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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0103, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288067


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The concomitant use of antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs, as well as drugs to treat other diseases, can cause drug-drug interactions. This study aimed to describe potential drug-drug interactions (pDDI) in patients with TB and HIV/AIDS co-infection, as well as to analyze possible associated factors. METHODS: This study was performed in a reference hospital for infectious and contagious diseases in the southeastern region of Brazil and evaluated adult patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were assessed. The pDDI were identified using the Drug-Reax software. Association analysis was performed using either a chi-squared test or a Fisher's exact test. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman's coefficient. RESULTS: The study included 81 patients, of whom 77 (95.1%) were exposed to pDDI. The most frequent interactions were between antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs, which can cause therapeutic ineffectiveness and major adverse reactions. A positive correlation was established between the number of associated diseases, the number of drugs used, and the number of pDDI. An association was identified between contraindicated and moderate pDDI with excessive polypharmacy and hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high frequency of pDDI, especially among those hospitalized and those with excessive polypharmacy. These findings highlight the importance of pharmacists in the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring in these patients.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07552020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155600


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intensification of research and innovation with the creation of networks of rapid and effective molecular tests as strategies for the end of tuberculosis are essential to avoid late diagnosis and for the eradication of the disease. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert) in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in reference units, in scenarios with and without subsidies, and the respective cost adjustment for today. METHODS: The analyses were performed considering as criterion of effectiveness, negative culture or clinical improvement in the sixth month of follow-up. The comparison was performed using two diagnostic strategies for the drug susceptibility test (DST), BactecTMMGITTM960 System, versus Xpert. The cost effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and dollar-corrected for American inflation (US$ 1.00 = R$ 5,29). RESULTS: Subsidized Xpert had the lowest cost of US$ 33.48 (R$67,52) and the highest incremental average efficiency (13.57), thus being a dominated analysis. After the inflation was calculated, the mean cost was DST-MGIT=US$ 74.85 (R$ 396,73) and Xpert = US$ 37.33 (R$197,86) with subsidies. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert in the diagnosis of TB-DR in these reference units was cost-effective with subsidies. In the absence of a subsidy, Xpert in TB-DR is not characterized as cost effective. This factor reveals the vulnerability of countries dependent on international organizations' subsidy policies.

Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cost-Benefit Analysis
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20210054, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250200


ABSTRACT Early, accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is one of the major pillars of the control of the disease. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide health professionals with the most current, useful evidence for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Brazil. To that end, the Tuberculosis Committee of the Brazilian Thoracic Association brought together 14 members of the Association with recognized expertise in tuberculosis in Brazil to compose the statement. A nonsystematic review of the following topics was carried out: clinical diagnosis, bacteriological diagnosis, radiological diagnosis, histopathological diagnosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, and diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection.

RESUMO O diagnóstico precoce e adequado da tuberculose é um dos pilares mais importantes no controle da doença. A proposta deste consenso brasileiro é apresentar aos profissionais da área de saúde um documento com as evidências mais atuais e úteis para o diagnóstico da tuberculose. Para tanto, a Comissão de Tuberculose da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia reuniu 14 membros da Sociedade com reconhecida experiência em tuberculose no Brasil. Foi realizada uma revisão não sistemática dos seguintes tópicos: diagnóstico clínico, diagnóstico bacteriológico, diagnóstico radiológico, diagnóstico histopatológico, diagnóstico da tuberculose na criança e diagnóstico da tuberculose latente.

Humans , Child , Tuberculosis , Brazil , Health Personnel , Consensus
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00112020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285813


Resumo: A Organização Mundial da Saúde destaca a importância da organização e do desempenho dos serviços de saúde nas ações de controle da tuberculose. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho dos serviços de atenção primaria à saúde em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em relação às ações de controle da tuberculose nos eixos Estrutura e Processo, antes e após a utilização do instrumento validado denominado Estratificação por Grau de Risco Clínico e de Abandono do Tratamento da Tuberculose (ERTB). Estudo descritivo e prospectivo, no qual foram realizadas duas entrevistas (455 profissionais), tendo a segunda ocorrido após a ERTB. A classificação do desempenho seguiu os valores: ≤ 49,9%, críticos; entre 50% e 79,9%, insatisfatórios; e, ≥ 80%, satisfatórios. Na avaliação comparativa, foi utilizado o teste estatístico de McNemar, com p < 0,05. Após a estratificação de risco, a maior parte das variáveis de cada eixo melhorou significativamente. Nós concluímos que, por meio de um questionário padronizado, foi possível identificar o desempenho satisfatório dos serviços de atenção primária à saúde em Belo Horizonte em relação às ações de controle da tuberculose, na maioria das variáveis avaliadas nos eixos Estrutura e Processo.

Abstract: The World Health Organization highlights the importance of health services organization and performance in tuberculosis (TB) control activities. This study aimed to assess the performance of primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in TB control activities in the dimensions Structure and Process, before and after the use of a validated instrument called Stratification by Degree of Clinical Risk and Tuberculosis Treatment Dropout (ERTB). This was a descriptive and prospective study with two interviews (455 professionals), the second of which after the ERTB. Performance classification was: ≤ 49.9%, critical; 50-79.9%, unsatisfactory, and ≥ 80%, satisfactory. The comparative assessment used the McNemar statistical test with p < 0.05. After risk stratification, most of the variables in each dimension improved significantly. The authors conclude that it was possible to identify satisfactory performance in most of the variables assessed in the Structure and Process dimensions in primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte in relation to TB control activities, using a standardized questionnaire.

Resumen: La Organización Mundial de la Salud destaca la importancia de la organización y del desempeño de los servicios de salud en acciones de control de la tuberculosis. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el desempeño de los servicios de atención primaria en salud en Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, en relación con las acciones de control de la tuberculosis respecto a los ejes Estructura y Proceso, antes y después de la utilización del instrumento validado, denominado Estratificación por Grado de Riesgo Clínico y de Abandono del Tratamiento de la Tuberculosis (ERTB). Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo, donde se realizaron dos entrevistas (455 profesionales), siendo que la segunda se produjo tras la ERTB. La clasificación del desempeño siguió los valores: ≤ 49,9%, críticos; entre 50 y 79,9%, insatisfactorios; y, ≥ 80%, satisfactorios. En la evaluación comparativa, se utilizó el test estadístico de McNemar, con p < 0,05. Tras la estratificación de riesgo, la mayor parte de las variables de cada eje mejoró significativamente. Concluimos que fue posible identificar el desempeño satisfactorio en la mayoría de las variables evaluadas en los ejes Estructura y Proceso de los servicios de atención primaria en salud en Belo Horizonte, en relación con las acciones de control de la tuberculosis mediante un cuestionario estandarizado.

Humans , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Health Services , Primary Health Care , Brazil , Prospective Studies
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20210018, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340138


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the impact of the instrument of the "Stratification by Degree of Clinical Severity and Abandonment Risk of Tuberculosis Treatment" (SRTB) on the tuberculosis outcome. Methods: This study was a pragmatic clinical trial involving patients with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis treated at one of the 152 primary health care units in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between May of 2016 and April of 2017. Cluster areas for tuberculosis were identified, and the units and their respective patients were divided into intervention (use of SRTB) and nonintervention groups. Results: The total sample comprised 432 participants, 223 and 209 of whom being allocated to the nonintervention and intervention groups, respectively. The risk of treatment abandonment in the nonintervention group was significantly higher than was that in the intervention group (OR = 15.010; p < 0.001), regardless of the number of risk factors identified. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a hazard ratio of 0.0753 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The SRTB instrument was effective in reducing abandonment of tuberculosis treatment, regardless of the number of risk factors for that. This instrument is rapid and easy to use, and can be adapted to different realities. Its application showed characteristics predisposing to a non-adherence to the treatment and established bases to mitigate its impact.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do instrumento denominado "Estratificação por Grau de Risco Clínico e de Abandono do Tratamento da Tuberculose" (ERTB) nos desfechos da tuberculose. Métodos: Ensaio clínico pragmático envolvendo pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de tuberculose atendidos em uma das 152 unidades de atenção primária à saúde na cidade de Belo Horizonte (MG) entre maio de 2016 e abril de 2017. Foram identificadas áreas de cluster para tuberculose, e as unidades e os respectivos pacientes foram divididos em grupos intervenção (uso do instrumento ERTB) e não intervenção. Resultados: A amostra total foi composta por 432 participantes, dos quais 223 e 209 foram alocados nos grupos não intervenção e intervenção, respectivamente. O risco de abandono do tratamento no grupo não intervenção foi significativamente maior do que no grupo intervenção (OR = 15,010; p < 0,001), independentemente do número de fatores de risco identificados. As curvas de Kaplan-Meier mostraram uma razão de risco de 0,0753 (p < 0,001). Conclusões: O instrumento ERTB foi eficaz em reduzir o abandono do tratamento da tuberculose, independentemente do número de fatores de risco identificados. Esse instrumento é rápido e fácil de utilizar e pode ser adaptado a diferentes realidades.

Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cities
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190175, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057267


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study sought to assess the mean and activity based cost (ABC) of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis through the application of conventional and molecular techniques-Xpert®MTB/RIF and Genotype®MTBDRplus-in a tertiary referral hospital in Brazil. METHODS: The mean cost and ABC formed the basis for the cost analysis of the TB laboratory diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean cost and ABC were US$ 4.00 and US$ 3.24, respectively, for a bacilloscopy; US$ 6.73 and US$ 5.27 for a Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture; US$ 105.42 and US$ 76.56 for a drug sensitivity test (DST)-proportions method (PM) in LJ; US$ 148.45 and US$ 136.80 for a DST-BACTECTM MGITTM 960 system; US$ 11.53 and US$ 9.89 for an Xpert®MTB/RIF; and US$ 84.21 and US$ 48.38 for a Genotype®MTBDRplus. CONCLUSIONS: The mean cost and ABC proved to be good decision-making parameters in the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB. The effective implementation of algorithms will depend on the conditions at each location.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/economics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190207, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057305


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions can develop when using anti-tuberculosis medication, and the effects of the drugs can also significantly hinder the treatment of patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 73 patients using two standardized questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. RESULTS: All patients reported the presence of adverse drug reactions, 71.6% of which are minor and 28.3% both major and minor. The global quality of life analysis showed that patients with tuberculosis have a good average (67.3%). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between quality of life and adverse drug reaction, educational level, and vulnerability.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/psychology , Tertiary Care Centers , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200314, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136805


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid and accurate tuberculosis detection is critical for improving patient diagnosis and decreasing tuberculosis transmission. Molecular assays can significantly increase laboratory costs; therefore, the average time and economic impact should be evaluated before implementing a new technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost and average turnaround time of smear microscopy and Xpert assay at a university hospital. METHODS: The turnaround time and cost of the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis were calculated based on the mean cost and activity based costing (ABC). RESULTS: The average turnaround time for smear microscopy was 16.6 hours while that for Xpert was 24.1 hours. The Xpert had a mean cost of USD 17.37 with an ABC of USD 10.86, while smear microscopy had a mean cost of USD 13.31 with an ABC of USD 6.01. The sensitivity of smear microscopy was 42.9% and its specificity was 99.1%, while the Xpert assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert assay has high accuracy; however, the turnaround time and cost of smear microscopy were lower than those of Xpert.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Biological Assay/economics , Pathology, Molecular/economics , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/economics , Biological Assay/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Costs and Cost Analysis , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Microscopy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180386, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090807


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for the development of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between October of 2012 and October of 2014. We evaluated sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and radiological variables. The outcome considered to identify associations between tuberculosis and the explanatory variables was the treatment prescribed. To evaluate the associations between MDR-TB and the same explanatory variables, the change in MDR-TB treatment was considered. Results: The factors associated with tuberculosis were alcoholism, comorbidities, pulmonary cavitations, and a radiological pattern suggestive of tuberculosis. Cavitation and previous treatment for tuberculosis were associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: Despite the significant progress made in the fight against tuberculosis, there is a need for coordinated actions that include social protection measures and patient support.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco de pacientes atendidos em um hospital de referência terciária para o desenvolvimento de tuberculose e tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR). Métodos: Estudo transversal baseado em dados obtidos de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, na cidade de Belo Horizonte (MG), entre outubro de 2012 e outubro de 2014. As variáveis utilizadas foram agrupadas em características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, clínicas e radiológicas. O desfecho considerado para verificar associações entre tuberculose e variáveis explicativas foi o tratamento prescrito para tuberculose. Para avaliar a associação entre a tuberculose resistente e as mesmas variáveis explicativas considerou-se a mudança de tratamento para TBMR. Resultados: Alcoolismo, padrão radiológico sugestivo de tuberculose, presença de comorbidades e presença de cavitações pulmonares foram fatores associados à tuberculose. A TBMR foi associada a tratamento prévio para tuberculose e presença de cavitações. Conclusões: Apesar dos importantes progressos na luta contra a tuberculose, é necessário um conjunto de ações articuladas que incluam medidas de proteção social e suporte aos pacientes.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190179, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132181


Abstract (1) Background: The Commercial Kit SIRE Nitratase® PlastLabor, is a drug susceptibility test kit used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first-line TB treatment drugs. The present study aimed at evaluating its performance in a multicenter study. (2) Methods: To determine its accuracy, the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or the BACTECTMMGITTM960 system was used as a gold standard. (3) Results: The study revealed that the respective accuracies of the kit with 190 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, using the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or BACTECTMMGITTM960 system as a gold standard, were 93.9% and 94.6%, 96.9% and 94.6%, 98.0% and 97.8%, and 98.0% and 98.9%, for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol, respectively. (4) Conclusion: Thus, the kit can rapidly screen resistance to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. Additionally, it does not require sophisticated equipment; hence, it can be easily used in the laboratories of low and middle income countries.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/classification
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4696, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019808


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency of drug therapy problem in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were obtained through a cross-sectional study conducted between September 2015 and December 2016 at a reference hospital in infectious diseases in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic variables were evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug-related problems of pharmaceutical care were classified using the Pharmacotherapy Workup method. Factors associated with indication, effectiveness, safety and compliance drug therapy problem were assessed through multiple logistic regression. Results: We evaluated 81 patients, and 80% presented at least one drug therapy problem, with indication and adherence drug therapy problem being the most frequent. The factors associated with drug therapy problem were age, marital status, new case, ethnicity, time of HIV diagnosis and time to treat tuberculosis. Conclusion: The frequency of drug therapy problem in coinfected patients was high and the identification of the main drug therapy problem and associated factors may lead the multiprofessional health team to ensure the use of the most indicated, effective, safe and convenient medicines for the patients clinical condition. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS coinfected individuals aged over 40 years are more likely to have drug therapy problems during treatment; in that, the most frequente are those that signal toward need of medication for an untreated health condition and non-compliance to treatment. Thus, older patients, unmarried or married, who have treated tuberculosis before, with a shorter time to tuberculosis treatment and longer time to diagnose HIV/AIDS, should receive special attention and be better followed by a multiprofessional health team because they indicate a higher chance of presenting Problems related to the use of non-adherent drugs.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequência de problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos no tratamento de pacientes com tuberculose e HIV/AIDS. Métodos: Os dados foram obtidos por estudo transversal realizado entre setembro de 2015 e dezembro de 2016 em hospital referência em doenças infectocontagiosas de Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil. As variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, comportamentais e farmacoterapêuticas foram avaliadas por questionário semiestruturado. Classificaram-se os problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamento empregando o método Pharmacotherapy Workup de atenção farmacêutica. Os fatores associados aos problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos de indicação, efetividade, segurança e adesão foram avaliados pela regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: Foram avaliados 81 pacientes, e 80% apresentaram pelo menos um problema relacionado ao uso de medicamentos, sendo os mais frequentes ligados à problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos de indicação e adesão. Os fatores associados aos problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos foram idade, estado civil, caso novo, etnia, tempo de diagnóstico do HIV e tempo de tratamento da tuberculose. Conclusão: A frequência de problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos em pacientes coinfectados foi alta, e a identificação dos principais problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos e dos fatores associados aos mesmos pode direcionar a equipe multiprofissional de saúde, para garantir o uso dos medicamentos mais indicados, efetivos, seguros e convenientes para a condição clínica dos pacientes. Os indivíduos coinfectados com tuberculose e HIV/AIDS maiores de 40 anos possuem maior chance de apresentarem problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos durante o tratamento, sendo os mais frequentes os que indicam a necessidade de medicamento para condição de saúde não tratada e não adesão ao tratamento. Pacientes mais idosos, solteiros ou não, que já trataram a tuberculose antes, com menor tempo de tratamento de tuberculose e maior tempo de diagnóstico de HIV/AIDS devem ter atenção especial no acompanhamento por uma equipe multiprofissional de saúde por indicarem maior chance de apresentar Problemas Relacionados ao uso de Medicamentos de não adesão à terapia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Prescription Drugs/standards , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Referral and Consultation , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(6): 449-455, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984607


ABSTRACT Objective: To derive reference equations for spirometry in healthy Black adult never smokers in Brazil, comparing them with those published in 2007 for White adults in the country. Methods: The examinations followed the standards recommended by the Brazilian Thoracic Association, and the spirometers employed met the technical requirements set forth in the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. The lower limits were defined as the 5th percentile of the residuals. Results: Reference equations and limits were derived from a sample of 120 men and 124 women, inhabitants of eight Brazilian cities, all of whom were evaluated with a flow spirometer. The predicted values for FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF were better described by linear equations, whereas the flows were better described by logarithmic equations. The FEV1 and FVC reference values derived for Black adults were significantly lower than were those previously derived for White adults, regardless of gender. Conclusions: The fact that the predicted spirometry values derived for the population of Black adults in Brazil were lower than those previously derived for White adults in the country justifies the use of an equation specific to the former population.

RESUMO Objetivo: Derivar equações de referência para a espirometria forçada em adultos brasileiros negros, saudáveis, que nunca fumaram, e comparar os resultados com os valores previstos para a raça branca publicados em 2007. Métodos: Os exames seguiram as normas recomendadas pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, e os espirômetros preencheram os requisitos técnicos exigidos pelas diretrizes da American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. Os limites inferiores foram derivados pela análise do 5º percentil dos resíduos. Resultados: Equações e limites de referência foram derivados de uma amostra com 120 homens e 124 mulheres, habitantes de oito cidades brasileiras, utilizando-se um espirômetro de fluxo. Os valores previstos para CVF, VEF1, relação VEF1/CVF e PFE foram mais bem ajustados por regressões lineares, enquanto os fluxos, por equações logarítmicas. Os valores de referência de VEF1 e CVF para ambos os sexos foram significativamente menores quando comparados aos previstos para adultos da raça branca no Brasil. Conclusões: O fato de que os valores previstos da espirometria forçada derivados para a população negra no Brasil tenham sido inferiores aos previstos para a raça branca no país justifica a utilização de uma equação específica para adultos negros.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Spirometry , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Reference Values , Brazil/ethnology , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Age Factors , African Continental Ancestry Group , European Continental Ancestry Group
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(6): 461-468, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984610


ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in renal transplant recipients and to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical associations with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) results. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥ 18 years who underwent renal transplantation at the Renal Transplant Center of the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. We included renal transplant recipients who underwent the TST between January 2011 and July 2013. If the result of the first TST was negative, a second TST was administered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with positive TST results. Results: The sample included 216 patients. The prevalence of LTBI was 18.5%. In the multivariate analysis, history of contact with a tuberculosis case and preserved graft function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were associated with positive TST results. TST induration increased by 5.8% from the first to the second test, which was considered significant (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The prevalence of LTBI was low in this sample of renal transplant recipients. The TST should be administered if renal graft function is preserved. A second TST should be administered if the first TST is negative.

RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência da infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ILTB) em transplantados renais e avaliar as associações sociodemográficas, comportamentais e clínicas com a prova tuberculínica (PT) positiva. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos, transplantados renais no Centro de Transplante Renal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte (MG). Foram incluídos os pacientes submetidos a transplante renal que realizaram a PT no período entre janeiro de 2011 e julho de 2013. Quando o resultado da primeira PT foi negativo, uma segunda PT foi realizada. As análises bivariada e multivariada, por meio de regressão logística, foram utilizadas para determinar os fatores associados com PT positiva. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 216 pacientes. A taxa de prevalência para ILTB foi de 18.5%. Na análise multivariada, história de contato com caso de tuberculose e função do enxerto preservada (taxa de filtração glomerular estimada ≥ 60 ml/min/1,73 m2) foram associadas com PT positiva. O incremento da primeira PT para a segunda PT foi de 5,8%, considerado significante (p = 0,012). Conclusões: A prevalência da ILTB foi baixa nessa amostra de pacientes transplantados renais. A PT deve ser efetuada quando a função do enxerto renal estiver preservada. Uma segunda PT deve ser realizada quando a primeira PT for negativa.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Tuberculin Test , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 641-646, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951817


