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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913828

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD) is a rare and poorly understood oncogenic mutation in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate the acquired resistance mechanism of EGFR-KDD against EGFR-TKIs. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified EGFR-KDD in tumor tissue obtained from a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and established the patient-derived cell line SNU-4784. We also established several EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines: EGFR-KDD wild type (EGFR-KDDWT), EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M (EGFR-KDDD1T), EGFR-KDD domain 2 T790M (EGFR-KDDD2T), and EGFR-KDD both domain T790M (EGFR-KDDBDT). We treated the cells with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and performed cell viability assays, immunoblot assays, and ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screening. @*Results@#In cell viability assays, SNU-4784 cells and EGFR-KDDWT Ba/F3 cells were sensitive to 2nd generation and 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In contrast, the T790M-positive EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines (EGFR-KDDT790M) were only sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In ENU mutagenesis screening, we identified the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDBDT Ba/F3 cells. Based on this finding, we established an EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M/domain 2 cis-T790M+C797S (EGFR-KDDT/T+C) Ba/F3 model, which was resistant to EGFR TKIs and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody combined with EGFR TKIs. @*Conclusion@#Our study reveals that the T790M mutation in EGFR-KDD confers resistance to 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs, but is sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In addition, we identified that the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDT790M mediates a resistance mechanism against 3rd generation EGFR TKIs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925669

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the real-world efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This is a retrospective study performed in two tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. Patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®) between March 2016 and March 2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#A total of 102 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included. Patients were heavily pre-treated with a median of four prior lines of chemotherapy (5 lines when including endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive patients), and 66 patients (64.7%) were exposed to taxanes in the metastatic setting. According to St. Gallen molecular subtypes, 36 patients (35.3%) were luminal A, 28 (27.5%) were luminal B, 18 (17.7%) were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive and 20 (19.6%) had triple-negative disease. Fifty patients (49.0%) were treated with a 3-weekly regimen (260 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks), and 52 (51.0%) were treated with a weekly regimen (100 mg/m2 every week). Objective response rate was 22.9%. After a median follow-up of 22.0 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 4.8) and median overall survival was 8.7 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2). Patients treated with weekly regimen had longer PFS compared to 3-weekly regimen (5.5 vs. 2.3 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the treatment regimen as an independent prognostic factor for PFS. There was no grade 3 or 4 hypersensitivity reaction. @*Conclusion@#This real-world data shows that nab-paclitaxel is a reasonable treatment option in heavily pre-treated and/or taxane-exposed metastatic breast cancer patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874347

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the association of insulin, metformin, and statin use with survival and whether the association was modified by the hormone receptor status of the tumor in patients with breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We studied 7,452 patients who had undergone surgery for breast cancer at Seoul National University Hospital from 2008 to 2015 using the nationwide claims database. Exposure was defined as a recorded prescription of each drug within 12 months before the diagnosis of breast cancer. @*Results@#Patients with prior insulin or statin use were more likely to be older than 50 years at diagnosis and had a higher comorbidity index than those without it (p < 0.01 for both). The hazard ratio (HR) for death with insulin use was 5.7 (p < 0.01), and the effect was attenuated with both insulin and metformin exposure with an HR of 1.2 (p=0.60). In the subgroup analyses, a heightened risk of death with insulin was further prominent with an HR of 17.9 (p < 0.01) and was offset by co-administration of metformin with an HR of 1.3 (p=0.67) in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)–negative breast cancer. Statin use was associated with increased overall mortality only in patients with ER-positive breast cancer with HR for death of 1.5 (p=0.05). @*Conclusion@#Insulin or statin use before the diagnosis of breast cancer was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Subsequent analyses suggested that metformin or statin use may have been protective in patients with ER-negative disease, which warrants further studies.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874173

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome. HLRCC is characterized by the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early-onset uterine leiomyomas, and HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer (RCC) and caused by germline fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency. We investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Korean patients with HLRCC. @*Methods@#We performed direct sequencing analysis of FH in 13 patients with suspected HLRCC and their family members. A chromosomal microarray test was performed in female patients with negative sequencing results but highly suspected HLRCC. In addition, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and evaluated the genotype–phenotype correlations in Korean patients with HLRCC. @*Results@#We identified six different pathogenic or likely pathogenic FH variants in six of the 13 patients (46.2%). The variants included two nonsense variants, two splicing variants, one frameshift variant, and one missense variant. Of the six variants, two (33.3%) were novel (c.132+1G > C, and c.243dup). RCC and early-onset uterine leiomyoma were frequently observed in families with HLRCC, while cutaneous leiomyoma was less common. No significant genotype–phenotype correlation was observed. @*Conclusions@#We describe the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in a small series of Korean patients with HLRCC. Our data reveal the unique characteristics of Korean patients with HLRCC and suggest a need for establishing an optimal diagnostic approach for them.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1195-1203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913804

