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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 286-288, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346419

ABSTRACT

Background: A colostomy is a surgical approach that creates an opening for the colon, or/and large intestine through the abdomen. Anorectal malformations are a group of abnormalities of the rectum and anus that are present at birth. Objective: To analyze the common complications of colostomy in anorectal formations. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted on 50 temporary colostomies performed in children at the Surgical Department of the Abu Ghraib General Hospital in the period from January 2018 to January 2020. Information was collected regarding the patients' age, sex, body weight, associated anomalies, colostomy types and sites, and the indications and complications of colostomies. Results: A total of 44 (88%) cases were reported in the children's 1st month of life. The ratio of male to female was 1:1. Pelvic colostomy was performed in 48 (96%) patients, as 40 (80%) children underwent a loop-type, and 8 (16%) patients underwent doublebarrel colostomy. Transverse colostomy was performed on two patients. Prolapse occurred in 50% of the patients, and skin excoriations occurred in 22% . A total of 10% of the children developed sepsis. Bleeding was seen in 4% of the children after colostomy performance. Stenosis presented in 6% of the children, and this was corrected by repeated dilatation and re-fashioning. Obstruction of intestines was observed in one patient. The retraction developed in 6% of patients. Conclusions: Imperforate anus was themost common indication for stoma formation in the pediatric age group. Loop colostomy was the most common type used, and it had the highest rate of complications. Prolapses and skin excoriation were the most common complications found. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Colostomy/adverse effects , Anorectal Malformations/surgery , Surgical Stomas
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280973

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the applications of 3d printing /additive manufacturing (AM) in dental education & clinical dentistry and elaborate various 3d printing technologies, its benefits, limitations and future scope. Methods: Research papers on the application of 3d printing in dentistry were searched in Scopus and Pubmed and studied using bibliometric analysis. This review briefly describes various types of 3d printing technologies with their accuracy, use of different materials for 3d printing and their respective dental applications. It also discusses various steps used to create 3D printed dental model using this technology. Furthermore, the application of this technology in dental education and various clinical procedures are discussed. Results: 3d printing is an innovative technology making a paradigm shift towards treatment customization. It helps in customized production of dental implants, surgical guides, anatomic models etc. using computer-aided design (CAD) data. This technology coupled with state-of-the-art imaging techniques and CAD software has enabled, especially oral surgeons to precisely plan and execute complex surgeries with relative ease, high accuracy and lesser time. 3d printing is also being utilized in other disciplines of dentistry to prepare aligners, crown and bridge, endodontic guides, periodontal surgery guides, surgical models for treatment planning and patient education. Alongside its possibilities have also been explored in preclinical skills in operative, endodontics etc (AU)


Objetivo: Avaliar as aplicações da impressão 3D/manufatura aditiva (AM) na educação odontológica e odontologia clínica, e elaborar várias tecnologias de impressão 3D, seus benefícios, limitações e escopo futuro. Métodos: Artigos de pesquisa sobre a aplicação da impressão 3D em odontologia foram pesquisados no Scopus e no Pubmed e estudados por meio de análise bibliométrica. Esta revisão descreve resumidamente vários tipos de tecnologias de impressão 3D a partir da sua precisão, uso de diferentes materiais para impressão 3D e suas respectivas aplicações odontológicas. Ele também discute várias etapas usadas para criar um modelo dentário 3D impresso usando essa tecnologia. Além disso, a aplicação desta tecnologia na educação odontológica e vários procedimentos clínicos são discutidos. Resultados:a impressão 3D é uma tecnologia inovadora que está mudando o paradigma em direção à personalização do tratamento. Ele ajuda na produção personalizada de implantes dentários, guias cirúrgicos, modelos anatômicos etc. usando dados de design auxiliado por computador (CAD). Essa tecnologia, combinada com técnicas de imagem de última geração e software CAD, permitiu, especialmente aos cirurgiões orais, planejar e executar cirurgias complexas com relativa facilidade, alta precisão e menor tempo. A impressão 3D também está sendo utilizada em outras disciplinas da odontologia para preparar alinhadores, coroas e pontes, guias endodônticos, guias de cirurgia periodontal, modelos cirúrgicos para planejamento de tratamento e educação do paciente. Ao lado de suas possibilidades também foram exploradas em habilidades pré-clínicas em cirurgia, endodontia etc (AU)