Abstract DNA genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been widely applied in the understanding of disease transmission in many countries. The purpose of this study was to genotype the strains of M. tuberculosis isolated in patients with new tuberculosis (TB) cases in Minas Gerais, as well as to compare the similarity, discriminatory power, and agreement of the clusters between the IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorfism (RFLP) and 12 loci Variable Number Tandem Repeat - Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRU-VNTR) techniques. It was observed that 32% (66/204) of the isolated strains in the RFLP-IS6110 and 50.9% (104/204) of the isolated strains in the MIRU-VNTR presented a similarity of equal to or above 85%. The RFLP-IS6110 and MIRU-VNTR proved to contain a high discriminatory power. The similarity index resulting from the RFLP showed no recent transmission. Good agreement was observed between the techniques when clusters were detected; however, the best epidemiological relationship was found when using the RFLP-IS6110.

Humans , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Minisatellite Repeats , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Brazil , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 769-774, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894852


BACKGROUND The accurate detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is critical for the application of appropriate patient treatment and prevention of transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between phenotypic and molecular techniques for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnostics. Molecular techniques used were the line probe assay genotype MTBDRplus and the recently described tuberculosis-spoligo-rifampin-isoniazid typing (TB-SPRINT) bead-based assay. Conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) was done on a BACTECTM MGIT 960 TB. METHOD We studied 80 M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) clinical isolates from Minas Gerais state, of which conventional DST had classified 60 isolates as MDR and 20 as drug susceptible. FINDINGS Among the 60 MDR-TB isolates with MGIT as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for rifampicin (RIF) resistance using TB-SPRINT and MTBDRplus, were 96.7% versus 93.3%, 100.0% versus 100.0%, 97.5% versus 95.0% and 0.94 versus 0.88, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for isoniazid (INH) resistance were 85.0% and 83.3%, 100.0% and 100.0%, 88.8% and 87.5% and 0.74 and 0.71 for both tests, respectively. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for MDR-TB were 85.0% and 83.3%, 100.0% and 100.0%, 88.8% and 87.5% and 0.74 and 0.71 for both tests, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Both methods exhibited a good correlation with the conventional DST. We suggest estimating the cost-effectiveness of MTBDRplus and TB-SPRINT in Brazil.

Humans , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pathology, Molecular , Genotype
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 550-553, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041420


Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate a new commercial kit, Kit SIRE Nitratase-PlastLabor, for testing the drug susceptibility of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. METHODS: The accuracy of the Kit SIRE Nitratase was evaluated by examining the susceptibility (streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol) of 40 M. tuberculosis isolates, using the proportion method with Lowenstein-Jensen medium or the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. RESULTS: The detection accuracy for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol was 95%, 97.5%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The exceptional accuracy demonstrated by Kit SIRE Nitratase for isoniazid and rifampicin makes the kit an attractive option for screening M. tuberculosis strain resistance.

Humans , Oxidoreductases/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Rifampin/pharmacology , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Clinical Enzyme Tests/methods , Ethambutol/pharmacology , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e28, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842784


ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the association of outcomes with comprehension, adherence and behavioral characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients using fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy in the city of Contagem, MG, Brazil. This study used standardized questionnaires to collect data. Outcomes included cure in 77.2% (64/ 83), noncompliance with treatment in 20.4% (17/ 83), and absence of organ failure or death cases. The rate of adherence to treatment was high (71.1% - 59/ 83), while the level of comprehension of the treatment was insufficient for the majority of patients (72.3% - 60/ 83). When a greater number of medicines was used, the chance of noncompliance with treatment increased exponentially (p = 0.00 - OR 1.72). Light-skinned black patients, alcoholics and those who live with HIV/ AIDS showed a significant association with noncompliance with treatment (p=0.039 - OR 3.38, p=0.002 - OR 4.68, and p=0.001 - OR 9.68, respectively). Comprehension also presented a significant association with noncompliance with treatment (p=0.01 and OR 5.76 and CI 1.49-22.29). The probability of noncompliance with treatment in the first few months was greater than in the subsequent months. This study demonstrates that if the TB patients had a better understanding of the treatment, the outcome would have been more favorable as regards a proper cure.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Combined Modality Therapy , Comprehension , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Treatment Outcome
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(5): 348-355, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797954


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Conclusions: Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados à infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ILTB) em pessoas privadas de liberdade no Estado de Minas Gerais. Métodos: Estudo de coorte transversal realizado em duas penitenciárias em Minas Gerais. Foi realizada a prova tuberculínica nos indivíduos que aceitaram participar do estudo. Resultados: Foram selecionados 1.120 indivíduos para a pesquisa. A prevalência da ILTB foi de 25,2%. Na análise multivariada, a ILTB esteve associada com relato de contato com caso de tuberculose ativa dentro da penitenciária (OR ajustada = 1,51; IC95%: 1,05-2,18) e uso de drogas inaláveis (OR ajustada = 1,48; IC95%: 1,03-2,13). Foram identificados 131 pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios (11,7%). O teste anti-HIV foi realizado em 940 (83,9%) dos participantes, sendo positivo em 5 indivíduos (0,5%). Dois casos de tuberculose ativa foram identificados no período do estudo. Conclusões: A prevalência de ILTB dentro das penitenciárias estudadas foi alta. Além disso, a ILTB estava associada ao relato de contato com casos de tuberculose e ao uso de drogas inaláveis. Nossos achados demonstram que é necessária a melhoria das condições de encarceramento e a utilização de outras estratégias, como a triagem por radiografia de tórax, para a descoberta de casos de tuberculose e redução da infecção pelo M. tuberculosis no sistema penitenciário.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Latent Tuberculosis/microbiology , Latent Tuberculosis/transmission , Prevalence , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Tuberculin Test
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(1): 47-49, Mar. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171810


The possibility to obtain DNA from smears is a valuable alternative to remedy the lack of samples when they are totally used for bacilloscopy; this technique solves the biosafety problem related to a possible accident with the transportation of flasks containing potentially transmissible clinical samples. Hence, the purpose of this study was to utilize the insertion sequence IS6110 for amplification of DNA from a smear-positive sample for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Among the 52 positive bacilloscopies, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 52.3%, 100%, 100% and 89.7%, respectively whereas accuracy was 90.7%. The IS6110-based PCR for TB diagnosis developed in DNA extracted from a positive smear is a fast, simple, specific, and safe method

La posibilidad de obtener ADN a partir de frotis es una valiosa alternativa para remediar la falta de muestras cuando estas son totalmente utilizadas para la baciloscopia; esta opción soluciona, además, el problema de bioseguridad asociado a la posibilidad de accidente al transportar frascos que contienen muestras clínicas potencialmente infectivas. Por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio fue utilizar para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis la secuencia de inserción IS6110 para amplificación del ADN a partir de frotis que resultaron positivos por baciloscopia. Del análisis de 52 baciloscopias positivas surge que la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor predictivo positivo y el valor predictivo negativo de esta técnica fueron, respectivamente, del 52,3%, del 100%, del 100% y del 89,7%; y la precisión fue del 90,7%. La PCR IS6110 para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis, desarrollada con ADN extraído de frotis positivos, es un método rápido, simple, específico y seguro

Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Containment of Biohazards/methods
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(2): 188-192, Mar-Apr/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709764


We report a rare case in a female infant (age, 3.5 months) with primary immunodeficiency (IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway defect) who presented with suppurative lymphadenitis after Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination. The strain of M. bovis BCG identified was found to be resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. The patient was treated with a special pharmacological regimen involving isoniazid (in a limited, strategic manner), ethambutol, streptomycin, and IFN-γ, after which there was complete resolution of the lesions.

Relatamos um caso raro em uma lactente com três meses e meio de idade, portadora de imunodeficiência primária (defeito no eixo IFN-γ/IL-12), que apresentou linfadenite supurativa após a vacinação por Mycobacterium bovis BCG, cepa essa resistente a isoniazida e rifampicina. Após o tratamento com um esquema medicamentoso especial com isoniazida (de forma estratégica e limitada), etambutol, estreptomicina e IFN-γ, houve a cura completa das lesões.

Female , Humans , Infant , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , Lymphadenitis/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , /metabolism , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Rifampin/pharmacology