due to the differences in the quantity and quality of the included research articles, large-sample, multi-center, high-quality studies are still needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Qi , Network Meta-Analysis , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Tablets , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3386-3393, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981474

ABSTRACT

The present study collected data on traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) compounds effective in relieving pain from the patent database of the State Intellectual Property Office(SIPO), sorted out the TCM compounds against pain in patents, and analyzed the medication rules to provide references for the research and development of new TCM drugs against pain. The data were subjected to frequency statistics, association rules, cluster analysis, and complex network analysis by IBM SPSS Modeler 18.3 and SPSS Statistical 26.0. The results showed that among the 101 oral prescriptions included in the statistics, the top 5 drugs were Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and among the 49 external prescriptions included in the statistics, the top 5 drugs were Myrrha, Olibanum, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Borneolum Syntheticum, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Whether oral or external prescriptions, the drugs were mainly warm in nature, and bitter, pungent, and sweet in flavor. According to TCM complex network analysis, the core drugs were Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma in oral prescriptions, and Olibanum, Myrrha, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and Angelicae Sinensis Radix in external prescriptions. Overall, the therapeutic principles of oral prescriptions were mainly replenishing Qi, nourishing blood, and promoting Qi and blood circulation, while those of external prescriptions were activating blood, resolving stasis, promoting Qi flow, and relieving pain on the basis of the oral prescriptions. In the future research and development of TCM compounds against pain, the prescriptions should be modified with mind-tranquilizing and depression-relieving drugs. With the modernization of TCM, the development of new pain-relieving TCM compound patents based on ancient methods and clinical experience adhering to the guidance of TCM treatment based on syndrome differentiation can meet the new demand for pain treatment in the current society and give full play to the advantages of TCM in pain treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Frankincense , Pain , Paeonia , Coleoptera
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 322-326, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical efficacy of Miao medicinal crossbow acupuncture therapy as adjuvant treatment for lung cancer pain based on oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablet.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with lung cancer pain were randomized into an observation group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a control group (30 cases). In the control group, oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablet was given orally, 10 mg a time, once every 12 hours. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, Miao medicinal crossbow acupuncture therapy was applied once every other day in the observation group. The treatment of 14 days was required in the two groups. Before and after treatment, the numerical rating scale (NRS) score, number of break-out pain and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score were observed in the two groups. The equivalent oxycodone consumption and rate of adverse reactions were recorded, the analgesic effect was evaluated in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the NRS scores and number of break-out pain were decreased while the KPS scores were increased after treatment in the two groups (P<0.01). After treatment, the NRS score and number of break-out pain in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.01), the KPS score in the observation group was higher than the control group (P<0.05). The equivalent oxycodone consumption of whole course and the rate of adverse reactions i.e. constipation, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). The analgesic effect rate was 93.1% (27/29) in the observation group, which was superior to 63.3% (19/30) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablet, Miao medicinal crossbow acupuncture therapy as adjuvant treatment can effectively relieve the pain degree, reduce the number of break-out pain and improve the health status and quality of life in patients with lung cancer pain, enhance the efficacy of medication and reduce its adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cancer Pain , Oxycodone , Quality of Life , Lung Neoplasms , Pain , Acupuncture Therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Lung , Analgesics
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2701-2714, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982859

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disease. It is featured by abnormal alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process for degradation of cellular contents, including protein aggregates, to maintain cellular homeostasis. Corynoxine B (Cory B), a natural alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks., has been reported to promote the clearance of α-syn in cell models by inducing autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism by which Cory B induces autophagy is not known, and the α-syn-lowering activity of Cory B has not been verified in animal models. Here, we report that Cory B enhanced the activity of Beclin 1/VPS34 complex and increased autophagy by promoting the interaction between Beclin 1 and HMGB1/2. Depletion of HMGB1/2 impaired Cory B-induced autophagy. We showed for the first time that, similar to HMGB1, HMGB2 is also required for autophagy and depletion of HMGB2 decreased autophagy levels and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase III activity both under basal and stimulated conditions. By applying cellular thermal shift assay, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular docking, we confirmed that Cory B directly binds to HMGB1/2 near the C106 site. Furthermore, in vivo studies with a wild-type α-syn transgenic drosophila model of PD and an A53T α-syn transgenic mouse model of PD, Cory B enhanced autophagy, promoted α-syn clearance and improved behavioral abnormalities. Taken together, the results of this study reveal that Cory B enhances phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase III activity/autophagy by binding to HMGB1/2 and that this enhancement is neuroprotective against PD.