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Angiosarcoma is a highly aggressive mesenchymal tumor. Although systemic chemotherapy is often considered for the inoperable or metastatic angiosarcoma, the outcome of such treatment is unsatisfactory and poorly delineated. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed electronic medical records of 75 patients with angiosarcoma who were treated with systemic chemotherapy for inoperable or metastatic disease. Patients were classified as having liver involvement if they had either primary or metastatic hepatic lesions. @*Results@#Among the patients evaluated, 51 patients were male (68%) and 24 patients (32%) had primary cutaneous angiosarcoma. Liver involvement was present in 28 patients (37.3%). A total of 59 patients received first-line weekly paclitaxel (wPac) and showed an objective response rate (ORR) of 23.7% (n=14), a median progression free survival (mPFS) of 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0–6.1), and a median overall survival (mOS) of 10.2 months (95% CI 7.0–14.6). Among patients without liver involvement, patients receiving wPac (n=35) had significantly prolonged mPFS (5.8 vs. 3.2 months, respectively, p=0.014) with a tendency for prolonged mOS (13.8 vs. 11.6 months, respectively, p=0.13) than those receiving other regimens (n=12). A total of 24 patients received second- or later-line pazopanib monotherapy and showed an ORR of 16.7% (n=4), a mPFS of 2.4 months (95% CI 1.8–4.3) and a mOS of 5.4 months (95% CI 3.5–NA). @*Conclusion@#Treatment with first-line wPac and later-line pazopanib seems to provide survival benefit, especially for patients with advanced angiosarcoma without liver involvement.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895992

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895970

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893910

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The relationship between metabolic stress, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease is being studied steadily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of palmitate (PA) and minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) on macrophages and to identify the associated pathways. @*Methods@#J774 macrophages were incubated with PA or mmLDL and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of inflammatory chemokines and the expression of corresponding genes were determined. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase was also assessed. RNA sequencing of macrophages was performed to identify the genes regulated by PA or mmLDL. Some of the genes regulated by the 2 agents were validated by knocking down the cells using small interfering RNA. @*Results@#PA or mmLDL promoted the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in LPSstimulated macrophages, and this was accompanied by higher phosphorylation of ERK. RNA sequencing revealed dozens of genes that were regulated in this process, such as Csf3 and Edn1, which were affected by PA and mmLDL, respectively. These agents also increased Nlrp3 expression. The effect of Csf3 or Edn1 silencing on inflammation was modest, whereas toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 inhibition reduced a large proportion of macrophage activation. @*Conclusions@#We demonstrated that the proinflammatory milieu with high levels of PA or mmLDL promoted macrophage activation and the expression of associated genes such as Nlrp3, Csf3, and Edn1. Although the TLR4 pathway appeared to be most relevant, additional role of other genes in this process provided insights regarding the potential targets for intervention.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903696

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903674

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901614

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The relationship between metabolic stress, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease is being studied steadily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of palmitate (PA) and minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) on macrophages and to identify the associated pathways. @*Methods@#J774 macrophages were incubated with PA or mmLDL and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of inflammatory chemokines and the expression of corresponding genes were determined. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase was also assessed. RNA sequencing of macrophages was performed to identify the genes regulated by PA or mmLDL. Some of the genes regulated by the 2 agents were validated by knocking down the cells using small interfering RNA. @*Results@#PA or mmLDL promoted the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in LPSstimulated macrophages, and this was accompanied by higher phosphorylation of ERK. RNA sequencing revealed dozens of genes that were regulated in this process, such as Csf3 and Edn1, which were affected by PA and mmLDL, respectively. These agents also increased Nlrp3 expression. The effect of Csf3 or Edn1 silencing on inflammation was modest, whereas toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 inhibition reduced a large proportion of macrophage activation. @*Conclusions@#We demonstrated that the proinflammatory milieu with high levels of PA or mmLDL promoted macrophage activation and the expression of associated genes such as Nlrp3, Csf3, and Edn1. Although the TLR4 pathway appeared to be most relevant, additional role of other genes in this process provided insights regarding the potential targets for intervention.

