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1.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 375-380, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995639

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe and evaluate the safety and efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the treatment of eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in Lhasa, Tibet.Methods:A retrospective case series. From September 2018 to January 2022, a total of 41 patients (41 eyes) with BRVO-ME, who were diagnosed in Department of Ophthalmology of Tibet Autonomous Region People’s Hospital, were included in this study. There were 21 eyes in 21 males and 20 eyes in 20 females. The median age was 53 (31,75) years. There were 24 patients with hypertension (58.8%, 24/41). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ocular pressure, fundus color photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed in all eyes. The BCVA was performed using the international standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, which was converted into logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA for record. The foveal macular thickness (CMT) was measured by OCT. All eyes were treated with intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF drugs, once a month, among which 23 eyes (56.1%, 23/41) received intravitreous injection of ranibizumab (IVR), and 18 eyes (43.9%, 18/41) received intravitreous injection of conbercept (IVC), and were grouped accordingly. There was no significant difference in age ( Z=-0.447), gender composition ( Z=-0.485), logMAR BCVA ( t=-1.591), intraocular pressure ( t=-0.167) and CMT ( t=-1.290) between two groups ( P>0.05). During the follow-up, the same devices and methods were used at baseline to perform relevant examinations, and the changes of BCVA, intraocular pressure, CMT and new cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were compared between baseline and the last follow-up. logMAR BCVA, intraocular pressure and CMT were compared between baseline and last follow-up using Student t test. The comparison of injection times and follow-up time between IVR group and IVC group was conducted by Mann-Whitney U test. Results:At baseline, logMAR BCVA, intraocular pressure, and CMT were 0.852±0.431, (12.5±2.5) mm Hg (1 mm Hg= 0.133 kPa), and (578.1±191.1) μm, respectively. At the last follow-up, the number of anti-VEGF drug treatments was (2.7±1.2) times; logMAR BCVA and CMT were 0.488±0.366 and (207.4±108.7) μm, respectively, with CMT > 250 μm in 14 eyes (34.1%, 14/41). Compared with baseline, BCVA ( t=4.129) and CMT ( t=-0.713) were significantly improved, with statistical significance ( P<0.001). The injection times of IVR group and IVC group were (2.6±0.9) and (3.0±1.5) times, respectively. There were no significant differences in the number of injection times ( t=-1.275), logMAR BCVA ( t=-0.492), intraocular pressure ( t=0.351) and CMT ( t=-1.783) between the two groups ( P>0.05). No new hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events occurred in all patients during follow-up. At the last follow-up, there were no eye complications related to treatment modalities and drugs. Conclusion:Short-term anti-VEGF treatment can improve the visual acuity of BRVO secondary ME patients and alleviate ME in Lhasa, Tibet. The safety and efficacy of ranibizumab and conbercept were similar.

2.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 347-354, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995635

ABSTRACT

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is one of the representative pachychoroid spectrum disease. Although fundus fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography can be used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of CSC, they are invasive examinations, which may bring certain risks in clinical application and cannot help us obtain quantitative parameters. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), as a non-invasive and quantitative examination, is an important imaging tool for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of CSC. With the advancement of OCTA, the swept-source OCTA has a satisfying scanning depth, a wider scanning range and a higher resolution. The development of OCTA broadens the horizons of the pathogenesis of CSC, promotes the understanding of the pathophysiology of CSC, and sheds new light for its clinical diagnosis and treatment. Based on OCTA, the choroid and retina in eyes with CSC are presented with qualitative and quantitative changes in vascular system. OCTA-guided CSC treatment and the discovery of prognostic markers based on OCTA challenge the application of traditional imaging techniques in CSC. With the continuous improvement and progress of OCTA technology, traditional angiography combined with OCTA will bring great benefits to the diagnosis and treatment of CSC. This review summarizes the quantitative application of OCTA in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of CSC.

3.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 341-346, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995634

ABSTRACT

Central serous chorioretinitis (CSC) is a kind of choroidal retinopathy characterized by choroidal vasodilatation and hyperpermeability, retinal pigment epithelial cell lesions and serous retinal detachment. Various imaging examinations and imaging techniques have been used to describe the characteristics of the retina and choroid. Fundus manifestations of different types of CSC has both generality, and have their respective characteristic. The classification of CSC and its differentiation from other diseases including the choroidal neovascularization and pachychoroidopathy spectrum depending on varieties of fundus imaging techniques. The current study aims to review the various performance characteristics of CSC especially for chronic CSC with multimodal imaging and the current research progress, so as to provide reference for ophthalmologists to more comprehensively and intuitively understand the clinical characteristics and potential pathogenesis of CSC, and also to provide basis for multimodal imaging assisted diagnosis and treatment.

4.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 297-306, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995628

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the associations between the choroidal vasculature and submacular fluid (SMF) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).Methods:A retrospective study. A total of 29 CSC patients (31 eyes) with complete records who visited the Department of Ophthalmology in Peking University People's Hospital from August 1, 2021 to March 1, 2023 were included in this study. The patients were divided into complete absorption and incomplete absorption groups according to the status of SMF in the last visit. All the patients underwent ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (UWF SS-OCTA) with a scanning range of 24 mm × 20 mm. The UWF SS-OCTA images were automatically analyzed in 9 regions (superotemporal, superior, superonasal, temporal, central, nasal, inferotemporal, inferior, and inferonasal). Alterations of choroidal vasculature in the nine subfields after SMF absorption were described, including choroidal thickness (CT), flow density of choriocapillaris layer, vessel density of large choroidal vessel layer, three-dimensional choroidal vascularity index (CVI), the mean choroidal vessel volume (mCVV), and the mean choroidal stroma volume (mCSV). The relevant factors affecting the complete absorption of SMF were additionally evaluated.Results:At baseline, CT ( Z=2.859, P=0.004), mCVV ( t=2.514, P=0.018), and mCSV ( Z=2.958, P=0.003) in the superotemporal region of the affected eyes in the incomplete absorption group were significantly higher than those in the complete absorption group. Compared with baseline, at the last visit, the proportion of asymmetric vortex veins in the complete absorption group was significantly decreased ( χ2=6.000, P=0.014), CVI in the superotemporal, superonasal, temporal, central, nasal, inferotemporal, and inferonasal regions ( t=-4.125, t=-3.247, Z=-3.213, t=-2.994, t=-3.417, t=-3.733, t=-3.795; P=0.001, 0.006, 0.001, 0.010, 0.005, 0.003, 0.002), the mCVV of 9 regions ( t=-2.959, t=-2.537, t=-2.235, t=-3.260, t=-3.022, t=-2.796, t=-2.747, Z=-2.107, t=-2.935; P=0.011, 0.025, 0.044, 0.006, 0.010, 0.015, 0.017, 0.035, 0.012) were significantly decreased. Compared to the complete absorption group, the choroidal blood flow changes in the non-complete absorption group were more limited, and CT in the upper region increased significantly at the last follow-up ( t=2.272, P=0.037). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that baseline CT in the superotemporal region may be an independent risk factor affecting the complete absorption of SMF (odds ratio=0.981, 95% confidential interval 0.965-0.997, P=0.021). Conclusions:In the process of SMF absorption in CSC, significant reductions of choroidal blood flow were found in the large choroidal vessel layer, and there may be a locally compensatory increase in CT. In addition, baseline CT in superotemporal region is an independent risk factor affecting SMF absorption.

5.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 282-289, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995626

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate and analyze the clinical manifestations and imaging features of the eyes with bullous retinal detachment.Methods:Retrospective case series study. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with bullous retinal detachment diagnosed in Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital from July 2015 to September 2021 were enrolled. There were 10 males and 1 female, with the mean age of (39.27±6.81) years. All patients had monocular bullous retinal detachment, with mean duration ranged from 3 months to 14 years. The basic information and medical history of all patients were collected. All patients underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), indirect ophthalmoscopy, color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and B-scan ultrasonography. BCVA was performed using a standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, which was converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity. The clinical data and imaging features of BCVA, OCT, FFA and ICGA were retrospectively analyzed and summarized.Results:The mean logMAR BCVA of the 11 eyes was 0.91±0.45. Nine patients had bilateral disease, but bullous retinal detachment occurred in only 1 eye, and CSC manifestations were present in the contralateral eye. Six patients had received systemic or topical hormone therapy prior to onset. Yellowish-white material was observed in 6 eyes and retinal folds were observed in 5 eyes. OCT examination showed serous retinal detachment in the macular area with granular or patchy hyperreflective signals in the subretinal area in all eyes, and a few granular hyperreflective substances in the neuroretina in 6 eyes. Neuroretina cystoid degeneration was observed in 6 eyes, adhesion between the detached neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) was observed in 6 eyes, RPE tear was observed in 6 eyes, and different forms of retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) were observed in 6 eyes. FFA showed multiple fluorescence leakage spots in 10 eyes, and the average number of fluorescence leakage spots in all eyes was 3.82±2.44. There were multiple diffuse RPE lesions in 9 eyes. The results of ICGA examination showed that choroidal vessels were dilated and multiple hyperfluorescent leaks were observed in all eyes. B-scan ultrasonography examination of all affected eyes showed retinal detachment. Retinal reattachment can be achieved at (2.0±1.0) months after photodynamic therapy (PDT), while SRF can be completely absorbed at (2.36±0.81) months. The mean logMAR BCVA can be improved to 0.50±0.33, and no recurrence was found in the follow-up period up to 6 months.Conclusions:Bullous retinal detachment is often associated with the use of hormones, while yellow-white material in the subretina and hyperreflective material in the OCT are common. It is characterized by neuroretina cystoid degeneration in the macular area, adhesion between the neuroretina and RPE, RPE tear and PED, with multiple fluorescence leakage spots and diffuse RPE lesions. PDT is an effective treatment for bullous retinal detachment.