Subject(s)
Surgery, Oral , Endodontics , Printing, Three-Dimensional
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(10): 618-624, 20200000. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362699

ABSTRACT

All health care providers should be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on their patients during any surgical procedures. The knowledge of the mechanisms of hemostasis and optimized management are very important. Initial recognition of a bleeding disorder, in such patients with a systemic pathologic process, may occur in surgical practice. The surgical treatment of those patients might be complicated during the surgery due to the use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications raises a challenge in the daily practice of surgical professionals. Adequate hemostasis is critical for the success of any surgical procedure because bleeding problems can give rise to complications associated with important morbidity-mortality. Besides, prophylactic, restorative, and surgical care of patients with any bleeding disorders is handled skillfully by practitioners who are well educated regarding the pathology, complications which could arise, and surgical options associated with these conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common bleeding disorders and their effects on the surgical aspect. Many authors consider that patient medication indicated for the treatment of background disease should not be altered or suspended unless so indicated by the prescribing physician. Local hemostatic measures have been shown to suffice for controlling possible bleeding problems resulting from surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/surgery , Hemorrhagic Disorders/complications , Hemostasis, Surgical/mortality , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210195

ABSTRACT

ntroduction: Vitiligo is an apparent skin condition that has a psychological impact on the affected individuals and their families. Its prevalence is estimated to be about (0.5-2%) globally. Misunderstandings, and negative attitudes toward vitiligo patients are the most important factors affecting the quality of life of vitiligo patients. Objective:The objective of this study was to identify the common misconceptions and attitudes about the nature, causes and prognosis of vitiligoin Al-Baha region, Saudi Arabia. Methods:A cross sectional study collected data from the general population in the public malls in Al-Baha region, Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire which was developed by the authors, the questionnaire included questions regarding vitiligo cause, nature, prognosis and the attitude toward vitiligo Results:A total of (453) responses were analysed, of which (53%) were females, and (90.9%) were Saudis. Theparticipants’ ages ranged from (16 -64) with a mean of (28.3). The majority of our sample had a high level of education; university (65.1%), High school (26%) and less than high school (6%). Our population believed that gecko and its saliva were the commonest cause (38.1%). Most of the respondents (44.4%) thought that the condition is exaggerated by stress and anxiety. Regarding attitude; (31.5%) are unwilling to marry a vitiligo patient. Conclusion:The results of the present study show that the misconceptions and attitudes toward vitiligo are prevalent. Health awareness campaigns should be implanted to educate the people and improve the quality of life of the affected individuals

5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 340-347, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056445

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease with a high incidence of occurrence in our community. Gum Arabic (GA) is a branched-chain polysaccharide which has strong antioxidant properties, and has been used to reduce the experimental toxicity. Yet, the effects of GA on testicular tissue in type I diabetic rats have not been enough investigated. This study was designed to investigate histological changes in testes of male Wistar rats and investigate the protective potential of GA against diabetes- induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were assigned into five groups (n = 10 of each): Group 1 (non-diabetic rats) served as control, Group 2 served as diabetic group injected with Alloxan, Group 3 diabetic group plus insulin, Group 4 diabetic group given 15 % GA in drinking water and Group 5 diabetic group plus insulin and GA for 4 weeks. Compared to control group, histopathological examinations of testicular tissue from the diabetic rats group, showed degeneration, necrosis and atrophy of seminiferous with presence of giant cells. Necrosis and hemorrhage in the renal tissue. On the other hand, treatment with GA ameliorated all the previous histological changes. Overall, oral administration of GA alone or with insulin daily for 4 weeks successfully ameliorated the testicular histological changes. These data demonstrated that GA significantly improved diabetes complication in rat testis. This study suggested that GA might have a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced impaired testicular functions in diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of this action might be ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad grave con una alta incidencia en nuestra comunidad. La goma arábiga (GA) es un polisacárido con propiedades antioxidantes importantes, y se ha utilizado para reducir la toxicidad experimental. Sin embargo, los efectos de GA sobre el tejido testicular en ratas diabéticas tipo I no se ha investigado lo suficiente. El estudio fue diseñado para pesquisar los cambios histológicos en los testículos de ratas Wistar macho e investigar el potencial protector de GA contra la toxicidad testicular inducida por la diabetes en ratas. Fueron asignadas cincuenta ratas Wistar macho adultas en cinco grupos (n = 10 de cada una): el grupo 1 (ratas no diabéticas) sirvió como control, el grupo 2 sirvió como grupo diabético inyectado con Alloxan, grupo diabético del grupo 3 más insulina. El grupo 4 diabético recibió 15 % de GA en agua potable, y el grupo diabético 5 más insulina y GA durante 4 semanas. Al comparar con el grupo control, los exámenes histopatológicos del tejido testicular del grupo de ratas diabéticas mostraron degeneración, necrosis y atrofia de los túbulos seminíferos con presencia de células gigantes, necrosis y hemorragia en el tejido renal. Por otra parte, el tratamiento con GA mejoró todos los cambios histológicos previos. En general, la administración oral de GA solamente, o con insulina diariamente durante 4 semanas mejoró los cambios histológicos testiculares. Estos datos demostraron que GA mejoró significativamente los efectos de la diabetes en testículos de rata. Este estudio sugiere que GA podría tener un efecto protector contra las funciones testiculares deterioradas, inducidas por el estrés oxidativo en ratas diabéticas. Los posibles mecanismos de esta acción podrían atribuirse a sus propiedades antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage
6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203711

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Molecular techniques for the detection of organisms, such as algae species in aquatic environments,have become the most attractive tools for typical laboratory approaches. These techniques provide moreaccurate and faster ways of identifying species compared to conventional methods based on microscopiccounting and culture tools. The techniques of molecular biology are mostly used when numerous algal speciesthat are present in very low amounts require identification. These tools use either entire cells or nucleic acidcell-free formats. For the entire cells, several molecular methods could be used, for example, fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) and microscope-based enumeration assays. For the nucleic acid cell-free formats, themost commonly used tools are the sandwich hybridization assay (SHA), biosensors, quantitative PCR, real-timePCR, and microarrays. These techniques can be used individually or in combination with one or morefunctional laboratory tools, such as lab-on-a-chip (namely, a single incorporated system) or next-generationsequencing (NGS) to create a much higher data output. Moreover, this review integrates additional methodsthat promote the performance of molecular techniques. These approaches provide a high capability foridentifying algal species, such as platforms and nano-bioengineered probes, magnetic systems for separationmolecules, and solid-phase hybridization. Additionally, hybridization PCR and isothermal amplification toolscan improve the hybridization of probes with DNA to enhance the amplification of nucleic acids. Lastly, thisreview discusses a field case study considered as one of the few examples of monitoring harmful algal blooms(HABs) and closes the discussion with concluding remarks and future directions.

7.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 814-820, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889533

ABSTRACT

Methods@#A cohort of 90 lumbar spine fusion patients were compared with 295 young, healthy patients obtained from a trauma da¬tabase. Cross-sectional vertebral body (VB) area, as well as the areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles at mid-point of pedicles at L3 and L4 for both cohorts, was measured using axial CT imaging. Total muscle area-to-VB area ratio was calculated along with intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Finally, T-scores were calculated to help identify those patients with considerably diminished muscle-to-VB area ratios. @*Results@#Both muscle mass and VB areas were considerably larger in males compared with those in females, and the ratio of these two measures was not enough to account for large differences. Thus, a gender-based comparison was made between spine patients and healthy control patients to establish T-scores that would help identify those patients with sarcopenia. The ratio for paravertebral muscle area-to-VB area at the L4 level was the only measure with good interobserver reliability, whereas the other three of the four ratios were moderate. All measurements had excellent correlations for intraobserver reliability. @*Conclusions@#We postulate that a patient with a T-score <−1 for total paravertebral muscle area-to-VB area ratio at the L4 level is the most reliable method of all our measurements that can be used to diagnose a patient undergoing lumbar spine surgery with sarcopenia.

8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 814-820, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897237

ABSTRACT

Methods@#A cohort of 90 lumbar spine fusion patients were compared with 295 young, healthy patients obtained from a trauma da¬tabase. Cross-sectional vertebral body (VB) area, as well as the areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles at mid-point of pedicles at L3 and L4 for both cohorts, was measured using axial CT imaging. Total muscle area-to-VB area ratio was calculated along with intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Finally, T-scores were calculated to help identify those patients with considerably diminished muscle-to-VB area ratios. @*Results@#Both muscle mass and VB areas were considerably larger in males compared with those in females, and the ratio of these two measures was not enough to account for large differences. Thus, a gender-based comparison was made between spine patients and healthy control patients to establish T-scores that would help identify those patients with sarcopenia. The ratio for paravertebral muscle area-to-VB area at the L4 level was the only measure with good interobserver reliability, whereas the other three of the four ratios were moderate. All measurements had excellent correlations for intraobserver reliability. @*Conclusions@#We postulate that a patient with a T-score <−1 for total paravertebral muscle area-to-VB area ratio at the L4 level is the most reliable method of all our measurements that can be used to diagnose a patient undergoing lumbar spine surgery with sarcopenia.

9.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 70-77, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835414

ABSTRACT

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gathered widespread acceptance among orthopaedic surgeons because of its multimodal effects on tissue healing. Varying results have been reported when PRP injections are combined with hip arthroscopic surgery. To evaluate the influence of PRP on clinical outcomes following hip arthroscopy. We hypothesized that patients treated with PRP would have improved postoperative outcome scores. A search of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) healthcare database advanced search (HDAS) via Athens (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and AMED databases) was conducted from their years of inception to May 2018 with the keywords: “Hip Arthroscopy” and “Platelet-Rich Plasma”. A quality assessment was performed based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Three studies were included for analysis; two of which had low risk of bias. The studies included 363 hips, of which 141 were randomised for PRP treatment. The mean age of all patients was 35 years and the follow-up ranged from 18.5 to 36 months. Authors used different PRP systems and preparations. Modified Harris hip score was reported in all three studies with two studies favouring the use of PRP. The use of PRP following hip arthroscopy did not lead to significantly improved postoperative pain or functional outcomes when compared to control groups in the studies included in this review.

10.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 343-350, nov. 5, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145368

ABSTRACT

Aim: the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of impacted teeth and its association with sex and age among a sample of the Yemeni population. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study design was employed. The study included 999 radiographical records of patients who had panoramic X- rays previously done. All radiographs were assessed for the number and type of impacted teeth, pathology-associated impaction, sex, age and location (mandible and/or maxilla). The collected data was analyzed using SPSS®version21 software. Results: The study sample comprised digital panoramic radiographs of Yemeni patients aged 17 to 54 years (mean 26.6 years). The present study found 542 patients (54.3%) presented with at least one impacted tooth. The 17 to 25 years age group of the study sample had the highest prevalence of tooth impaction (28.6%). Only 10 (1.0%) case presented pathologies associated with the impacted teeth. There was a significant difference in the number of male 203 (20.3%) and female 339 (33.9%) patients with impacted teeth (p=0.031). Impacted teeth occurred slightly more often in the mandible (42.8%) compared to the maxilla (42.4%). Conclusion: The prevalence of impacted teeth among a sample of Yemeni population was high. Third molars and canines were the most common impacted teeth. The prevalence of impacted teeth in females was higher than in males and it was higher in the mandible than in the maxilla, with the younger patients with a higher prevalence of impaction.


Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de dientes impactados y su asociación con el sexo y la edad en una muestra de la población yemení. Material y Métodos: se empleó un diseño de estudio transversal. El estudio incluyó 999 registros radiográficos de pacientes con radiografías panorámicas realizadas previamente. Todas las radiografías fueron evaluadas en relación al número y tipo de dientes impactados, patología asociada a la impactación, sexo, edad y ubicación (mandíbula y/o maxilar). Los datos recopilados se analizaron utilizando el software SPSS® version 21. Resultados: La muestra del estudio comprendió radiografías panorámicas digitales de pacientes yemeníes entre 17 a 54 años (media 26,6 años). El presente estudio encontró que 542 pacientes (54,3%) presentaron al menos un diente impactado. El grupo de edad de 17 a 25 años de la muestra de estudio tuvo la mayor prevalencia de impactación dental (28,6%). Solo 10 casos (1,0%) presentaron patologías asociadas a los dientes impactados. Hubo una diferencia significativa en el número de pacientes masculinos 203 (20.3%) y femeninos 339 (33.9%) con dientes impactados (p=0.031). Los dientes impactados ocurrieron con un poco más de frecuencia en la mandíbula (42.8%) en comparación con el maxilar (42.4%). Conclusión: La prevalencia de dientes impactados entre una muestra de población yemení fue alta. Los terceros molares y caninos fueron los dientes más comúnmente impactados. La prevalencia de dientes impactados en las mujeres fue mayor que en los hombres y fue mayor en la mandíbula que en el maxilar, y los pacientes más jóvenes mostraron una mayor prevalencia de impactación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tooth, Impacted , Yemen , Radiography, Panoramic , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Mandible , Molar, Third
11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205124

ABSTRACT

Background: The hospital Emergency department (ED) is one of the most important components of the health delivery system. Objectives: To investigate the public awareness of the ERs in KSA, what the public knows about the provided services, and if they know the difference between the outpatient clinic and ERs. Methods: It is a cross-sectional descriptive community-based study carried out on 977 male and female, young and adult participants from all age groups, in different areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period from 1st January to 31st July 2019. Data was collected through filling the pre-designed online questionnaire which guided us to the needed data. We utilized the SPSS program version 16. The X2 test was used as a test of significance, and differences considered significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results: Most of the participants (87.5%) reported that they know the difference between the outpatient clinic and ER. The majority (68.1%) of subjects said that ERs is meaning rapid and unplanned medical care, 17.3% said any needed health care is available there, 12.2% said that it means insufficient medical care and only 2.5% said it means availability of physician at any time for any purpose. As regards evaluation to the provided services in ERs; 32.5% of cases said it was very good followed by 28.5% good, 19.8% excellent, 10.2% accepted and 10% reported it was bad services. There were significant relations between the awareness and age (p=0.03) and education level (p=0.003), but no relation was found with the gender of the participant (p>0.5). Conclusion: In our study, Most of the participants reported that they know the difference between the outpatient clinic and ERs. The majority of subjects said that ERs is meaning rapid and unplanned medical care and/or availability of physician at any time for any purpose. There were significant relations between the awareness and age and education level, but insignificant relation was found with the gender of the participant.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204935

ABSTRACT

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing each year worldwide due to the increase of its etiological factors. Several conditions have been linked to the evolution of the CKD including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, overweight/obesity, etc. CKD can lead to more harmful conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD starts with mild kidney damage as stage 1 and progress without treatment to stage 5 (end-stage CKD), which eventually results in kidney failure. The epidemiology of the CKD depends strongly on socio-economic status and comorbidities. Therefore, this review aimed to identify the common etiological factors in Saudi Arabia in light of the available literature from Saudi Arabia. The review mainly focused on the studies devoted to the CKD from Saudi Arabia published up to March 2019. The studies were identified through searches of the Medline database, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, using the keywords: chronic kidney disease with DM, hypertension, obesity, glomerulonephritis, nephritis, renal failure, and Saudi Arabia. Only papers in the English language were included.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209533

ABSTRACT

Aims/Objectives: To screen the prevalence of Salmonella fecal carriage among healthy foodhandlers and to identify the common species of Salmonella among study population and its antibacterial susceptibility in Khartoum state by taking stool samples. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Khartoum state, Sudan, from January 2009 to December 2009. Methodology: Stool samples were collected, processed and cultured on suitable bacterial culture media. Presence of colonies resembling (non-lactose fermenting) Salmonella species were further studied to identify the bacterium by using appropriate biochemical tests.Confirmation and serotyping of isolates were done by using Salmonella antisera. Antibacterial susceptibility test for common antibacterial drugs were also studied. Results: A total of 387 stool samples collected from apparently healthy food handlers werestudied. Salmonella fecal carriage among food handlers was 17 (4.4%) and the highest prevalence was noted in Umbada locality (5.1%). Salmonella Paratyphi B was the commonest 14 (3.6%), followed by Salmonella Typhi 2(0.5%) and Salmonella Cholerasuis 1 (0.3%). Our study revealed that 141 (36.4%) of food handlers were illiterate, 29 (7.5%) werepreschool, 134 (34.6%) were elementary school graduates 68 (17.6%) and 15 (3.9%) university graduates. Forty two (10.9%) of the studied cases mentioned that, they sometimes wash their hands by soap after defecation, while, 9 (2.3%) never washed theirhands. The study also, revealed that 3 (17.6%) of positive food handlers have had history ofprevious typhoid or gastroenteritis. The study demonstrated that Salmonella species isolated were sensitive to co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of considerable number of Salmonella fecal carriage among food handlers in Khartoum state. Most of them were illiterate and had poor compliance of hand washing after toilet use. Study also revealed that isolated Salmonella species were highly susceptibility to the common first line antibiotics used in Sudan.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203681

ABSTRACT

Background: Among various psychiatric disorders, depression is one of the most frequently encountered intoday’s world. Depression confers a significant risk of recurrence in the subsequent years following the firstepisode. In order to deal this disorder, it is crucial to comprehend the pathogenesis and properly implement theavailable management options. Objectives: We intend to explore the pathogenesis and patho-physiology ofdepression and highlight the available methods to treat and manage this psychiatric disorder including bothpharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Methods: A review of relevant articles published from 1988 till date inEnglish language was done using the electronic databases of PubMed, Pico and, Google Scholar with presetkeywords. Conclusion: Depression is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder that requires a multidimensionalapproach. The pathogenesis of depression comprises of 30-40% genetic contribution and about 60-70%environmental factors. Environmental factors include stressful life events at any point in an individual’s lifetimeand alter the stress response by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The patho-physiology of depressioninvolves altered brain structure and function in addition to modified levels of neurotransmitters. Serotonin andits precursor tryptophan are decreased in the brain in depression in addition to various changes incatecholamines i.e. dopamine and norepinephrine. The treatment of depression is recommended by acombination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy which has higher efficacy than either therapy alone. Thepreferred forms of psychotherapy include interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Themost commonly used pharmacotherapy include SSRIs, which are the most efficacious and tolerableantidepressants while other second generation antidepressants such as SNRI, TCA and MOA inhibitors,mirtazapine and trazodone are chosen on the basis of patient preference, cost, comorbidities and side effectprofile.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203599

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are considered an overwhelming health burden in Saudi Arabia, greatlyaggravated with the increasing rates of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and obesity. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is one of the tumornecrosis factor receptors, commonly associated with coronary heart diseases. This study examines the possible correlationamong OPG with both DM and CVD. Methods: The study was conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and included 201subjects. They were divided into four matched groups: group 1 were patients with CVD only; group 2 were patients with DMtype 2; group 3 were patients suffering from DM and CVD, and group 4 was normal control. All groups were divided intomale and female subgroups. The following parameters were measured; complete blood picture, lipid profile, insulin, fastingglucose and kidney function and also then relationship to OPG levels. Results: OPG was significantly elevated in males withCVD alone (8.31 ± 4.01 ng/ml), or in association with DM (6.54 ± 3.55 ng/ml). An increase was noted in female patients,but only in the DM and CVD groups (6.75 ± 3.3 ng/ml). A weak positive correlation was detected between OPGconcentrations with both fibrinogen and glucose levels in females, while in males OPG levels were positively correlated withwaist to hip ratios. Conclusion: OPG could be a valuable biomarker for early CVD appearance.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and increase the levels of cholesterol auto-oxidation products such as 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC). Thus, it is imperative to identify agents that can prevent 7β-OHC-induced side-effects.@*METHODS@#We evaluated the potential protective effects of Carpobrotus edulis ethanol-water extract (EWe) on murine oligodendrocytes (158N) cultured in the absence or presence of 7β-OHC (20 μg/mL, 24 h). The cells were incubated with EWe (20-200 µg/mL) 2 h before 7β-OHC treatment. Mitochondrial activity and cell growth were evaluated with the MTT assay. Photometric methods were used to analyze antioxidant enzyme [catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] activities and the generation of lipid and protein oxidation products [malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated diene (CD), and carbonylated proteins (CPs)].@*RESULTS@#Treatment with 7β-OHC induced cell death and oxidative stress (reflected by alteration in CAT and SOD activities). Overproduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA and CDs) and CPs was also reported. The cytotoxic effects associated with 7β-OHC were attenuated by 160 μg/mL of EWe of C. edulis. Cell death induced by 7β-OHC treatment was ameliorated, GPx and CAT activities were restored to normal, and MDA, CD, and CP levels were reduced following C. edulis extract treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#These data demonstrate the protective activities of C. edulis EWe against 7β-OHC-induced disequilibrium in the redox status of 158N cells, indicative of the potential role of this plant extract in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Aizoaceae , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hydroxycholesterols , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Oligodendroglia , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
17.
Zagazig univ. med. j ; 25(6): 887-897, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1273873

ABSTRACT

Background: Although chest X-ray is the main imaging approach in many settings, many limitations for it exist. Ultrasound has quite similar performances to CT with many advantages. Methods: From January 2017 till May 2018, a prospective cohort study conducted in emergency ICU at Zagazig university hospitals including 124 critically ill patients older than 18 years with respiratory distress, cough, fever, or hypoxemia. We excluded from the study pregnant females, patients with massive chest wall emphysema or hematoma, morbidly obese and finally patients with risk of transportation. All patients underwent thorough physical examination, history, laboratory investigations & Chest radiology (X-rays, chest ultrasound & CT). We measured the sensitivity and specificity of chest ultrasound and chest X-rays in comparison with CT with measurement of the learning curve of chest US. Results: 124 patients were assessed for eligibility. 24 patients were excluded for different causes and 100 patients (69 males & 31 females) completed the study with mean age of 49.22±11.52 years. Regarding all study population, whatever diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity of chest ultrasound and chest X-rays were 91.4%, 98.3% and 61.7%, 96.2% respectively. Concordance of the results of ultrasound with results of X-rays and clinical diagnosis increased sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy to highly comparable results with chest computed tomography. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of chest ultrasound increased with time and with number of patients. Conclusions: Chest ultrasound is reliable, quick, bedside, low-cost, non-invasive, non-ionizing, more accurate, and easily educated for early detection of chest diseases and their follow up


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Egypt , Lung
18.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 28(6): 658-668, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-977743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq., Lamiaceae, is a medicinal plant from Southeast Asia. Pharmacological effects of O. aristatus are attributed to the presence of lipophilic flavones. This study aimed to carry out accelerated stability studies on O. aristatus ethanolic extract and its nano liposomes. The extracts were exposed to four different temperatures at 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C for 6 months. The samples were analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography using rosmarinic acid, 3′-hydroxy-5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin and eupatorin as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. Moreover, the stability of O. aristatus ethanolic extract and O. aristatus nano liposomes were analyzes by chemical fingerprinting using FTIR spectroscopy, principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. The degradation of markers in both O. aristatus ethanolic extract and O. aristatus nano liposomes followed the first order degradation reaction (dependening on their initial concentration). The loss of marker compounds in O. aristatus ethanolic extract, stored at 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C for six months were up to 25, 52, 72 and 89% for all compounds, respectively. However, in O. aristatus nano liposomes 16, 71, 85 and 100% of compounds were lost during 6 months of storage at 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C, respectively. Therefore, the markers in O. aristatus nano liposomes seems to be more stable at a temperature below 30 °C compared to O. aristatus ethanolic extract. However, markers present in O. aristatus ethanolic extract are more stable at a higher temperature (above 30 °C). principal component analysis or hierarchical clustering analysis analyses were applied to the FTIR results in order to demonstrate the discrimination between extracts based on the storage conditions. The results show that the functional group of the components in the extracts and their chemistry relationship is influenced by the temperature setup indicating the extracts are not stable during the storage conditions.

19.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2018 Oct; 21(4): 376-381
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-185786

ABSTRACT

Background: The primary objective of this study was to identify pre-anesthetic airway assessment parameters that would predict Cormack and Lehane grade III and IV laryngoscopy views in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. The secondary end points were to identify factors that would contribute to difficult laryngoscope views in this subset of patients. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study performed at a single tertiary cardiac care center. Materials and Methods: 199 children below 5 years of age undergoing elective cardiac catheterization were included. Pre-anesthetic airway assessment was done by modified Mallampati grading, lower lip to chin distance [LCD], tragus to mouth angle [TMA], thyromental distance [TMD], neck circumference [NC], and the ratio of height to thyromental distance [RHTMD]. Demographic data including American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status [ASA PS] were recorded for each child. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were plotted and Areas Under the Curve were measured to identify the best cut off values for each of the airway evaluation method that would predict poor laryngoscopy views as well as assess their accuracy in doing so. Results: LCD, TMD and low body mass index were found to have good sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in predicting Grade III and IV laryngoscope views. ASA PS grade III and above patients had a significantly higher incidence of poor laryngoscope visualization. Conclusions: LCD, TMA, TMD, NC, RHTMD and BMI could all be used combinedly as screening tools during pre-anesthetic airway evaluation for predicting difficult laryngoscope views in children. Among these, LCD, TMD along with low body mass index might have better accuracy.

20.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 70 (2): 192-204
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-190724

ABSTRACT

Background: rectal cancer constitutes about one third of all gastrointestinal tumor. High resolution MRI plays a pivotal role in the post-operative follow up and also plays an important role in detection of recurrence. It is the best modality to assess the relations of the rectal tumor and the potential circumferential resection margin [CRM]. Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer and follows up after total mesorectal excision [TME] and detection of residual or recurrent cancer


Objective: the purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of MRI in the postoperative assessment rectal carcinoma and detection of recurrence


Subjects and methods: twenty patients with pathologically proven rectal carcinoma underwent pelvic MRI examination


Results: this study was conducted on twenty patients [13 male and 7 female] who underwent surgical excision of pathologically proven cancer rectum. Patients were selected from outpatient's clinic and Department of Surgery at the El-Demerdash Hospital. The patient's age ranges from 32 to 75 years old


Conclusion: MRI of rectal cancer was accurate for post-operative assessment and had high sensitivity with specificity in the detection of recurrence

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