10.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 77-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992684

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of arthroscopic minimally invasive reduction in the treatment of talus posterior process fractures.Methods:The clinical data were retrospectively studied of the 42 patients with talus posterior process fracture who had been admitted to Department of Orthopedics, The Fourth Hospital of Wuhan from January 2010 to June 2021. There were 25 males and 17 females, aged from 21 to 60 years (average, 40.5 years). They were assigned into 2 groups according to their different treatments. In the arthroscopic group of 15 cases, arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) were conducted via the posteromedial and posterolateral approaches; in the open reduction group of 27 cases, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) were conducted via the posteromedial para-Achilles approach. The 2 groups were compared in terms of operation time, blood loss, hospital stay, fracture clinical healing time, postoperative complications, and the American Society for Foot and Ankle Surgery (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score at one year postoperation.Results:There was no significant difference in the preoperative general data between the 2 groups, showing comparability ( P> 0.05). The arthroscopic group incurred significantly less blood loss [(32.0±11.5) mL], hospital stay [(5.3±1.8) d], and fracture clinical healing time [(4.6±1.0) months], and a significantly lower incidence of postoperative complications [20.0% (3/15)] than the open reduction group did [(80.0±15.2) mL, (8.4±2.4) d, (6.3±2.2) months, and 29.6% (8/27)], but significantly longer operation time [(74.0±8.9) min] than the open reduction group [(62.9±5.1) min] ( P<0.05). The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores at one year postoperation in both groups were higher than those before operation. The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores in the arthroscopic group [(83.0±13.0) points] were significantly higher than those in the open reduction group [(72.3±16.0) points] ( P<0.05). Conclusion:ARIF is a preferred minimally invasive treatment for talus posterior process fractures, because it leads to a smaller incision, less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, quicker clinical healing, a lower incidence of postoperative complications, and better functional improvement of the ankle and hindfoot than ORIF.

11.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 145-150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of comorbidities in patients with osteoporosis(OP) and factors associated health-related quality of life, so as to provide decision-making reference for improving the ability of disease co-prevention and co-treatment and the patient's life-cycle quality of life.@*METHODS@#From November 2017 to July 2018, clinical information and biological samples from residents in 10 communities in Chaoyang District and Fengtai Distric of Beijing were collected, and bone density testing was conducted. Based on the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), the comorbidity of the population was quantified, and grouped according to factors such as gender, age, and the differences between the groups were explored. Combined with the clinical information of patients, the difference characteristics of comorbidity and non-comorbidity population were analyzed. Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis and binary Logistic regression analysis were used to explore the factors affecting the health-related quality of life in patients with OP.@*RESULTS@#Among the 521 OP patients, 121 patients had no comorbidities, and there were 153, 106, 65, and 30 patients with one, two, three, and four comorbidities, respectively, 46 patients with 5 or more kinds of comorbidites. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in OP patients, accounting for 21.60%;followed by hyperlipidemia, accounting for 13.51%. The most common combination of the two diseases was hypertension plus hyperlipidemia (64 cases, 12.28%). Through the analysis of differences between age groups, it was found that the older patients, showed higher the CCI, and the difference between groups was statistically significant(Z=1.93, P=0.05). There were significant differences in the total EQ-5D score and the dimensions of anxiety and depression between patients with comorbidities (CCI≠0) and non-comorbidities (CCI=0) (Z=-2.67, P=0.01;Z=-2.44, P=0.02). Correlation analysis found that CCI, history of fracture, history of falls, hip bone mineral density T value and parathyroid hormone were all related to the health-related quality of life in OP patients (P<0.05). Binary Logistic regression analysis suggested that the right hip bone mineral density T value (P=0.02), CCI (P=0.01), fracture history (P=0.03) and fall history (P=0.01) were the risk factors that affect the health-related quality of life in OP patients.@*CONCLUSION@#The burden of comorbidities among middle-aged and elderly OP populations in Beijing is relatively heavy, and the health management of such populations should be further strengthened, specifically the combination of multiple comorbidities should be given high priority. Comorbid factors are of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment strategy of OP patients, which could further improve the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Quality of Life , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone , Hypertension/epidemiology
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4243-4252, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008621

ABSTRACT

The articles involving Xiangju Capsules were retrieved, and qualitative research and quantitative research methods were combined to evaluate the evidence of the safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine( "6+1" dimensions) of this drug. Multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0 software were used to comprehensively evaluate the clinical value of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of rhinosinusitis and clarify the precise clinical positioning. The dimensions are graded A, B, C, or D. Multi-source safety evidence showed that the main adverse reactions were gastrointestinal reactions, rash, itching, dizziness, and headache. Based on the available studies, the risk is controllable and the safety is grade A. Meta-analysis showed that Xiangju Capsules + conventional western medicine could recover the Lund-Kennedy score, Lund-Mackay score, and CT score, relieve headache, nasal congestion, olfactory disturbance, and facial pain, with the effectiveness is grade B. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of Xiangju Capsules + conventional western medicine compared with conventional western medicine alone in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis was 263.71 yuan, about 0.82% of the per capita disposable income. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the research results were relatively robust. Based on the assumption that the per capita disposable income in 2020 will be the threshold of patients' willingness to pay, it is more economical to use Xiangju Capsules + conventional western medicine. The drug belongs to grade A of the national medical insurance, with an average daily cost of 3.06 yuan, and the economy is grade B. This formula is modified from classic formulas and characteristic empirical formulas, be capable of improving immunity and preventing repeated attacks. It can be used for acute and chronic rhinitis-rhinosinusitis. It had a wide range of applicability, especially for the patients with head and face tenderness. Service innovation was reflected in the measures to guarantee supply, capacity, scalability, and coverage of grass-roots sales channels. The industrial innovation was improved through the management of medicinal resources, pharmaceutical industry, production technology, quality control, scientific research and development, and this formula won three national invention patents. Comprehensively, the innovation of Xiangju Capsules is grade B. According to the survey of 188 medical practitioners and 196 patients in 20 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions of China, the drug was characterized by easy preparation and administration, individualized medication, simple technology and management, convenient use, storage, and transport, and controllable adverse reactions, with the suitability is grade B. Xiangju Capsules showed the cost of 45.9 and 275.4 yuan for treatment of acute and chronic rhinitis-rhinosinusitis, respectively, being well affordable. It was sold in 35 000 medical institutions in China. The dosage form was suitable for transportation, storage, and grass-root application. With rich, sustainable, and available medicinal resources, the accessibility of Xiangju Capsules is grade A. This drug can be used for both acute and chronic rhinitis-rhinosinusitis, clearing heat and expelling pus, and strengthening the exterior to prevent relapse. After this drug was available on the market, over 4 000 cases were studied, with rich experience in human use accumulated, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine is grade B. Overall, the clinical value of Xiangju Capsules is class B. It is suggested that Xiangju Capsules should be used in accordance with the relevant policies of basic clinical drug administration to play its role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Headache , China , Capsules
13.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1069-1073, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929481

ABSTRACT

@# AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of modified folding intraocular lens(IOL)suspension surgery in treatment of traumatic dislocation of lens surgery technique.METHODS: Prospective randomized controlled study. A total of 15 patients underwent the modified folding IOL suspension surgery. Among them, 9 patients chose Akreos AO IOL, and polypropylene sutures were used to thread the haptics of IOL. After guided to puncture out through the sclera, the ends of sutures were thermal expanded and fixed in the sclera. And 6 patients chose Tecnis ZA9003 IOL and no sutures were used. After guided the haptics to puncture out through the sclera, the ends of haptics were thermal expanded and fixed in the sclera. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, LogMAR)of all patients and postoperative complication were observed. RESULTS: This study included 15 patients, among them, 7 were male and 8 were female, the mean age was 64.00±9.85 years old, the mean course of diseases was 5.80±3.17 wk. There were no significant differences between the demographic and baseline clinical characteristics. After underwent the modified folding IOL suspension surgery, visual acuity of all patients were obviously improved. After 3mo of the surgery, the BCVA(LogMAR)of patients were improved from 1.28±0.56 to 0.52±0.30. More specifically, the BCVA(LogMAR)of patients who chose Akreos AO IOL were improved from 1.39±0.62 to 0.59±0.25, and those who chose Tecnis ZA9003 IOL of the BCVA(LogMAR)were improved from 1.12±0.45 to 0.42±0.35. Furthermore, there was no severe postoperative complication observed in our study. Only one patient suffered IOL dislocation and the IOL optical surface was mild oblique.CONCLUSION: Modified folding IOL suspension surgery technique resulted in good visual and outcomes with no severe complication, making it an effective option for IOL suspension surgery.

14.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 492-500, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the onset and recurrence characteristics of noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective, multicenter and registry study was carried out in 2,558 patients at 7 representative clinical sub-centers during November 3, 2016 to February 17, 2019. A questionnaire was used to collect information of patients regarding CM syndromes and constitutions and associated risk factors. Additionally, stroke recurrence was defined as a primary outcome indicator.@*RESULTS@#A total of 327 (12.78 %) patients endured recurrence events, 1,681 (65.72%) were men, and the average age was 63.33 ± 9.45 years. Totally 1,741 (68.06%) patients suffered first-ever ischemic stroke, 1,772 (69.27%) patients reported to have hypertension, and 1,640 (64.11%) of them reported dyslipidemia, 1,595 (62.35%) patients exhibited small-artery occlusion by The Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Specifically, 1,271 (49.69%) patients were considered as qi-deficient constitution, and 1,227 (47.97%) patients were determined as stagnant blood constitution. There were 1,303 (50.94%) patients diagnosed as blood stasis syndrome, 1,280 (50.04%) patients exhibited phlegm and dampness syndrome and 1,012 (39.56%) patients demonstrated qi deficiency syndrome. And 1,033 (40.38%) patients declared intracranial artery stenosis, and 478 (18.69%) patients reported carotid artery stenosis. The plaque in 1,508 (41.36%) patients were of mixed. Particularly, 41.09% of them demonstrated abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin levels.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Recurrence in minor and small-artery stroke cannot be ignored. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal HbA1c, intracranial artery stenosis and carotid plaque were more common in stroke patients. Particularly, phlegm-dampness and blood stasis syndromes, as well as qi deficiency and blood stasis constitutions, were still the main manifestations of stroke. (Trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT03174535).


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Constriction, Pathologic , Hospitals , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Syndrome
15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1806-1809, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To sort out and analyze the expression and provisions of drug standards in the text of the newly revised Drug Administration Law ,and to explore the connotation and legal positioning of drug registration standards so as to provide reference for the rational application and interpretation of relevant provisions of drug standards in Drug Administration Law . METHODS Through the review of the evolution of drug standard management in China ,the legal provisions of drug standard in the Drug Administration Law were analyzed. Comparative study and literature research methods were used to analyze the legal expression and connotation of drug standards. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS There were different expressions about “national drug standards ”“drug standards ”and“quality standards ”in the current provisions of the newly revised Drug Administration Law ; the legal position of the provincial-level standard for the preparation of Chinese herbal pieces was not clear ,and there may be insufficient legal regulation in the enforcement of drug administration. It is necessary to make an administrative interpretation for the content of relevant drug standards and provisions ,and further clarify the legal attributes of drug standards in the processing of provincial Chinese herbal pieces in order to promote the standardized management of Chinese herbal pieces.

16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1501-1508, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928080