13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 236-247, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Recent studies have examined the structure-function relationship of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This study aimed to identify and rank HDL-associated proteins involved in several biological function of HDL.@*METHODS@#HDLs isolated from 48 participants were analyzed. Cholesterol efflux capacity, effect of HDL on nitric oxide production, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression were assessed. The relative abundance of identified proteins in the highest vs. lowest quartile was expressed using the normalized spectral abundance factor ratio.@*RESULTS@#After adjustment by multiple testing, six proteins, thyroxine-binding globulin, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, vitronectin, angiotensinogen, and serum amyloid A-4, were more abundant (relative abundance ratio ≥2) in HDLs with the highest cholesterol efflux capacity. In contrast, three proteins, complement C4-A, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and immunoglobulin mu chain C region, were less abundant (relative abundance ratio <0.5). In terms of nitric oxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, no proteins showed abundance ratios ≥2 or <0.5 after adjustment. Proteins correlated with the functional parameters of HDL belonged to diverse biological categories.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In summary, this study ranked proteins showing higher or lower abundance in HDLs with high functional capacities and newly identified multiple proteins linked to cholesterol efflux capacity.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 236-247, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have examined the structure-function relationship of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This study aimed to identify and rank HDL-associated proteins involved in several biological function of HDL.METHODS: HDLs isolated from 48 participants were analyzed. Cholesterol efflux capacity, effect of HDL on nitric oxide production, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression were assessed. The relative abundance of identified proteins in the highest vs. lowest quartile was expressed using the normalized spectral abundance factor ratio.RESULTS: After adjustment by multiple testing, six proteins, thyroxine-binding globulin, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, vitronectin, angiotensinogen, and serum amyloid A-4, were more abundant (relative abundance ratio ≥2) in HDLs with the highest cholesterol efflux capacity. In contrast, three proteins, complement C4-A, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and immunoglobulin mu chain C region, were less abundant (relative abundance ratio <0.5). In terms of nitric oxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, no proteins showed abundance ratios ≥2 or <0.5 after adjustment. Proteins correlated with the functional parameters of HDL belonged to diverse biological categories.CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study ranked proteins showing higher or lower abundance in HDLs with high functional capacities and newly identified multiple proteins linked to cholesterol efflux capacity.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Angiotensinogen , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Complement System Proteins , Immunoglobulin mu-Chains , Lipoproteins , Nitric Oxide , Plasma , Proteomics , Serine Proteases , Thyroxine-Binding Globulin , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vitronectin
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Although crizotinib is standard chemotherapy for advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), clinical factors affecting progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors affecting PFS of crizotinib and develop a prognostic model for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.@*METHODS@#Clinicopathologic features of patients enrolled in PROFILE 1001, 1005, 1007, and 1014 (training cohort) were reviewed. We conducted multivariate Cox analysis for PFS and overall survival (OS) in the training cohort (n = 159) and generated a proportional hazards model based on significant clinicopathologic factors, and then validated the model in an independent validation cohort (n = 40).@*RESULTS@#In the training cohort, the objective response rate was 81.5%. Median PFS and OS from the start of crizotinib were 12.4 and 31.3 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed poor performance status, number of metastatic organs (≥ 3), and no response to crizotinib independently associated shorter PFS. Based on a score derived from these three factors, median PFS and OS of patients with one or two factors were significantly shorter compared to those without these factors (median PFS, 22.4 months vs. 10.5 months vs. 6.5 months; median OS, not reached vs. 29.1 months vs. 11.8 months, respectively; p < 0.001 for each group). This model also had validated in an independent validation cohort.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Performance status, number of metastatic organs, and response to crizotinib affected PFS of crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC. Based on these factors, we developed a simple and useful prediction model for PFS.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of infusion-related reaction (IRR) of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) as a first-line chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The medical records of 326 patients diagnosed with DLBCL were re trospectively analyzed. Both doctor's progress records and nursing records were reviewed. IRR was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria.@*RESULTS@#IRR was not associated with overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) of DLBCL patients as compared to those who did not have IRR (OS: median 78.0 months vs. 69.0 months, p = 0.700; PFS: median 65.4 months vs. 64.0 months, p = 0.901). IRR grade did not affect OS or PFS. B symptoms was independently associated with IRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.850; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041 to 3.290; p = 0.036). Further, bone marrow involvement was independently associated with re-IRR (HR, 4.904; 95% CI, 0.767 to 3.118; p = 0.029).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study shows that IRR of rituximab is not associated with OS or PFS of DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP. Furthermore, our study suggests a need for more careful observation for IRR in patients with B symptoms or bone marrow involvement.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The role of [18F]-f luorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in first remission is unclear.@*METHODS@#Medical costs within the first 3 years of treatment completion and clinical outcomes of 118 patients with DLBCL in first remission with and without surveillance PET/CT (PET/CT [+] group [n = 76] and PET/CT [−] group [n = 42], respectively) were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In a propensity matched cohort with adjustment for International Prognostic Index risk and relapse, the PET/CT (+) group was shown to have similar medical costs as the PET/CT (−) group. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were comparable between the two groups (median RFS not reached [NR] for both groups, p = 0.133; median OS NR, p = 0.542). Among 76 patients with surveillance PET/CT, 31 (40.8%) had findings suggestive of recurrence and 16 of these (51.6%) were later confirmed to have recurrent disease. Fifteen patients (48.4%) were confirmed to not have recurrence after follow-up CT or PET/CT evaluation (n = 10) and biopsy (n = 4). None of the patients with negative PET/CT findings had disease recurrence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT for detection of recurrence were 1, 0.75, 0.52, and 1, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Surveillance PET/CT resulted in similar clinical outcomes and medical costs compared to no surveillance PET/CT. Approximately half of patients with PET/CT findings of recurrence had no recurrence after follow-up imaging and biopsy, which would not have been carried out if PET/CT had not been performed in the first place.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719707