6.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 275-281, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995625

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the efficacy of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) guided half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).Methods:A prospective randomized controlled trial. A total of 72 patients (72 eyes) with acute CSC in Peking University People's Hospital from April 2019 to April 2020 were included in the study. They were randomly divided into OCTA group (OCTA-guided PDT, 31 eyes of 31 patients) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) group (ICGA-guided PDT, 33 eyes of 33 patients). All patients underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus color photography, OCTA and ICGA examinations. International standard visual acuity chart was used for BCVA examination, which was converted into logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity. In OCTA group, the hyper-reflective area on en face OCTA image at choriocapillaris level was identified as treating area. In ICGA group, the area of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on ICGA which was related to the leakage on fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was identified as treating area. The area corresponding to the treating area on FFA or ICGA was outlined on the color fundus photograph to guide PDT laser spot. The complete subretinal fluid (SRF) resolution, BCVA, central retinal thickness (CRT) at 1, 3, 6 months and SRF recurrent rate at 3, 6 months were observed. Continuous variables between the two groups were compared by t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. The χ2 test was used to compare the categorical variables. Results:At 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment, the SRF absorption rate in OCTA group and ICGA group was 74.2% (23/31), 63.6% (21/33), 87.1% (27/31) and 84.8% (28/33), 96.8% (30/31), 91.9% (31/33), respectively. OCTA-guided PDT was demonstrated noninferior to ICGA-guided PDT for complete SRF resolution at 1, 3, 6 months [95% confidence interval ( CI) -11.9%-33.1%, P=0.402; 95% CI -14.7%-19.3%, P=0.107; 95% CI-6.3%-16.1%, P=0.226]. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate of SRF between the two groups at 3 and 6 months after treatment ( χ2=0.009, 0.047; P=0.925, 0.828). The difference of CRT was statistically significant at 6 months ( t=2.017, P=0.047). There was no significant difference in logMAR BCVA at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment ( t=0.529, 0.762, 1.017; P=0.581, 0.403, 0.243). Conclusions:During 6 months follow-up, OCTA-guided PDT was demonstrated noninferior to ICGA-guided PDT for the SRF absorption rate in patients with acute CSC.

7.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 271-274, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995624

ABSTRACT

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common macular disease, mainly manifested as a plasma detachment of the macula. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for CSC, but with the shortage of the photosensitizer Verteporfin, the effective treatment of CSC has become a common concern for ophthalmologists. In this paper, based on the latest research results on the relationship between the changes in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer and the natural course of the disease and PDT therapy, we propose that patients with CSC should receive effective treatment as early as possible to prevent irreversible damage to visual function due to the thinning of the outer nuclear layer. In addition to PDT, it is recommended that laser photocoagulation or subthreshold micropulse laser treatment of the leaking spot should be considered first, depending on the presence of the leaking spot and its location in relation to the macula center. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy can be considered if there is a combination of choroidal neovascularization and/or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Other treatments that have not been demonstrated to be effective in evidence-based medicine are not recommended.

8.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 218-222, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995616

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical features of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) associated with COVID-19.Methods:A retrospective case series studies. A total of 12 eyes of 8 patients diagnosed of AMN associated with COVID-19 at Peking University People’s Hospital from December 5, 2022 to January 5, 2023 were included. Of the 8 patients, 2 were male (4 eyes) and 6 were female (8 eyes), with an average age of (29.38±8.60) years. All patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and infra-red fundus photography (IR). After definite diagnosis, the patients were given symptomatic treatment such as local vasodilation, anti-inflammatory and systemic circulation improvement and nutritional nerve. Follow-up time was 21-30 days weeks. Clinical manifestations, OCT and IR image characteristics, and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The time from diagnosis of COVID-19 to the onset of ocular symptoms was (3.00±0.93) days. Among 12 eyes, 6 had complaints of paracentral scotoma, with 2 of them accompanied by visual acuity loss; and 6 had complaints of dark shadows in the vision, with 2 of them accompanied by visual acuity loss. At the initial examination, 2 eyes had a BCVA of less than 0.05, 2 eyes had a BCVA between 0.4 and 0.6, and 8 eyes had a BCVA between 0.8 and 1.0. At the last follow-up, visual symptoms improved in 7 eyes and remained unchanged in 5 eyes. Fundus color photography showed reddish-brown lesions in the macular area. Spectral-domain OCT revealed localized thickening and strong reflection of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) in the macular area, patchy strong reflections in the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and varying degrees of local discontinuity in the adjacent external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone/interdigitation zone (EZ/IZ), with reduced local reflection in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium layer in 2 eyes. The strong reflection area of the ONL on corresponding structural OCT was observed more clearly as a lesion range with strong reflection on en-face OCT. The incomplete structure of the EZ/IZ band was observed more clearly as a lesion range with weak reflection on en-face OCT. IR showed several clear-bordered and weakly reflecting lesions at the center of the macula, with the tip pointing to the fovea.Conclusions:AMN associated with COVID-19 tends to occur in young females. The OCT findings of AMN are characterized by strong reflections in the OPL and ONL, and lesion ranges can be observed more clearly at different levels using en-face OCT. The lesions on IR appear as weak reflections.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 299-308, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992602

ABSTRACT

The acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults have a higher rate of neurological injury and early death compared with atlas or axial fractures alone. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment choices of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults are controversial because of the lack of standards for implementation. Non-operative treatments have a high incidence of bone nonunion and complications, while surgeries may easily lead to the injury of the vertebral artery, spinal cord and nerve root. At present, there are no evidence-based Chinese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults. To provide orthopedic surgeons with the most up-to-date and effective information in treating acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults, the Spinal Trauma Group of Orthopedic Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized experts in the field of spinal trauma to develop the Evidence-based guideline for clinical diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults ( version 2023) by referring to the "Management of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults" published by American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS)/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) in 2013 and the relevant Chinese and English literatures. Ten recommendations were made concerning the radiological diagnosis, stability judgment, treatment rules, treatment options and complications based on medical evidence, aiming to provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults.

10.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 916-924, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958546

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore safe dosage of single intravitreal injection of ganciclovir (IVG) in healthy rabit eyes, and to explore retinal toxicity of different dosage of ganciclovir after continues intravitreal injection into the vitreous cavity of healthy albino rabbit eyes.Methods:Ten healthy New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into 5 groups with 2 rabbits in each group. Each group was injected with 1 mg/0.025 ml,2 mg/0.025 ml, 5 mg/0.025 ml, 10 mg/0.025 ml ganciclovir or 0.025 ml saline (control group). After 1 week of intervention, rabbits were examined by ultra-wide-angle fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and full field electroretinogram (ERG). The maximum mixed response of rod and cone cells (Max-R) was measured under dark adaption conditions, cone response (Cone-R) and 30 Hz flicker response (30 Hz-R) were measured under light adaption conditions. Twenty-four healthy New Zealand albino rabbits were randomly divided into a low-dose experimental group, a low-dose control group, a high-dose experimental group, and a high-dose control group, with 6 rabbits in each group, with the right eye as the experimental eye. The rabbits in the high-dose experimental group were continuously injected with ganciclovir 2 mg/0.025 ml, once a week, for a total of 4 times. The rabbits in the low-dose experimental group were injected with 1 mg/0.025 ml ganciclovir, the induction period was 2 times/week, a total of 4 times; the maintenance period was 1 time/week, a total of 2 times. The rabbits in the high-dose control group and the low-dose control group were injected with 0.025 ml normal saline into the vitreous cavity respectively. Full-field ERG examination was performed 1 day before each injection and 1 week after the last injection. Max-R was measured under dark-adapted conditions, and Cone-R and 30 Hz-R were measured under light-adapted conditions. OCT was recorded before the first injection and one week after the last injection. One week after the last injection, the experimental rabbits in each group were sacrificed for hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the retinal structure was observed under a light microscope. The comparison of a-wave and b-wave amplitude of Max-R, Cone-R and 30 Hz-R amplitude at different time was performed by two independent sample nonparametric test.Results:There were no abnormal results of fundus photography, OCT and ERG after single intravitral injection of 1 mg or 2 mg ganciclovir. One week after single 5 mg IVG, fundus photography of rabbits showed vascular occlusion and preretinal hemorrhage and ERG showed slight decrease of amplitude of Max-R, Cone-R and 30 Hz-R. One week after single 10 mg IVG, retinal necrosis and exudative changes were also observed. OCT showed edema and unclear retinal structure in the necrotic area. ERG showed significant decrease of amplitude of Max-R, Cone-R and 30 Hz-R. After continuous IVG in high dose and low-dose experimental group, the amplitude of Max-R a wave ( Z=-0.160, 0.000) and b wave ( Z=-0.321, 0.000), Cone-R a wave ( Z=-0.641,-0.641) and b wave ( Z=-0.321, -0.160), and 30 Hz-R ( Z=-0.321,-0.160) showed no difference compared to control group. No histologic evidences of retinal microstructure abnormalities were found in both groups. OCT and fundus photography before and after the intervention did not show any difference, either. Conclusion:There was no retinal toxicity of continuous 1 mg or 2 mg IVG recorded in albino rabbits.

