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Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835689


Chloral hydrate is the oldest and most common sedative drug used in moderate sedation for pediatric dental patients. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the safety and possible adverse events of this drug when used for pediatric dental treatment. A bibliographic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and KMbase, KISS, DBpia, KoreaMed, and RISS databases was performed. Using the keywords “dental sedation,” “chloral hydrate,” and “children or adolescent,” 512 scientific articles were found. Subsequently, 183 studies were individually assessed for their suitability for inclusion in this literature review. Altogether, 24 studies were selected. They included 12 cases of death before, during, or after chloral hydrate sedation for dental treatment, majorly due to dosing error and use of multiple sedatives. Additionally, intraoperative adverse events were mostly respiratory problems such as hypoxia and apnea, but most events were temporary. After treatment, prolonged sedation, including excessive sleep and less activity were the most common postoperative adverse events, and even death cases were reported. Despite the wide acceptance of chloral hydrate as a sedative-hypnotic agent, the risk of adverse events and adequate dose should be of great concern when using it for pediatric dental sedation.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765058


BACKGROUND: The sectioned images of a cadaver head made from the Visible Korean project have been used for research and educational purposes. However, the image resolution is insufficient to observe detailed structures suitable for experts. In this study, advanced sectioned images with higher resolution were produced for the identification of more detailed structures. METHODS: The head of a donated female cadaver was scanned for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor images (DTIs). After the head was frozen, the head was sectioned serially at 0.04-mm intervals and photographed repeatedly using a digital camera. RESULTS: On the resulting 4,000 sectioned images (intervals and pixel size, 0.04 mm³; color depth, 48 bits color; a file size, 288 Mbytes), minute brain structures, which can be observed not on previous sectioned images but on microscopic slides, were observed. The voxel size of this study (0.04 mm³) was very minute compared to our previous study (0.1 mm³; resolution, 4,368 × 2,912) and Visible Human Project of the USA (0.33 mm³; resolution, 2,048 × 2,048). Furthermore, the sectioned images were combined with tractography of the DTIs to elucidate the white matter with high resolution and the actual color of the tissue. CONCLUSION: The sectioned images will be used for diverse research, including the applications for the cross sectional anatomy and three-dimensional models for virtual experiments.

Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Cadaver , Diffusion , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Female , Head , Humans , White Matter
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764179


Although many imaging modalities can play some roles in the diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection (VAD), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard method, with the highest detection rate and ability to assist in planning for endovascular treatment. However, this tool is often avoided in children because its invasive nature and it exposes them to radiation. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) have been suggested to be a reliable and non-invasive alternative, but it has never been discussed in children in whom vertebral artery dissection is a rare condition. In this report, we evaluate a case of a 2-year-old child who initially presented with cerebellar symptoms, and was early diagnosed with vertebral artery dissection using HR-MRI and was successfully treated.

Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Vertebral Artery Dissection , Vertebral Artery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785633


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze intracranial vessels using brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) and scoring systems to diagnose brain death and predict poor neurologic outcomes of postcardiac arrest patients.METHODS: Initial brain CTA images of postcardiac arrest patients were analyzed using scoring systems to determine a lack of opacification and diagnose brain death. The primary outcome was poor neurologic outcome, which was defined as cerebral performance category score 3 to 5. The frequency, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under receiver operating characteristic curve for the lack of opacification of each vessel and for each scoring system used to predict poor neurologic outcomes were determined.RESULTS: Patients with poor neurologic outcomes lacked opacification of the intracranial vessels, most commonly in the vein of Galen, both internal cerebral veins, and the mid cerebral artery (M4). The 7-score results (P=0.04) and 10-score results were significantly different (P=0.04) between outcome groups, with an area under receiver operating characteristic of 0.61 (range, 0.48 to 0.72). The lack of opacification of each intracranial vessel and all scoring systems exhibited high specificity (100%) and positive predictive values (100%) for predicting poor neurologic outcomes.CONCLUSION: Lack of opacification of vessels on brain CTA exhibited high specificity for predicting poor neurologic outcomes of patients after cardiac arrest.

Angiography , Brain Death , Brain , Cerebral Arteries , Cerebral Veins , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypothermia , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716269


OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for detection of thyroid cancers via ultrasonography (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 50 consecutive patients with 117 thyroid nodules on US during the period between June 2016 and July 2016. A radiologist performed US examinations using real-time CAD integrated into a US scanner. We compared the diagnostic performance of radiologist, the CAD system, and the CAD-assisted radiologist for the detection of thyroid cancers. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the CAD system were 80.0, 88.1, 83.3, 85.5, and 84.6%, respectively, and were not significantly different from those of the radiologist (p > 0.05). The CAD-assisted radiologist showed improved diagnostic sensitivity compared with the radiologist alone (92.0% vs. 84.0%, p = 0.037), while the specificity and PPV were reduced (85.1% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.005 and 82.1% vs. 93.3%, p = 0.008). The radiologist assisted by the CAD system exhibited better diagnostic sensitivity and NPV than the CAD system alone (92.0% vs. 80.0%, p = 0.009 and 93.4% vs. 88.9%, p = 0.013), while the specificities and PPVs were not significantly different (88.1% vs. 85.1%, p = 0.151 and 83.3% vs. 82.1%, p = 0.613, respectively). CONCLUSION: The CAD system may be an adjunct to radiological intervention in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Artificial Intelligence , Diagnosis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography