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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902071

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and determine the factors associated with antihypertensive medication (A-HTNM) non-adherence among hypertension care seekers attending primary health clinics in the Gaza Strip. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey was conducted as the recruitment phase of a clustered randomized controlled trial including 538 participants. The participants were randomly selected from 10 primary health care centers by two-stage cluster random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data through face-to-face interview. The questionnaire was developed based on the World Health Organization determinants for medication non-adherence and the Health Belief Model. The main outcomes of this study were the prevalences of A-HTNM non-adherence and its associated factors. Adherence status was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Self-Report Medication Adherence Scale. Data were analyzed by STATA ver. 14.0 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA) using a standard complex survey, accounting for unresponsiveness and the clustering sampling approach. @*Results@#The overall prevalence of A-HTNM non-adherence was 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.2–71.8). Among all studied predictors, only self-efficacy of participants (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% CI, 1.79–2.84) and social support (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.82–5.11) remained significantly associated with A-HTNM non-adherence after adjusting for age, education level, number and frequency of A-HTNM doses per day, and comorbidities. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence of non-adherence highlights the need for serious intervention to enhance the adherence rate among hypertension patients. The associated factors can be considered when developing appropriate interventions.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894367

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and determine the factors associated with antihypertensive medication (A-HTNM) non-adherence among hypertension care seekers attending primary health clinics in the Gaza Strip. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey was conducted as the recruitment phase of a clustered randomized controlled trial including 538 participants. The participants were randomly selected from 10 primary health care centers by two-stage cluster random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data through face-to-face interview. The questionnaire was developed based on the World Health Organization determinants for medication non-adherence and the Health Belief Model. The main outcomes of this study were the prevalences of A-HTNM non-adherence and its associated factors. Adherence status was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Self-Report Medication Adherence Scale. Data were analyzed by STATA ver. 14.0 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA) using a standard complex survey, accounting for unresponsiveness and the clustering sampling approach. @*Results@#The overall prevalence of A-HTNM non-adherence was 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.2–71.8). Among all studied predictors, only self-efficacy of participants (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% CI, 1.79–2.84) and social support (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.82–5.11) remained significantly associated with A-HTNM non-adherence after adjusting for age, education level, number and frequency of A-HTNM doses per day, and comorbidities. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence of non-adherence highlights the need for serious intervention to enhance the adherence rate among hypertension patients. The associated factors can be considered when developing appropriate interventions.

3.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019014-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major challenge for the global control of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with MDR-TB in Sudan. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from May 2017 to February 2019. Patients newly diagnosed with MDR-TB were selected as cases, and controls were selected from TB patients who responded to first-line anti-TB drugs. A questionnaire was designed and used to collect data from study participants. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between risk factors and MDR-TB infection. The best multivariate model was selected based on the likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: A total of 430 cases and 860 controls were selected for this study. A history of previous TB treatment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 54.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30.48 to 98.69) was strongly associated with MDR-TB infection. We identified interruption of TB treatment (aOR, 7.62; 95% CI, 3.16 to 18.34), contact with MDR-TB patients (aOR, 5.40; 95% CI, 2.69 to 10.74), lower body weight (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.91), and water pipe smoking (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73 to 6.04) as factors associated with MDR-TB infection. CONCLUSIONS: Previous TB treatment and interruption of TB treatment were found to be the main predictors of MDR-TB. Additionally, this study found that contact with MDR-TB patients and water pipe smoking were associated with MDR-TB infection in Sudan. More efforts are required to decrease the rate of treatment interruption, to strengthen patients’ adherence to treatment, and to reduce contact with MDR-TB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Weight , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Smoking , Sudan , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Water
4.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019014-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major challenge for the global control of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with MDR-TB in Sudan.@*METHODS@#This case-control study was conducted from May 2017 to February 2019. Patients newly diagnosed with MDR-TB were selected as cases, and controls were selected from TB patients who responded to first-line anti-TB drugs. A questionnaire was designed and used to collect data from study participants. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between risk factors and MDR-TB infection. The best multivariate model was selected based on the likelihood ratio test.@*RESULTS@#A total of 430 cases and 860 controls were selected for this study. A history of previous TB treatment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 54.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30.48 to 98.69) was strongly associated with MDR-TB infection. We identified interruption of TB treatment (aOR, 7.62; 95% CI, 3.16 to 18.34), contact with MDR-TB patients (aOR, 5.40; 95% CI, 2.69 to 10.74), lower body weight (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.91), and water pipe smoking (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73 to 6.04) as factors associated with MDR-TB infection.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Previous TB treatment and interruption of TB treatment were found to be the main predictors of MDR-TB. Additionally, this study found that contact with MDR-TB patients and water pipe smoking were associated with MDR-TB infection in Sudan. More efforts are required to decrease the rate of treatment interruption, to strengthen patients' adherence to treatment, and to reduce contact with MDR-TB patients.

5.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019014-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major challenge for the global control of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with MDR-TB in Sudan.METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from May 2017 to February 2019. Patients newly diagnosed with MDR-TB were selected as cases, and controls were selected from TB patients who responded to first-line anti-TB drugs. A questionnaire was designed and used to collect data from study participants. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between risk factors and MDR-TB infection. The best multivariate model was selected based on the likelihood ratio test.RESULTS: A total of 430 cases and 860 controls were selected for this study. A history of previous TB treatment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 54.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30.48 to 98.69) was strongly associated with MDR-TB infection. We identified interruption of TB treatment (aOR, 7.62; 95% CI, 3.16 to 18.34), contact with MDR-TB patients (aOR, 5.40; 95% CI, 2.69 to 10.74), lower body weight (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.91), and water pipe smoking (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73 to 6.04) as factors associated with MDR-TB infection.CONCLUSIONS: Previous TB treatment and interruption of TB treatment were found to be the main predictors of MDR-TB. Additionally, this study found that contact with MDR-TB patients and water pipe smoking were associated with MDR-TB infection in Sudan. More efforts are required to decrease the rate of treatment interruption, to strengthen patients' adherence to treatment, and to reduce contact with MDR-TB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Weight , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Smoking , Sudan , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Water
6.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018008-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight.@*METHODS@#Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016–2018 were used in this study. Data about water-pipe smoking patterns and birth weight were collected by questionnaires during and after the pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as a birth weight below 2,500 g. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models, and the results were presented in terms of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).@*RESULTS@#Fifty (8.2%) of the study subjects smoked water-pipe. The adjusted risk of LBW increased 2-fold in water-pipe smokers (adjusted RR [aRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.71), and by 2.0% for each 1-year increase in the duration of water-pipe smoking (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results showed that water-pipe smoking during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW in this population sample from southern Iran. The introduction of regulations onto prevent water-pipe smoking and the implementation of community health action plans aiming at empowering women and increasing women's knowledge and awareness regarding the health consequences of water-pipe smoking are proposed.

7.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018021-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We analyzed dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR), and assessed how well the scores extracted by RRR predicted stroke in comparison to the scores produced by partial least squares and principal component regression models.@*METHODS@#Dietary data at baseline were used to extract dietary patterns using the 3 methods, along with 4 response variables: body mass index, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The analyses were based on 5,468 males and females aged 45–84 years who had no clinical cardiovascular disease, using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.@*RESULTS@#The primary factor derived by RRR was positively associated with stroke incidence in both models. The first model was adjusted for sex and race and the second model was adjusted for the variables in model 1 as well as smoking, physical activity, family and sibling history of stroke, the use of any lipid-lowering medication, the use of any anti-hypertensive medication, hypertension, and history of myocardial infarction (model 1: hazard ratio [HR], 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 33.69; p for trend=0.01; model 2: HR, 6.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 30.87 for quintile 5 compared with the reference category; p for trend=0.02).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Based primarily on RRR, we identified that a dietary pattern high in fats and oils, poultry, non-diet soda, processed meat, tomatoes, legumes, chicken, tuna and egg salad, and fried potatoes and low in dark-yellow and cruciferous vegetables may increase the incidence of ischemic stroke.

8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018008-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight.METHODS: Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016–2018 were used in this study. Data about water-pipe smoking patterns and birth weight were collected by questionnaires during and after the pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as a birth weight below 2,500 g. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models, and the results were presented in terms of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Fifty (8.2%) of the study subjects smoked water-pipe. The adjusted risk of LBW increased 2-fold in water-pipe smokers (adjusted RR [aRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.71), and by 2.0% for each 1-year increase in the duration of water-pipe smoking (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.05).CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that water-pipe smoking during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW in this population sample from southern Iran. The introduction of regulations onto prevent water-pipe smoking and the implementation of community health action plans aiming at empowering women and increasing women's knowledge and awareness regarding the health consequences of water-pipe smoking are proposed.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Cohort Studies , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Iran , Linear Models , Parturition , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Social Control, Formal , Suburban Population
9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018021-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We analyzed dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR), and assessed how well the scores extracted by RRR predicted stroke in comparison to the scores produced by partial least squares and principal component regression models.METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were used to extract dietary patterns using the 3 methods, along with 4 response variables: body mass index, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The analyses were based on 5,468 males and females aged 45–84 years who had no clinical cardiovascular disease, using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.RESULTS: The primary factor derived by RRR was positively associated with stroke incidence in both models. The first model was adjusted for sex and race and the second model was adjusted for the variables in model 1 as well as smoking, physical activity, family and sibling history of stroke, the use of any lipid-lowering medication, the use of any anti-hypertensive medication, hypertension, and history of myocardial infarction (model 1: hazard ratio [HR], 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 33.69; p for trend=0.01; model 2: HR, 6.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 30.87 for quintile 5 compared with the reference category; p for trend=0.02).CONCLUSIONS: Based primarily on RRR, we identified that a dietary pattern high in fats and oils, poultry, non-diet soda, processed meat, tomatoes, legumes, chicken, tuna and egg salad, and fried potatoes and low in dark-yellow and cruciferous vegetables may increase the incidence of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chickens , Cholesterol , Racial Groups , Diet , Fabaceae , Fats , Fibrinogen , Hypertension , Incidence , Interleukin-6 , Least-Squares Analysis , Lipoproteins , Solanum lycopersicum , Meat , Methods , Motor Activity , Myocardial Infarction , Oils , Ovum , Poultry , Risk Factors , Siblings , Smoke , Smoking , Solanum tuberosum , Stroke , Tuna , Vegetables
10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018021-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We analyzed dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR), and assessed how well the scores extracted by RRR predicted stroke in comparison to the scores produced by partial least squares and principal component regression models. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were used to extract dietary patterns using the 3 methods, along with 4 response variables: body mass index, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The analyses were based on 5,468 males and females aged 45–84 years who had no clinical cardiovascular disease, using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. RESULTS: The primary factor derived by RRR was positively associated with stroke incidence in both models. The first model was adjusted for sex and race and the second model was adjusted for the variables in model 1 as well as smoking, physical activity, family and sibling history of stroke, the use of any lipid-lowering medication, the use of any anti-hypertensive medication, hypertension, and history of myocardial infarction (model 1: hazard ratio [HR], 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 33.69; p for trend=0.01; model 2: HR, 6.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 30.87 for quintile 5 compared with the reference category; p for trend=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Based primarily on RRR, we identified that a dietary pattern high in fats and oils, poultry, non-diet soda, processed meat, tomatoes, legumes, chicken, tuna and egg salad, and fried potatoes and low in dark-yellow and cruciferous vegetables may increase the incidence of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chickens , Cholesterol , Racial Groups , Diet , Fabaceae , Fats , Fibrinogen , Hypertension , Incidence , Interleukin-6 , Least-Squares Analysis , Lipoproteins , Solanum lycopersicum , Meat , Methods , Motor Activity , Myocardial Infarction , Oils , Ovum , Poultry , Risk Factors , Siblings , Smoke , Smoking , Solanum tuberosum , Stroke , Tuna , Vegetables
11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018008-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721227

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight. METHODS: Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016–2018 were used in this study. Data about water-pipe smoking patterns and birth weight were collected by questionnaires during and after the pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as a birth weight below 2,500 g. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models, and the results were presented in terms of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Fifty (8.2%) of the study subjects smoked water-pipe. The adjusted risk of LBW increased 2-fold in water-pipe smokers (adjusted RR [aRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.71), and by 2.0% for each 1-year increase in the duration of water-pipe smoking (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that water-pipe smoking during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW in this population sample from southern Iran. The introduction of regulations onto prevent water-pipe smoking and the implementation of community health action plans aiming at empowering women and increasing women's knowledge and awareness regarding the health consequences of water-pipe smoking are proposed.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Cohort Studies , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Iran , Linear Models , Parturition , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Social Control, Formal , Suburban Population
12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017021-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC) incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran.METHODS: The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method. The purely spatial scan statistic was used to identify spatial clusters.RESULTS: There were 4,175 incident BC cases in the study area from 2008 to 2011, of which 3,080 were successfully geocoded to the neighborhood level. Higher than expected rates of BC were found in neighborhoods located in northern and central Tehran, whereas lower rates appeared in southern areas. The most likely cluster of higher than expected BC incidence involved neighborhoods in districts 3 and 6, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 3.92 (p < 0.001), whereas the most likely cluster of lower than expected rates involved neighborhoods in districts 17, 18, and 19, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 0.05 (p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood-level inequality in the incidence of BC exists in Tehran. These findings can serve as a basis for resource allocation and preventive strategies in at-risk areas.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Health Status Disparities , Incidence , Iran , Residence Characteristics , Resource Allocation , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis
13.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017024-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the effect of physical activity (PA) on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied, contradictory results have been reported. Such discrepancies may reflect the different effects of various types of PA upon AF, as well as gender interactions. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the associations of PA types (total, moderate/vigorous, and intentional), as well as walking pace, with AF risk in men and women.METHODS: Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Typical Week Physical Activity Survey, 3 PA measures and walking pace were calculated among 6,487 men and women aged 45-84 years. The incidence of AF over approximately 11 years of follow-up was ascertained. The association of each PA measure and walking pace with AF incidence was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. An extended Cox model with Heaviside functions (hv) of time was used to estimate the effects of time-varying covariates.RESULTS: During 11 years of follow-up (49,557 person-years), 242 new AF cases occurred. The incidence rate of AF was 48.83 per 10,000 person-years. The proportional hazard (PH) assumption for total PA among women was not met; hence, we used the hv to calculate the hazard ratio. Total PA in women in the hv2 analysis was negatively associated with AF in all 3 models, although for hv1 no significant association was observed. The PH assumption for walking pace among men was not met, and none of the hv showed a statistically significant association between walking pace and AF in men.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PA is inversely associated with AF in women.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Atherosclerosis , Atrial Fibrillation , Follow-Up Studies , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Incidence , Motor Activity , Proportional Hazards Models , Survival Analysis , Walking
14.
Novelty in Biomedicine. 2017; 5 (1): 8-15
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-186564

ABSTRACT

Background: The most common reproductive endocrine disorder of reproductive age women is a Poly cystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] Metabolic syndrome has been more reported in patients with PCOS in comparison to general population. Few investigations have been performed to evaluate the independent effect of exercise on biochemical and clinical symptoms of patients with PCOS. The aim of the study was to find the effect of home base aerobic-strengthening exercises on anthropometric and hormonal variables of patients with PCOS


Materials and Methods:In this randomized controlled trial twenty women in the exercise group performed aerobic, strengthening exercises; the other 20 participants in the control group were advised to continue their previous physical activity pattern. Blood pressure, Waist to Hip ratio [WHR], BMI along with hormonal variables[including insulin related factors, sexual hormones and inflammatory factors] were assessed at baseline and after the 12 week intervention]


Results:16patients in the exercise group and 14 patients in control group finished the study. TheWHR [p<0.001] along with the blood level of insulin [p=0.016], FBS [p=0.044], Prolactine [p=0.022] and hsCRP [p=0.035] and HOMA index [p=0.009] were decreased significantly in the exercise group compared with the control group. No significant differences were found in lipid profile and sexual hormones between groups at the end of the study


Conclusion: We can conclude that 12 weeks combined aerobic-strengthening exercise program in women with poly cystic ovary syndrome can lead to a reduction of waist to hip ratio [WHR] and some cardiovascular risk factors [including insulin, FBS, HOMA index and HsCRP] along with an increase of prolactine level in these patients

15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017021-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC) incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method. The purely spatial scan statistic was used to identify spatial clusters. RESULTS: There were 4,175 incident BC cases in the study area from 2008 to 2011, of which 3,080 were successfully geocoded to the neighborhood level. Higher than expected rates of BC were found in neighborhoods located in northern and central Tehran, whereas lower rates appeared in southern areas. The most likely cluster of higher than expected BC incidence involved neighborhoods in districts 3 and 6, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 3.92 (p < 0.001), whereas the most likely cluster of lower than expected rates involved neighborhoods in districts 17, 18, and 19, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 0.05 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood-level inequality in the incidence of BC exists in Tehran. These findings can serve as a basis for resource allocation and preventive strategies in at-risk areas.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Health Status Disparities , Incidence , Iran , Residence Characteristics , Resource Allocation , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis
16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017024-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the effect of physical activity (PA) on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied, contradictory results have been reported. Such discrepancies may reflect the different effects of various types of PA upon AF, as well as gender interactions. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the associations of PA types (total, moderate/vigorous, and intentional), as well as walking pace, with AF risk in men and women. METHODS: Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Typical Week Physical Activity Survey, 3 PA measures and walking pace were calculated among 6,487 men and women aged 45-84 years. The incidence of AF over approximately 11 years of follow-up was ascertained. The association of each PA measure and walking pace with AF incidence was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. An extended Cox model with Heaviside functions (hv) of time was used to estimate the effects of time-varying covariates. RESULTS: During 11 years of follow-up (49,557 person-years), 242 new AF cases occurred. The incidence rate of AF was 48.83 per 10,000 person-years. The proportional hazard (PH) assumption for total PA among women was not met; hence, we used the hv to calculate the hazard ratio. Total PA in women in the hv2 analysis was negatively associated with AF in all 3 models, although for hv1 no significant association was observed. The PH assumption for walking pace among men was not met, and none of the hv showed a statistically significant association between walking pace and AF in men. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PA is inversely associated with AF in women.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Atherosclerosis , Atrial Fibrillation , Follow-Up Studies , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Incidence , Motor Activity , Proportional Hazards Models , Survival Analysis , Walking
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein A2 (APO A2) is the second most abundant structural apolipoprotein in high density lipoprotein. Several studies have examined the possible effect of APO A2 on atherosclerosis incidence. Due to the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, we aimed to determine the relationship between APO A2 -265T/C polymorphism and inflammation as a risk factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: In total, 180 T2DM patients, with known APO A2 -265T/C polymorphism, were recruited for this comparative study and were grouped equally based on their genotypes. Dietary intakes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers (i.e., pentraxin 3 [PTX3], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], and interleukin 18) were measured. The data were analyzed using an independent t-test, a chi-square test, and the analysis of covariance. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors, in the entire study population and in the patients with or without obesity, the patients with the CC genotype showed higher hs-CRP (P=0.001, P=0.008, and P=0.01, respectively) and lower PTX3 (P=0.01, P=0.03, and P=0.04, respectively) in comparison with the T allele carriers. In the patients with the CC genotype, no significant differences were observed in the inflammatory markers between the obese or non-obese patients. However, regarding the T allele carriers, the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly higher in the obese patients compared to the non-obese patients (P=0.01). CONCLUSION: In the T2DM patients, the CC genotype could be considered as a risk factor and the T allele as a protective agent against inflammation, which the latter effect might be impaired by obesity. Our results confirmed the anti-atherogenic effect of APO A2, though more studies are required to establish this effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Apolipoprotein A-II , Apolipoproteins , Atherosclerosis , C-Reactive Protein , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Genotype , Incidence , Inflammation , Interleukins , Lipoproteins , Obesity , Plasma , Risk Factors
18.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2016013-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721335

ABSTRACT

Latent class analysis (LCA) is a method of assessing and correcting measurement error in surveys. The local independence assumption in LCA assumes that indicators are independent from each other condition on the latent variable. Violation of this assumption leads to unreliable results. We explored this issue by using LCA to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in the Iranian Mental Health Survey. The following three indicators were included in the LCA models: five or more instances of using any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator A), any use of any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator B), and the self-perceived need of treatment services or having received treatment for a substance use disorder in the past 12 months (indicator C). Gender was also used in all LCA models as a grouping variable. One LCA model using indicators A and B, as well as 10 different LCA models using indicators A, B, and C, were fitted to the data. The three models that had the best fit to the data included the following correlations between indicators: (AC and AB), (AC), and (AC, BC, and AB). The estimated prevalence of illicit drug use based on these three models was 28.9%, 6.2% and 42.2%, respectively. None of these models completely controlled for violation of the local independence assumption. In order to perform unbiased estimations using the LCA approach, the factors violating the local independence assumption (behaviorally correlated error, bivocality, and latent heterogeneity) should be completely taken into account in all models using well-known methods.


Subject(s)
Bias , Mental Health , Methods , Prevalence , Self Report , Substance-Related Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2016025-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The lower mortality rate of obese patients with heart failure (HF) has been partly attributed to reverse causation bias due to weight loss caused by disease. Using data about weight both before and after HF, this study aimed to adjust for reverse causation and examine the association of obesity both before and after HF with mortality. METHODS: Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 308 patients with data available from before and after the incidence of HF were included. Pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity were defined based on body mass index measurements at least three months before and after incident HF. The associations of pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity and weight change with survival after HF were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pre-morbid obesity was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.49) but post-morbid obesity was associated with increased survival (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.88). Adjusting for weight change due to disease as a confounder of the obesity-mortality relationship resulted in the absence of any significant associations between post-morbid obesity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that controlling for reverse causality by adjusting for the confounder of weight change may remove or reverse the protective effect of obesity on mortality among patients with incident HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Bias , Body Mass Index , Heart Failure , Heart , Incidence , Mortality , Obesity , Proportional Hazards Models , Weight Loss
20.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2016004-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Diabetes self-management can reduce complications and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes self-management and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 562 Iranian patients older than 30 years of age with type 2 diabetes who received treatment at the Diabetes Research Center of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences were identified. The participants were enrolled and completed questionnaires between January and April 2014. Patients' diabetes self-management was assessed as an independent variable by using the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire translated into Persian. The outcomes were the microvascular complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), identified from the clinical records of each patient. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between diabetes self-management and the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between the diabetes self-management sum scale and neuropathy (adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.92, p=0.01). Additionally, weak evidence was found of an association between the sum scale score of diabetes self-management and nephropathy (adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.05, p=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, a lower diabetes self-management score was associated with higher rates of nephropathy and neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endocrinology , Logistic Models , Metabolism , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Public Health , Self Care
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