ABSTRACT

This study systematically sorted out the existing studies about Tianshu Capsules in the treatment of migraine(syndrome of blood stasis blocking collaterals, syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang), and conducted comprehensive clinical evaluation through "6+1" dimensions of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) to embody the advantages and characteristics and clarify the precise clinical position of Tianshu Capsules. The value of each dimension was calculated via health technology assessment, the multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) mo-del and CSC v2.0 software. The results were graded into four levels of A, B, C, or D from high to low. According to the available studies, Tianshu Capsules had low and controllable risks, with the safety rated as A. The drug has obvious clinical significance in the treatment of migraine(syndrome of blood stasis blocking collaterals, syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang), with the effectiveness rated as A. It has clear economic results, with the economy rated as B. The clinical innovation, service system innovation, and industrial innovation are all good, and thus the innovation of Tianshu Capsules is grade A. The drug can meet clinical medication demand of medical care and patients, and thus its suitability is grade A. In view of the reasonable drug price, affordability, and availability, the accessibility is grade A. The prescription originated from the Daxiong Pills recorded in the classic Comprehensive Recording of Sage-like Benefit. In clinical trials, 4 675 patients have used Tianshu Capsules, which indicates rich experience in human administration, and the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine is grade B. The statutory drug information complies with national stan-dards, and the non-statutory information is standard and accurate. Based on the comprehensive evaluation results of various dimensions of evidence, the clinical value of Tianshu Capsules in the treatment of migraine(syndrome of blood stasis blocking collaterals and syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang) is class A. According to the Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Management Guidelines of Drugs(trial version 2021) issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, we recommend that Tianshu Capsules treating migraine can be transformed into relevant policy results for clinical medication management according to procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capsules , Liver , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Syndrome
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1493-1500, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928079

ABSTRACT

This clinical value-oriented comprehensive evaluation of drugs was carried out in accordance with Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods adopted. Based on the evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, pharmacoeconomics, mathematical statistics, and health technology evaluation(HTA), the clinical value of Ginkgolide Injection was evaluated from the "6+1" dimension by giving weight to the criterion level and index level and calculating with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0. After entering the market, Ginkgolide Injection has been subjected to phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS)-based data monitoring, systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity assays, active monitoring, and RCTs, and the evidence of safety was sufficient. The results of active monitoring showed that the incidence of adverse reactions was 0.09%(rare), mainly manifested as flushing, dizziness, rash, nausea, and vomiting. According to the nested case-control study, the adverse reactions of this drug had nothing to do with the product batch, implying that the drug quality was controllable. The adverse reactions mainly resulted from the pharmacodynamic reactions. Because the drug was effective in resisting platelet aggregation, the resulting adverse reactions such as flushing, dizziness, headache, and phlebitis were caused by vasodilation. Skin rash and gastrointestinal symptoms were mainly attributed to the patients' sensitivity to drugs and their own allergic constitution. According to the sufficiency of evidence and the incidence of adverse reactions in the safety research, the safety of Ginkgolide Injection was grade A. The results of Meta-analysis showed that Ginkgolide Injection combined with conventional western medicine was superior to conventional western medicine in improving the clinical effective rate, neurological function score, and activity of daily living score of patients with cerebral infarction. The validity evidence was evaluated according to the PICO principle to be high. According to the GREAD evaluation principle, the quality of such evidence as clinical effective rate, National Institute of Health stroke scale(NIHSS), and Barthel Index(BI) was evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the evidence quality of clinical effective rate and activity of daily living score was medium. The effectiveness of Ginkgolide Injection was grade A. According to the economic report of Ginkgolide Injection, it had short-term and long-term pharmacoeconomic advantages in the treatment of ischemic stroke, and the economic evidence value was good. According to the CASP economic evaluation checklist, the overall quality evaluation results of the economic report are basically clear. To be specific, the economic evidence quality was high. Based on the comprehensive economic evidence quality and economic value, the economy of this drug was grade A. The innovation of this product was evaluated from three aspects: clinical innovation, enterprise service system innovation, and industrial innovation. Ginkgolide Injection could be used 24 h after intravenous thrombolysis for improving patients' neurological function without increasing bleeding, indicating its important clinical innovation. There were many innovations in ensuring drug supply, especially at the grass roots, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, which has provided reference for establishing enterprise philosophy, managing drug resources, developing process and technology, and determining enterprise management and marketing. Therefore, its innovation was grade A. The drug had no special medication plan in use, exhibiting good suitability for doctors, nurses, and patients. The suitability was grade B. Compared with similar drugs, its price was at a medium level, meaning good affordability, sufficient production capacity, and easy accessibility. Its accessibility was therefore grade B. This drug belonged to Chinese medicinal injection. The large-sample real-world research revealed rich human use experience, so it was grade C for the traditional Chinese medicine characteristic. According to the comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of Ginkgolide Injection in the treatment of cerebral infarction fell into class A. It is suggested that it can be transformed into the relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Ginkgolides/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1484-1492, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928078

ABSTRACT

Based on Guidelines for the Management of Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), this study aims to sort out the clinical evidence of Huangkui Capsules(HC) in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases in aspects of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine( "6+1" dimensions) from real-world data, secondary literature evaluations, questionnaires, and public data, with the methods in evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology. Furthermore, with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0, the clinical value of the medicine is comprehensively assessed. All the above are to highlight the advantages and characteristics of HC and lay a basis for scientific decision-making by the medical management department. The dimensions are graded A, B, C, or D. According to the conclusions from phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS), systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity tests, it mainly results in the adverse reactions of nausea, abdominal distension, vomiting, pruritus, rash, and good prognosis in patients. According to the available research, the safety evidence is sufficient and the risk is controllable, so the safety of this medicine is grade B. According to Meta-analysis, HC in combination with conventional drugs in the treatment of chronic kidney disease is superior to conventional drugs alone in reducing urinary protein, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen. In addition, HC combined angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI) is outstanding in improving total clinical effective rate, reducing 24 h urinary protein quantity, urinary albumin excretion rate, serum creatinine concentration, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy as compared with ARB or ACEI alone. As for chronic nephritis, the application together with ARB or ACEI can raise the total effective rate, reduce 24 h urinary protein content, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen, and delay the progress of the disease. HC boasts high-quality evidence in treating chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic nephritis. It has obvious clinical significance in treating chronic kidney disease and thus its efficacy in this aspect is grade B. It has outstanding clinical significance for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis and corresponding and the effectiveness is grade A. As for the pharmacoeconomic value, HC combined with ARB or ACEI is more economical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease than Bailing Capsules combined with ARB or ACEI, with high-quality evidence, and thus the economy of the formula is grade B. HC is a key solution to the high urinary protein in patients with hypotension and chronic kidney disease. The innovation is evidenced by the methods to ensuring drug supply, community-level supply, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, as wells as the aspects of enterprise philosophy, equipment management, research and development in process and technology, enterprise management and marketing. Thus, the prescription is grade A in innovation. The suitability, as evidenced in drug administration, technical management, drug storage, information service, and medication, is grade B. The course of the medicine is affordable, and it is accessible in a wide range of areas and hospitals. Thus, the accessibility is grade A. HC was developed from an in-hospital preparation, with application in numerous patients and thus large-scale real-world data. As a result, HC is grade B in terms of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. After comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of HC in treating chronic kidney disease is class B, and that for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis is class A. The result is of great reference value for the basic clinical medication management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Capsules , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1476-1483, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928077

ABSTRACT

This study systematically sorted out the evidence data of the safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) of Reyanning Mixture in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection(heat-toxin attacking lung syndrome) with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods adopted. Based on evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology evalua-tion(HTA), the clinical value of Reyanning Mixture was evaluated using multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model, Chinese patent medicine clinical evidence, and value evaluation software(CSC v2.0). The SRS monitoring data, Meta-analysis, and other safety evidence showed that the main adverse reactions of Reyanning Mixture were nausea, diarrhea, and rash, and no serious adverse reactions were found. The pharmacovigilance system was sound, and the system was perfect. There was no recall, notification, or interview for unqualified products. Based on the existing research, the evidence was sufficient, and the risk was controllable. Hence, its safety was grade A. Meta-analysis showed that in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, Reyanning Mixture combined with Amoxicillin Capsules was better than Amoxicillin Capsules alone in shortening the complete fever relief time and improving the cure rate. Besides, it was superior to Shuanghuanglian Granules in shortening the complete fever relief time, cough relief time, nasal congestion relief time, and pharyngeal congestion relief time. The Meta-analysis was conducted based on AMSTAR standard, and its ove-rall quality was proved good. The evidence quality in GRADE system evaluation was medium and low. The quality of evidence was medium, and the clinical value was obvious. Hence, its effectiveness was grade A. The results of pharmacoeconomic research showed that compared with Amoxicillin Capsules, Reyanning Mixture alone or in combination with Amoxicillin Capsules had cost-effectiveness advantages in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, and the results were stable in sensitivity analysis. According to the CASP economic evaluation checklist, the research problems were clear and the results were reliable. As revealed by the comprehensive evaluation, the evidence quality was sufficient and the result was clear. Its economy was grade B. Reyanning Mixture had multiple therapeutic targets like anti-virus, anti-bacteria, antipyresis, and anti-cough, with good clinical innovation. There were many innovative initiatives in ensuring drug supply, especially at the grass roots, drug safety, and effectiveness, and also multiple innovative contributions to production technology, quality control, scientific and technological research and development, and enterprise management and marketing. Therefore, its innovation was grade B. The dosage form of Reyanning was mixture, which made it convenient for storage and transportation. The usage was easy to be mastered and accepted by doctors and nurses, exhibiting good suitability for clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients who received this drug and basically meeting the needs of clinical medication. The suitability was grade B. The average daily cost of this drug was 8.082 yuan, and the price was low. The treatment cost accounted for a small proportion of the annual disposable income of urban and rural residents, indicating that it was affordable. Reyanning Mixture was available in 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions, covering 6 910 hospitals. The allocation of hospitals at all levels was more than 50%. There was no shortage or supply restriction of medicinal material resources. The annual production capacity was sufficient to meet the supply demand, so its accessibility was grade A. Reyanning Mixture, sourced from "pneumonia Ⅲ", has been subjected to a real-world study of its clinical application, with 4 367 cases involved, and the characteristic of TCM was grade B. The comprehensive evaluation results demonstrated that the clinical value score of Reyanning Mixture in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection(heat-toxin attacking lung syndrome) was 0.80, making it rated class A. According to the Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), it is recommended to convert it into the relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hot Temperature , Lung , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Syndrome
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1469-1475, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928076

ABSTRACT

This study aims to comprehensively summarize articles on the treatment of coronary heart disease angina pectoris with heart blood stasis syndrome(CHD-AP-HBSS) by Guanxin Shutong Capsules(GSC), and comprehensively evaluate the evidence and value of the formula in "6+1" dimensions based on multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021) with quantitative and qualitative methods, which is expected to highlight the clinical characteristics and advantages of the prescription and serve as a reference for medical and health departments. The dimensions are grade A, B, C, or D. In terms of safety, according to the reports from the spontaneous reporting system of National Center for ADR Monitoring, and literature analysis, GSC mainly results in the adverse reactions of mild or moderate nausea, diarrhea, rash, palpitation, and headache, with favorable prognosis in patients. Nevertheless, severe adverse reactions have been reported after marketing. Thus, additional evidence for its safety should be accumulated, and the current safety is grade B. Meta-analysis proves that GSC in combination with conventional treatment is superior to conventional treatment alone in alleviating AP and symptoms indicated by electrocardiogram(ECG). Therefore, the effectiveness of the medicine is grade A. As for the pharmacoeconomic value, based on the assumption that the per capita disposable income in 2020 is the willingness-to-pay threshold, it is more economical for CHD-AP patients to use GSC combined with conventional treatment than conventional treatment alone. However, as the currently available clinical parameters fail to support the difference in indirect cost between the two groups, the accuracy in the cost of intervention plan needs to be further improved. Therefore, the economy of the prescription is grade B. GSC has been awarded 13 national invention patents and 1 utility model patent, and won a lot of national and provincial patent awards, marking the enterprise service awareness and innovativeness. As a result, it is grade A in aspect of innovation. A questionnaire on the suitability of GSC suggests that publicity and promotion influence patients' choice and thus additional efforts should be made in this aspect. The suitability of this formula is grade B. Both rural and urban residents can afford the medicine for the whole course and the price is close to that of similar Chinese patent medicines. In addition, it is accessible regardless of season and place, so accessibility is grade A. As a Mongolian empirical formula destined to treat heart stabbing pain, it has the effects of activating blood and resolving stasis, dredging channels and activating collaterals, and moving Qi to relieve pain, and boasts the empirical evidence of more than 2 000 human cases. With prominent characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, it is grade B. Based on the MCDA model and CSC v2.0, GSC is comprehensively class A in the treatment of CHD-AP-HBSS. The result can serve as a reference for basic clinical medication management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Capsules , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects
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