Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e39-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914329

ABSTRACT

Tamoxifen (TAM) is an anticancer drug used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)‒positive breast cancer. However, its ER-independent cytotoxic and antifungal activities have prompted debates on its mechanism of action. To achieve a better understanding of the ER-independent antifungal action mechanisms of TAM, we systematically identified TAM-sensitive genes through microarray screening of the heterozygous gene deletion library in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Secondary confirmation was followed by a spotting assay, finally yielding 13 TAM-sensitive genes under the drug-induced haploinsufficient condition. For these 13 TAM-sensitive genes, we conducted a comparative analysis of their Gene Ontology (GO) ‘biological process’ terms identified from other genome-wide screenings of the budding yeast deletion library and the MCF7breast cancer cell line. Several TAM-sensitive genes overlapped between the yeast strains and MCF7 in GO terms including ‘cell cycle’ (cdc2, rik1, pas1, and leo1), ‘signaling’ (sck2, oga1, and cki3), and ‘vesicle-mediated transport’ (SPCC126.08c, vps54, sec72, and tvp15), suggesting their roles in the ER-independent cytotoxic effects of TAM. We recently reported that the cki3 gene with the ‘signaling’ GO term was related to the ER-independent antifungal action mechanisms of TAM in yeast. In this study, we report that haploinsufficiency of the essential vps54 gene, which encodes the GARP complex subunit, significantly aggravated TAM sensitivity and led to an enlarged vesicle structure in comparison with the SP286 control strain. These results strongly suggest that the vesicle-mediated transport process might be another action mechanism of the ER-independent antifungal or cytotoxic effects of TAM.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 69-79, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875370

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and the prevalence rapidly increased as the elderly population increased worldwide. In the contemporary model of AD, it is regarded as a disease continuum involving preclinical stage to severe dementia. For accurate diagnosis and disease monitoring, objective index reflecting structural change of brain is needed to correctly assess a patient’s severity of neurodegeneration independent from the patient’s clinical symptoms. The main aim of this paper is to develop a random forest (RF) algorithm-based prediction model of AD using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Methods@#We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and performance of our RF based prediction model using newly developed brain segmentation method compared with the Freesurfer’s which is a commonly used segmentation software. @*Results@#Our RF model showed high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating healthy controls from AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural MRI, patient characteristics, and cognitive function (HC vs. AD 93.5%, AUC 0.99; HC vs. MCI 80.8%, AUC 0.88). Moreover, segmentation processing time of our algorithm (<5 minutes) was much shorter than of Freesurfer’s (6–8 hours). @*Conclusion@#Our RF model might be an effective automatic brain segmentation tool which can be easily applied in real clinical practice.

3.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 234-247, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874319

ABSTRACT

We used a heterozygous gene deletion library of fission yeasts comprising all essential and non-essential genes for a microarray screening of target genes of the antifungal terbinafine, which inhibits ergosterol synthesis via the erg1 enzyme. We identified 14 heterozygous strains corresponding to 10 non-essential [7 ribosomal-protein (RP) coding genes, spt7, spt20, and elp2] and 4 essential genes (tif302, rpl2501, rpl31, and erg1). Expectedly, their erg1 mRNA and protein levels had decreased compared to the control strain SP286. When we studied the action mechanism of the non-essential target genes using cognate haploid deletion strains, knockout of SAGA-subunit genes caused a down-regulation in erg1 transcription compared to the control strain ED668. However, knockout of RP genes conferred no susceptibility to ergosterol-targeting antifungals. Surprisingly, the RP genes participated in the erg1 transcription as components of repressor complexes as observed in a comparison analysis of the experimental ratio of erg1 mRNA. To understand the action mechanism of the interaction between the drug and the novel essential target genes, we performed isobologram assays with terbinafine and econazole (or cycloheximide). Terbinafine susceptibility of the tif302 heterozygous strain was attributed to both decreased erg1 mRNA levels and inhibition of translation. Moreover, Tif302 was required for efficacy of both terbinafine and cycloheximide. Based on a molecular modeling analysis, terbinafine could directly bind to Tif302 in yeasts, suggesting Tif302 as a potential off-target of terbinafine. In conclusion, this genome-wide screening system can be harnessed for the identification and characterization of target genes under any condition of interest.