11.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 885-890, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958540

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical features and multimodal imaging features of eyes with perifoveal exudative vascular anomalous complex (PEVAC).Methods:A retrospective case study. From February 2014 to November 2020, 7 eyes of 7 patients with PEVAC diagnosed by ophthalmology examination in Department of Ophthalmologyof Peking University People's Hospital were included in this study. There were 6 males and 1 female. The age was 60.1±9.1 years. All were monocular. The chief complaints of visual deformation and vision loss were 3 and 1 cases, respectively. All patients underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus color photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). BCVA examination was performed using the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, which was converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity. OCT angiography (OCTA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were performed in 4 and 2 eyes, respectively. Three eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) combined with local laser photocoagulation. Two eyes were treated with laser photocoagulation alone. The follow-up time was 16.7±19.1 months. During follow-up, relevant examinations were performed with the same equipment and methods as at the initial diagnosis. The multimodal imaging characteristics and treatment response of the affected eyes were observed.Results:The baseline logMAR BCVA was 0.33±0.19 (0.20-0.80). All eyes showed isolated hemangiomatous lesions in the macular fovea with rigid retinal exudation, and 2 adjacent isolated hemangiomatous lesions were observed in 1 eye. FFA and ICGA examination showed that all eyes with macular hemangiomatous lesions showed clear boundary and strong fluorescence in the early stage. No other retinal or choroidal vascular abnormalities were observed. On OCT examination, circular lumen-like structures with strong reflective wall near the fovea were observed in the macular region of all eyes, accompanied by intraretinal cystic lumen. The macular central retinal thickness (CMT) was 326±125 (207-479) μm. In the four eyes examined by OCTA, blood flow signals were observed in the circular lumenoid structures with strong reflective walls adjacent to the fovea. Blood flow signals were observed in the superficial capillary layer (SCP) and deep capillary layer (DCP) of the retina in 3 eyes. SCP showed blood flow signal in 1 eye. In 4 eyes treated with intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs, there was no significant improvement in the intraretinal capsule space after treatment. Subretinal fluid absorption, retinal cystoid edema persisted, and rigid exudation decreased in 1 eye. CMT decreased and BCVA increased in 5 eyes treated with laser photocoagulation or laser photocoagulation alone. At last follow-up, logMAR BCVA was 0.16±0.06 (0.10-0.20) and CMT was 212±34 (154-252) μm. Compared with baseline, the difference of BCVA was statistically significant ( t=2.661, P=0.037). Conclusions:The fundus of PEVAC patients is characterized by solitary or multiple solitary hemangiomatous lesions in the macular fovea. Round lumenoid structures with strong reflective walls, with or without intraretinal cystic lumen, rigid exudate, and subretinal fluid, in which blood flow signals can be seen in OCT.

12.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 707-710, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958514

ABSTRACT

The classical surgical operations for foveoschisis in high myopia are vitrectomy, artificial posterior vitreous detachment, removal of the pre-macular vitreous cortex, removal of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and intraocular gas tamponade, with some minor variations on those basis, including no removal of the ILM or ILM peeling with preservation of the fovea area; with or without gas filling, long-term silicone oil tamponade, etc. All the procedures have achieved certain efficacy and the foveoschis can be fully or partially relieved and the visual acuity can be improved to different degrees. It is worthwhile to emphasize, the most common and serious complication of the surgery is the occurrence of full-thickness macular hole or even postoperative macular hole retinal detachment. To address the risk of such complications, a safe and effective outcome can be achieved in the majority of cases by using ILM peeling with preservation of the fovea area. For high-risk cases where the operator is concerned about intraoperative or postoperative macular hole, a long-term silicone oil tamponade without ILM removal is proposed to prevent the risk of surgery-related macular hole formation.

13.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 707-710, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958504

ABSTRACT

The classical surgical operations for foveoschisis in high myopia are vitrectomy, artificial posterior vitreous detachment, removal of the pre-macular vitreous cortex, removal of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and intraocular gas tamponade, with some minor variations on those basis, including no removal of the ILM or ILM peeling with preservation of the fovea area; with or without gas filling, long-term silicone oil tamponade, etc. All the procedures have achieved certain efficacy and the foveoschis can be fully or partially relieved and the visual acuity can be improved to different degrees. It is worthwhile to emphasize, the most common and serious complication of the surgery is the occurrence of full-thickness macular hole or even postoperative macular hole retinal detachment. To address the risk of such complications, a safe and effective outcome can be achieved in the majority of cases by using ILM peeling with preservation of the fovea area. For high-risk cases where the operator is concerned about intraoperative or postoperative macular hole, a long-term silicone oil tamponade without ILM removal is proposed to prevent the risk of surgery-related macular hole formation.

14.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 568-572, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958487

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the pathological features of bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) and the relationship between different treatments and high-risk histopathologic features (HHF).Methods:Retrospective series of case studies. From 1999 to 2018, 73 patients with binocular RB diagnosed by pathological examination in Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital were included in the study. Among them, 50 patients were male (68.5%, 50/73), 23 patients were females (31.5%, 23/73); 11 patitents had a family history of RB. The mean age at the first diagnosis was 14.8±15.6 months. The average time between first diagnosis and first intervention was 3.97±4.74 months. According to the international classification standard of intraocular RB staging, among the 73 eyes, C, D and E stages were 2 (2.7%, 2/73), 15 (20.5%, 15/73), and 56 (76.7%, 56/73) eyes, respectively. Ocular images for each patient were obtained using a wide-angle contact fundus camera during examination under general anaesthesia. The treatment protocol (globe salvaging or enucleation) depended on the result of several clinical features. Globe salvaging treatment included chemotherapy combined with local therapy such as intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC), intravitreal chemotherapeutics injection, cryotherapy, laser, transpupillary thermotherapy and radiotherapy. If globe salvaging failed, enucleation was offered and histopathologic analysis was conducted of the enucleated eye, the ophthalmic pathologist read and evaluated the presence of HHF. Independent samples t-test was performed to compare the continuous variables. The pathological features and the relationship between different treatments and HHF were analyzed. Group difference was calculated with chi-square. Results:Among the 73 eyes, the first treatment was enucleation in 21 eyes (28.8%, 21/73); 52 eyes (71.2%, 52/73) were treated with eye protection. After enucleation, 9 cases (12.3%, 9/73) had recurrence and metastasis, and 7 cases (9.6%, 7/73) died. The intervention time of patients with recurrence and metastasis and those without recurrence and metastasis were 7.4±7.3 and 3.5±4.1 months respectively; the first intervention time of patients with recurrence and metastasis was significantly later than that of patients without recurrence and metastasis, but the difference was not statistically significant ( t=-1.561, P=0.154). The pathological examination results showed that there were 26 eyes (35.6%, 26/73) with HHF, 4 (26.7%, 15/26) and 22 (39.3%, 22/56) eyes were in stage D and E, respectively. Those who received other treatments before enucleation had lower HHF percentages after enucleation than those who did not receive corresponding treatments, but the difference was not statistically significant ( χ2=1.852, 0.074, 0.000, 1.007, 0.007, 2.729; P>0.05). Among the 26 eyes, 5 (83.3%, 5/6) and 21 (31.3%, 21/67) eyes were treated with systemic chemotherapy combined with and without IAC, respectively, and there was a significant difference in the percentage of HHF ( χ2=4.422, P=0.035). Conclusions:IAC eye-preserving therapy before enucleation has a significant effect on HHF.

15.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 546-550, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958483

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the prognosis and differences of visual function and fundus structure in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents (VEGF) or laser photocoagulation treatment with long-term follow-up.Methods:Retrospective case control series. From January 2010 to December 2021, A total of 35 children (63 eyes) with ROP who were first diagnosed in Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital and followed up for as long as 5 years were included. Among them, 21 males (36 eyes) and 15 females (27 eyes) were enrolled. The average gestational age (GA) of the children at birth was 29.30±1.77 weeks. Among the included 12 aggressive ROP (A-ROP) eyes and 51 pre-threshold type 1 ROP eyes, no retinal detachment occurred. Each eye received only intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents or laser monotherapy after diagnosis, and divided into anti-VEGF group or laser group according to the treatment. Thirty-five eyes of 20 infants were included in the anti-VEGF group and 28 eyes of 15 infants were included in the laser group. GA, birth weight (BW) and postmenstrual age receiving first treatment were compared and no significant difference between the two groups was defined ( P=0.844, 0.859, 0.694). The number of A-ROP, pre-threshold type 1 ROP eyes were also compared, and statistically significance can be defined ( P=0.005). During the follow-up period, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive status, visual field, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) were performed. The BCVA examination was carried out using the international standard decimal visual acuity chart, which was converted into the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity for statistics. Refractive status was calculated as spherical equivalent (SE). Comparative observation of 5-year outcomes including BW, GA, fundus examination at the initial diagnosis, and BCVA, refractive status, visual field defect, central foveal thickness (CFT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and abnormality of peripheral retina in FFA were performed between the two groups. Differences between groups were compared using t test or nonparametric test for measurement data, and χ 2 test was used for comparison between groups in enumeration data. Results:Five years after treatment, retinal avascular areas were seen around the eyes in the anti-VEGF treatment group, with a size of 2.32±1.84 optic disc diameters, and 1 eye had fluorescein leakage at the junction of the peripheral avascular areas; eyes in the laser treatment group old photocoagulation spots were seen in the peripheral retina, and no fluorescein leakage was seen. The logMAR BCVA of the eyes in the anti-VEGF treatment group and laser treatment group were 0.15 (0.00, 0.20), 0.10 (0.00, 0.16), respectively; SE were 0.50 (-1.25, 1.31), 0.38 (-4.25, 1.75) D, respectively; mean defect (MD) values of visual field were 2.70 (1.20, 4.80), 4.25 (2.83, 6.98) dB; CFT, SFCT were 225.00±29.31, 287.18±68.56 μm and 237.17±32.81, 279.79±43.61 μm. There was no significant difference in logMAR BCVA, CFT and SFCT between the two groups ( P=0.363, 0.147, 0.622); the lower quartile of SE and visual field MD value in the laser treatment group were significantly higher than those in the laser treatment group, but there was no significant difference in the median SE ( P=0.109), and there was a statistically significant difference in the median MD value of the visual field ( P=0.037). Conclusions:Anti-VEGF agents and laser therapy can achieve similar good visual prognosis for early ROP, and the peripheral visual field can be preserved to a greater extent, however, the peripheral visual field defect in the laser group is more significant than that in the anti-VEGF group. For ROP without retinal detachment, the thickness of the retina and choroid in the fovea is generally normal.

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Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 1104-1107, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955365

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a group of immune-mediated retinopathies that usually results in severe loss of vision and visual field defects.AIR mainly includes paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic syndromes.One main feature of AIR is the presence of circulating anti-retinal antibodies (ARAs) in peripheral blood, which are produced through anti-tumor responses, anti-microbial responses, and immune responses induced by autoantigen fragments following retinal injury, and mainly attack retinal photoreceptor cells.ARAs are important for the diagnosis, progression assessment and treatment outcome of AIR.These ARAs often appear before the diagnosis of cancer and can be helpful for the early detection of malignant tumors.The mechanism of ARAs production, its pathological role in AIR, and its significance in clinical practice were reviewed in this article.

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Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 1006-1012, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955351

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify the proteins differentially expressed in extraocular muscles between restrictive strabismus patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and concomitant esotropia patients by proteomic analysis using tandem mass tag (TMT).Methods:Extraocular muscles samples from 5 restrictive strabismus patients with TAO and 5 concomitant esotropia patients were collected at Peking University People's Hospital from August 2019 to December 2020.All the patients received strabismus surgery.Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in extraocular muscles samples were identified by quantitative proteomic analysis and bioinformatic analysis based on TMT.Fold change≥1.2 or≤0.83 and P value<0.05 was regarded as the threshold to screen DEPs.GO annotation, KEGG pathways enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEPs were conducted through UniProtGOA and STRING.This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Peking University People's Hospital (No.2021PHB058-001). Results:A total of 53 DEPs were identified, 34 of which were up-regulated and 19 were down-regulated.The biological processes DEPs mainly participated included response to stimulation, multicellular organismal process, metabolism, developmental process, intracellular signal transduction, and positive regulation of biological process.DEPs were involved in pathways including focal adhesion, tight junction, regulation of action cytoskeleton, and apoptosis.Six key proteins identified using PPI network were myosin heavy chain 2, myosin heavy chain 7, myosin regulatory light chain, α-actinin-2, fibrinogen alpha chain and fibrinogen beta chain.Conclusions:There are DEPs in extraocular muscles between restrictive strabismus patients with TAO and concomitant esotropia patients.Myosin, actinin and filamin may be involved in the pathogenesis of TAO through regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion.

18.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 346-352, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934316

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Objective:To observe aqueous cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT), and to explore influencing factors for transient elevation of CMV-DNA load during the treatment.Methods:A retrospective study. From January 2016 to July 2020, 28 eyes of 19 patients with CMVR after Allo-HSCT diagnosed in the Department of Ophthalmology of Peking University People's Hospital were included in the study. Among them, there were 8 males with 12 eyes, 11 females with 16 eyes; the mean age was 28 years; 10 patients were unilateral and 9 patients were bilateral. During the course of treatment and follow-up, the blood CMV-DNA remained negative. All patients were treated with intravitreal injection of 60 mg/ml ganciclovir 0.05 ml (containing ganciclovir 3 mg), twice a week for two weeks in induction phase and weekly injection in maintenance phase. Aqueous humor sample was collected during injection of ganciclovir (IVG) and CMV-DNA load was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Intravitreal treatment was terminated if aqueous CMV-DNA load turned negative after the fourth or later intravitreal injection. The patients were followed up every 2 weeks for at least 6 months. Serum CMV-DNA was negative in all patients during treatment and follow-up. All the eyes were divided into continuous decline group and non-continuous decline group depending on whether there was transient elevation of aqueous CMV-DNA load, and data between two groups were compared. Pearson linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between aqueous CMV-DNA load and injection times or treatment duration.Results:At the end of treatment, the median number of IVG in the affected eye was 7 (4, 9). The results of correlation analysis showed that the aqueous humor CMV-DNA load of the affected eye was related to the number of treatments [ R2=0.385, P<0.000 1, B=-0.237 log 10 copies/(ml·time)], and the duration of treatment [ R2=0.394, P <0.000 1, B=-0.301 log 10 copies/(ml·week)] were negatively correlated. Among the 28 eyes, 13 eyes (46.4%, 13/28) in the continuous decline group and 15 eyes (53.6%, 15/28) in the non-sustained decline group. Baseline visual acuity ( t=-1.223), intraocular pressure ( t=1.538), aqueous humor CMV-DNA load ( t=-0.109), retinitis lesion area ( Z=-0.308) in the continuous decline group and the non-continuous decline group), the number of quadrants involved ( Z=-0.024) and whether the macula was involved ( Z=-1.826), combined with anterior segment inflammation ( Z =-0.499), combined with high intraocular pressure ( Z=-1.342), terminal visual acuity ( t =-0.845), intraocular pressure ( t=-0.068), total IVG times ( Z=0.907), age ( Z=-0.832), gender composition ( Z=-1.074), etc. The difference was not statistically significant ( P>0.05). Conclusion:The CMV-DNA load in aqueous humor decreases by about 50% every week during the treatment of CMVR eyes after Allo-HSCT; the transient increase in the CMV-DNA load in the aqueous humor during treatment does not affect the treatment process and clinical prognosis.

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Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; (6): 127-132, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910880

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in the diagnosis of osteoarticular infection.Methods:The clinical data of 37 inpatients aged 32-90 year with osteoarticular infection admitted in the Department of Spine Surgery of Qingdao Chest Hospital from January to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 31 cases of spine infection and 6 cases of other joint infection. The tissue samples were obtained from the infected sites through puncture or surgical approach in all patients. The tissue samples were subjected to routine culture of mycobacteria, aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria, respectively. The gene amplification and mNGS were performed for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA (MTB-DNA). The chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the detection rates of pathogen and simple bacterial infection between mNGS and conventional culture. The conventional culture, mNGS and MTB-DNA amplification detection were performed for all samples; with clinical diagnosis as the gold standard, the diagnostic values of 3 methods were evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Paired sample t test was used to compare white blood cell(WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein of patients before and after treatment. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:The pathogens were detected by mNGS for 42 times: bacteria for 39 times (92.8%), fungi for twice (4.8%) and Kirks body for once (2.4%). Among 37 patients there were 29 cases of pure bacterial infection (78.4%), 2 cases of pure fungi infection (5.4%), 1 case of pure Kirks body infection (2.7%), and 5 cases of mixed infection of two or more pathogens (13.5%). The detection rates of mNGS and conventional culture were 100.0% (37/37) and 67.6% (25/37), respectively ( χ2=13.987, P<0.05). The detection rates of mNGS and conventional culture in 29 patients with pure bacterial infection were 100.0% (29/29) and 69.0% (20/29), respectively ( χ2=16.913, P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of conventional culture, mNGS, and MTB-DNA in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis infection was 0.958 (95% CI: 0.866-1.000, P<0.05), 1.000 (95% CI: 1.000-1.000, P<0.05) and 0.958 (95% CI: 0.866-1.000, P<0.05). All the 37 patients were treated with anti-infective drugs according to the results of mNGS and conventional culture. Among them, 28 patients received surgical intervention. The patients were followed up until April 30, 2020, 1 patient died. After 3 months of follow-up, the WBC count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were (5.5±1.5)×10 9/L, (41±38)mm/h and (5.0±4.6) mg/L, respectively, which were lower than those before anti-infection treatment [(8.0±2.9)×10 9/L, (79±42)mm/h and(63±52)mg/L] ( t=6.536, 8.302 and 6.373, all P<0.05). Conclusion:The metagenomic next-generation sequencing may have important clinical value in the differential diagnosis of osteoarticular infection.

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Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 1086-1090, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908635

ABSTRACT

Along with the increasing global prevalence of myopia, severer myopia brings concerns about a higher risk of potentially blinding complications.Myopia is becoming one of the major causes of vision impairment and blindness in the world, and the myopia prevention and control has been a focus of the whole society.Management of myopia includes more outdoor activities, medications, orthokeratology, peripheral defocus soft contact lens, progressive addition lenses and bifocal lenses, etc.These methods have raised ethical disputes among regulatory bodies, manufacturers, academics and clinicians, who share an ethical responsibility to ensure that the products used for myopia control are safe and efficacious and that patients understand the benefits and potential risks of such products.The IMI- Industry Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Myopia Control Report published in 2019 highlights the ethical challenges and provides stakeholders with recommendations and guidelines in decision-making, production development, spreading of research progress, prescribing, financial support and advertising of such treatments.Some common problems in combination with the latest clinical studies and relevant evidence-based guidelines were reviewed and reasonable solutions were recommended in this article.

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