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite the successful use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in cancer patients, their effect on herpes zoster development has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) TKI and cytotoxic chemotherapy on the risk of herpes zoster development in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a medical review of all eligible NSCLC patients in Seoul National University hospital between 2002 and 2015. We classified patients based on whether they previously underwent EGFR TKI therapy into either the TKI group or the cytotoxic group. We compared the incidence rates of herpes zoster during TKI therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Additionally, the longitudinal risk of herpes zoster from TKIs was analyzed using the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of the TKI group to the cytotoxic group and the log-rank test of the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of the 2,981 NSCLC patients, 54 patients (1.54%) developed herpes zoster. In the TKI group (2,002 patients), the IRR of herpes zoster during TKI therapy compared to that during cytotoxic chemotherapy was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 2.09). The IRR of the TKI group compared to the cytotoxic group was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.64 to 2.76). The Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk of both groups was not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the incidence rate of herpes zoster in the TKI group was not statistically different from the incidence in the cytotoxic group during and after chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Incidence , Methods , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Seoul , Tyrosine
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1549-1556, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a rare genetic syndrome resulting from germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The combination of bevacizumab plus erlotinib showed promising interim results for HLRCC-associated RCC. Based on these results, we analyzed the outcome of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in Korean patients with HLRCC-associated RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in patients with HLRCC-associated RCC who were confirmed to have germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULT: We identified 10 patients with advanced HLRCC-associated RCC who received bevacizumab plus erlotinib. Median age at diagnosis was 41 years, and five of the patients had received the combination as first- or second-line treatments. The ORR was 50% and the median PFS and OS were 13.3 and 14.1 months, respectively. Most adverse events were predictable and manageable by conventional measures, except for one instance where a patient died of gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION: This is the first real-world outcome of the treatment of advanced HLRCC-associated RCC. Bevacizumab plus erlotinib therapy showed promising activity with moderate toxicity. We should be increasingly aware of HLRCC-associated RCC and bevacizumab plus erlotinib should be a first-line treatment for this condition, unless other promising data are published.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Fumarate Hydratase , Germ-Line Mutation , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leiomyomatosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763184

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Amplified mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor, MET, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has been considered a druggable target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although multiple MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are being actively developed for MET-driven NSCLC, the mechanisms of acquired resistance to MET-TKIs have not been well elucidated. To understand the mechanisms of resistance and establish therapeutic strategies, we developed an in vitro model using the MET-amplified NSCLC cell line EBC-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established capmatinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines and identified alternative signaling pathways using 3′ mRNA sequencing and human phospho-RTK arrays. Copy number alterations were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and cell proliferation assay; activation of RTKs and downstream effectors were compared between the parental cell line EBC-1 and the resistant cell lines. RESULTS: We found that EBC-CR1 showed an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‒dependent growth and sensitivity to afatinib, an irreversible EGFR TKI. EBC-CR2 cells that had overexpression of EGFR-MET heterodimer dramatically responded to combined capmatinib with afatinib. In addition, EBC-CR3 cells derived from EBC-CR1 cells that activated EGFR with amplified phosphoinositide-3 kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) were sensitive to combined afatinib with BYL719, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Our in vitro studies suggested that activation of EGFR signaling and/or genetic alteration of downstream effectors like PIK3CA were alternative resistance mechanisms used by capmatinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines. In addition, combined treatments with MET, EGFR, and PI3Kα inhibitors may be effective therapeutic strategies in capmatinib-resistant NSCLC patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Catalytic Domain , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Parents , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , RNA, Messenger
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