4.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e28-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763819

ABSTRACT

Bar-code (tag) microarrays of yeast gene-deletion collections facilitate the systematic identification of genes required for growth in any condition of interest. Anti-sense strands of amplified bar-codes hybridize with ~10,000 (5,000 each for up- and down-tags) different kinds of sense-strand probes on an array. In this study, we optimized the hybridization processes of an array for fission yeast. Compared to the first version of the array (11 µm, 100K) consisting of three sectors with probe pairs (perfect match and mismatch), the second version (11 µm, 48K) could represent ~10,000 up-/down-tags in quadruplicate along with 1,508 negative controls in quadruplicate and a single set of 1,000 unique negative controls at random dispersed positions without mismatch pairs. For PCR, the optimal annealing temperature (maximizing yield and minimizing extra bands) was 58℃ for both tags. Intriguingly, up-tags required 3× higher amounts of blocking oligonucleotides than down-tags. A 1:1 mix ratio between up- and down-tags was satisfactory. A lower temperature (25℃) was optimal for cultivation instead of a normal temperature (30℃) because of extra temperature-sensitive mutants in a subset of the deletion library. Activation of frozen pooled cells for >1 day showed better resolution of intensity than no activation. A tag intensity analysis showed that tag(s) of 4,316 of the 4,526 strains tested were represented at least once; 3,706 strains were represented by both tags, 4,072 strains by up-tags only, and 3,950 strains by down-tags only. The results indicate that this microarray will be a powerful analytical platform for elucidating currently unknown gene functions.


Subject(s)
Oligonucleotides , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Schizosaccharomyces , Yeasts
5.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 22-29, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714916

ABSTRACT

Incorporation of unique barcodes into fission yeast gene deletion collections has enabled the identification of gene functions by growth fitness analysis. For fine tuning, it is important to examine barcode sequences, because mutations arise during strain construction. Out of 8,708 barcodes (4,354 strains) covering 88.5% of all 4,919 open reading frames, 7,734 barcodes (88.8%) were validated as high-fidelity to be inserted at the correct positions by Sanger sequencing. Sequence examination of the 7,734 high-fidelity barcodes revealed that 1,039 barcodes (13.4%) deviated from the original design. In total, 1,284 mutations (mutation rate of 16.6%) exist within the 1,039 mutated barcodes, which is comparable to budding yeast (18%). When the type of mutation was considered, substitutions accounted for 845 mutations (10.9%), deletions accounted for 319 mutations (4.1%), and insertions accounted for 121 mutations (1.6%). Peculiarly, the frequency of substitutions (67.6%) was unexpectedly higher than in budding yeast (~28%) and well above the predicted error of Sanger sequencing (~2%), which might have arisen during the solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and PCR amplification of the barcodes during strain construction. When the mutation rate was analyzed by position within 20-mer barcodes using the 1,284 mutations from the 7,734 sequenced barcodes, there was no significant difference between up-tags and down-tags at a given position. The mutation frequency at a given position was similar at most positions, ranging from 0.4% (32/7,734) to 1.1% (82/7,734), except at position 1, which was highest (3.1%), as in budding yeast. Together, well-defined barcode sequences, combined with the next-generation sequencing platform, promise to make the fission yeast gene deletion library a powerful tool for understanding gene function.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Deletion , Mutation Rate , Open Reading Frames , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saccharomycetales , Schizosaccharomyces
6.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 142-146, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192018

ABSTRACT

More effective production of human insulin is important, because insulin is the main medication that is used to treat multiple types of diabetes and because many people are suffering from diabetes. The current system of insulin production is based on recombinant DNA technology, and the expression vector is composed of a preproinsulin sequence that is a fused form of an artificial leader peptide and the native proinsulin. It has been reported that the sequence of the leader peptide affects the production of insulin. To analyze how the leader peptide affects the maturation of insulin structurally, we adapted several in silico simulations using 13 artificial proinsulin sequences. Three-dimensional structures of models were predicted and compared. Although their sequences had few differences, the predicted structures were somewhat different. The structures were refined by molecular dynamics simulation, and the energy of each model was estimated. Then, protein-protein docking between the models and trypsin was carried out to compare how efficiently the protease could access the cleavage sites of the proinsulin models. The results showed some concordance with experimental results that have been reported; so, we expect our analysis will be used to predict the optimized sequence of artificial proinsulin for more effective production.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computer Simulation , DNA, Recombinant , Insulin , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Proinsulin , Protein Sorting Signals , Trypsin
7.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 147-155, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192017

ABSTRACT

Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an enzyme responsible for the initial step in the base excision repair pathway and is known to be a potential drug target for treating cancers, because its expression is associated with resistance to DNA-damaging anticancer agents. Although several inhibitors already have been identified, the identification of novel kinds of potential inhibitors of APE1 could provide a seed for the development of improved anticancer drugs. For this purpose, we first classified known inhibitors of APE1. According to the classification, we constructed two distinct pharmacophore models. We screened more than 3 million lead-like compounds using the pharmacophores. Hits that fulfilled the features of the pharmacophore models were identified. In addition to the pharmacophore screen, we carried out molecular docking to prioritize hits. Based on these processes, we ultimately identified 1,338 potential inhibitors of APE1 with predicted binding affinities to the enzyme.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Classification , DNA Repair , Molecular Docking Simulation
8.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 156-161, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192016

ABSTRACT

Transcriptome analysis has been widely used to make biomarker panels to diagnose cancers. In breast cancer, the age of the patient has been known to be associated with clinical features. As clinical transcriptome data have accumulated significantly, we classified all human genes based on age-specific differential expression between normal and breast cancer cells using public data. We retrieved the values for gene expression levels in breast cancer and matched normal cells from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We divided genes into two classes by paired t test without considering age in the first classification. We carried out a secondary classification of genes for each class into eight groups, based on the patterns of the p-values, which were calculated for each of the three age groups we defined. Through this two-step classification, gene expression was eventually grouped into 16 classes. We showed that this classification method could be applied to establish a more accurate prediction model to diagnose breast cancer by comparing the performance of prediction models with different combinations of genes. We expect that our scheme of classification could be used for other types of cancer data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome , Methods , Transcriptome
9.
Healthcare Informatics Research ; : 21-29, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a common health information exchange (HIE) platform that can provide integrated services for implementing the HIE infrastructure in addition to guidelines for participating in an HIE network in South Korea. METHODS: By exploiting the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing-b (XDS.b) profile, we defined the architectural model, exchanging data items and their standardization, messaging standards, and privacy and security guidelines, for a secure, nationwide, interoperable HIE. We then developed a service-oriented common HIE platform to minimize the effort and difficulty of fulfilling the standard requirements for participating in the HIE network. The common platform supports open application program interfaces (APIs) for implementing a document registry, a document repository, a document consumer, and a master patient index. It could also be used for testing environments for the implementation of standard requirements. RESULTS: As the initial phase of implementing a nationwide HIE network in South Korea, we built a regional network for workers' compensation (WC) hospitals and their collaborating clinics to share referral and care record summaries to ensure the continuity of care for industrially injured workers, using the common HIE platform and verifying the feasibility of our technologies. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to expand the HIE network on a national scale with rapid support for implementing HL7 and IHE standards in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computer Security , Computer Systems , Continuity of Patient Care , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Health Level Seven , Information Services , Korea , Privacy , Referral and Consultation , Workers' Compensation
10.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 80-85, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62313

ABSTRACT

HExDB is a database for analyzing exon and splicing pattern information in Homo sapiens. HExDB is useful for specific purposes: 1) to design primers for exon amplification from cDNA and 2) to understand the change of ORFs by alternative splicing. HExDB was constructed by integrating data from AltExtron which is the computationally predicted exon database, Ensemble cDNA annotation, and Affymetrix genome tile published recently. Although it may contain false positive data, HExDB is good starting point due to its sensitivity. At present, there are as many as 2,046,519 exons stored in the HExDB. We found that 16.8% of the exons in the database was constitutive exons and 83.1% were novel gene exons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alternative Splicing , DNA, Complementary , Ecthyma, Contagious , Exons , Genome , Open Reading Frames
11.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 577-581, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: For better understanding of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of management in pediatric urolithiasis, we report our experience with pediatric urolithiasis during the past 10 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 56 pediatric patients with urolithiasis between May 1990 and May 2000. The mean age of the patients was 8.4 years (3 months-18 years) with sex ratio of 1.2:1.0 (male:female). We described initial symptoms, risk factors, location and size of stones, stone composition, treatment outcomes and complications. Metabolic evaluations were performed in 26 patients. RESUTLS: Metabolic abnormalities were found in 13 (23%) and all of them had hypercalciuria. In 3 of these patients, hyperuricosuria was also detected. Urinary tract anomalies were discovered in 10 (18%), all of whom were under age of 10 and underwent surgical reconstruction except for 1 patient who had horseshoe kidney and was lost during follow-up. For the treatment, 28 patients (50%) were treated by SWL. Other treatment modalities consisted of ureteroscopic lithotripsy in 3, pyelolithotomy in 2 who had large staghorn stone (>5cm), and cystolitholapaxy in 2. Spontaneous stone passage was observed in 8 patients (14%). For those who underwent SWL, stone free rates of the first, second and third session were 78%, 96% and 100% respectively. There were no major complications. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with urolithiasis requires evaluation for metabolic and structural abnormalities. Most of the urinary stone disease in the pediatric age group without structural anomalies could be effectively treated by SWL with minimal morbidity whereas those with structural anomalies necessitating surgical reconstruction are the best candidates for open surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Hypercalciuria , Kidney , Lithotripsy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Ratio , Urinary Calculi , Urinary Tract , Urolithiasis
12.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 1146-1151, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196381

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We attempted to find out the useful urodynamic parameters for diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women, prospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 219 patients were available for analysis, of whom 34 were obstructed by clinical definition, 137 with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 34 served as a control. To predict obstruction, comparisons were made; receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimum cut-off values for peak flow rate (Qmax), detrusor pressure at maximum flow (PdetQmax) and maximal urethral closing pressure (MUCP). RESULTS: On the basis of ROC curves between control and BOO groups, using single cut-off value at pressure-flow study, sensitivities and specificities of BOO were 97.1% and 77.9% (Qmax30cmH2O), 79.4% and 88.2% (MUCP>80cmH2O). By combined cut-off values, sensitivities and specificities of BOO were 85.3% and 92.6% (Qmax30cmH2O), and 73.5% and 94.1% (Qmax30cmH2O, and MUCP>80cmH2O). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that BOO might be diagnosed by the criteria of Qmax30cmH2O, and MUCP>80cmH2O.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Diagnosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Incontinence , Urodynamics
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 19-24, 2000.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gastric resection may predispose gallstone formation. However, the mechanism has not been clearly understood. To evaluate the relationship between gastric resection and gallstone formation, we compared gallbladder(GB) motility in gastrectomized patients and control subjects. METHODS: We compared the GB volume and ejection fraction of the 46 gastrectomized patients with 37 healthy controls using real time ultrasonography. RESULTS: GB volume increased significantly in the gastrectomized group in fasting (30.2 13.9 ml). The GB volume after a fatty meal was greater in the gastrectomized group (12.6 6.4 ml) than in the control group (4.3 3.3 ml) (p +ADw- 0.01). A significant reduction of ejection fraction was found in gastrectomized patients (56.9 13.0+ACU-) in comparison with the control group (75.5 16.1+ACU-) (p +ADw- 0.01). The GB ejection fraction had a poor correlation to the postoperative period (r +AD0- 0.232). CONCLUSION: A gastrectomy appears to be a risk factor of GB dysmotility, which may play a major role in gallstone formation in gastrectomized patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Cholelithiasis/diagnostic imaging , Cholelithiasis , Comparative Study , Eating , Endosonography , Fasting , Gallbladder/diagnostic imaging , Gallbladder , Gallbladder Emptying , Gastrectomy , Gastrointestinal Motility , Middle Aged , Probability , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Risk Assessment , Stomach Neoplasms
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL