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1.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 443-449, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992621

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors and their warning value for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma.Methods:A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 92 patients with severe multiple trauma admitted to Yuyao People′s Hospital from July 2019 to October 2021. There were 71 males and 21 females, with the age range of 36-55 years [(45.5±13.6)years]. The injury severity score (ISS) was 20-29 points [(25.3±6.4)points]. The patients were divided into sepsis group ( n=32) and non-sepsis group ( n=60) according to whether sepsis occurred during hospitalization. Data were recorded for the two groups, including gender, age, basic diseases, cause of injury, number of injury sites, ISS, post-injury complications, and levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) at 1, 3 and 5 days after injury. The above data were analyzed to identify their correlation with the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma by univariate analysis. The independent risk factors for sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma were determined by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. The warning value of the single or combined risk factors for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC). Results:By univariate analysis, it was demonstrated that the occurrence of sepsis was correlated with ISS, level of AHR at day 1 after injury, level of CRP at day 3 after injury and level of PCT at day 3 after injury ( P<0.05 or 0.01), but not with age, sex, basic diseases, level of AHR at 3, 5 days after injury, level of PCT at 1, 5 days after injury and level of CRP at 1, 5 days after injury (all P>0.05). By multivariate Logistic regression analysis, higher ISS ( OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01, 1.24, P<0.05), level of AHR at day 1 after injury ( OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.52, P<0.01) and level of PCT at day 3 after injury ( OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.08, 3.03, P<0.05) were found to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of sepsis. ROC curve analysis showed that higher ISS (AUC=0.69, 95% CI 0.57, 0.76) and level of AHR at day 1 after injury (AUC=0.79, 95% CI 0.68, 0.90) had warning value for the occurrence of sepsis, and the warning efficiency of combined panel was much better (AUC=0.86, 95% CI 0.77, 0.95). Conclusions:Higher ISS, level of AHR at day 1 after injury and level of PCT at day 3 after injury are independent risk factors for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma. ISS, AHR and combination of both exhibit good warning value for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma.

2.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 43-48, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863743

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on myocardial Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ) and cell autophagy after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in swine.Methods Twenty healthy male domestic swine weighing 33-40 kg were randomly (random number) divided into 3 groups:sham group (n=4),CPR group (n=8) and TH group (n=8).Sham animals only underwent general preparation without experiencing cardiac arrest and resuscitation.The animal model was established by 8 min of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation and then 5 min CPR in the CPR and TH groups.Successful resuscitation was regarded as an organized rhythm with a mean arterial pressure of greater than 50 mmHg for 5 min or more.After successful resuscitation,body temperature was decreased to 33 ℃ by a cooling blanket and then maintained until 24 h post-resuscitation,and followed by a rewarming at a rate of 1 ℃/h for 5 h in the TH group.A normal temperature was maintained by the blanket throughout the experiment in the sham and CPR groups.At 6,12,24 and 30 h after resuscitation,the values of stroke volume (SV) and global ejection fraction (GEF) were measured by PiCCO,and meanwhile the serum concentrations of cardiac troponin Ⅰ (cTnI) were measured by ELISA assay and the serum activities of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were evaluated by an automatic biochemical analyzer.At 30 h after resuscitation,the animals were sacrificed and left ventricular myocardium was obtained for the determination ofCaMK Ⅱ,microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 Ⅱ (LC3 Ⅱ) and p62 expressions by Western blot.The variables were compared with One way analysis of variance and then the Bonferroni test among the three groups.Results Compared with the sham group,myocardial dysfunction and injury after resuscitation were observed in the CPR and TH groups,which were indicated by decreased SV and GEF and also increased cTnI concentration and CK-MB activity in serum (all P<0.05).Compared with the CPR group,the values of SV and GEF were significantly increased at 6 h after resuscitation,and serum cTnI concentration and CK-MB activity were significantly decreased starting 12 h after resuscitation in the TH group [SV (mL):25.0±6.9 vs 31.9±3.3 at 6 h,26.7±5.1 vs 34.6±3.7 at 12 h,28.8±3.3 vs 35.7±3.2 at 24 h,29.2±5.2 vs 36.7±3.3 at 30 h;GEF (%):17.1±2.7 vs 19.9±1.8 at 6 h,18.7±1.9 vs 21.6±1.8 at 12 h,19.3±2.3 vs 23.0±2.4 at 24 h,21.0±1.7 vs 23.7±1.7 at 30 h;cTnI (pg/mL):564±51 vs 466±56 at 12 h,534±38 vs 427±60 at 24 h,476±55 vs 375±46 at 30 h;CK-MB (U/L):803±164 vs 652±76 at 12 h,693±96 vs 557±54 at 24 h,633±91 vs 480±77 at 30 h,all P<0.05].Tissue detection indicated that the expression of CaMK Ⅱ and LC3 Ⅱ were increased while the expression of p62 was decreased in post-resuscitation myocardium in the CPR and TH groups compared with the sham group (all P<0.05).However,the expression of CaMK Ⅱ and LC3 Ⅱ were decreased and the expression of p62 was increased in postresuscitation myocardium in the TH group compared to the CPR group (CaMK Ⅱ:0.73±0.06 vs 0.58±0.05;LC3 Ⅱ:0.69±0.09 vs 0.50±0.07;p62:0.40±0.07 vs 0.68±0.14,all P<0.05).Conclusion The mechanism of TH alleviating post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and injury may be related to the inhibition of CaMK Ⅱ expression and cell autophagy.

3.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 942-947, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796382

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the resuscitation effect of aortic balloon occlusion (ABO) on the traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) in swine.@*Methods@#Twenty-seven male domestic swine weighing (32.7±3.8)kg were utilized. After 40% of estimated blood volume was removed within 20 minutes, the animals were subjected to 5 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation and then 5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Additionally, fluid resuscitation was initiated coincident with the beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The animals were randomly divided into model group (n=12) and ABO group (n=15). Once cardiopulmonary resuscitation was implemented, aortic balloon was concurrently inflated to stop the blood flow of descending thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm in the ABO group. In the model group, aortic balloon was placed in the same position without inflation. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the changes of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), forehead's regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) were continuously monitored, and the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, number of shocks and dose of epinephrine were recorded. At 5 minutes after successful resuscitation, the levels of arterial blood gas, lactate and jugular venous blood oxygen saturation (SjvO2) were measured.@*Results@#Compared with the model group, the values of CPP, rSO2 and PETCO2 during cardiopulmonary resuscitation were significantly increased in the ABO group [CPP: (33.5±5.6)mmHg vs. (23.1±5.2)mmHg at 1 minute, (35.3±6.0)mmHg vs. (26.8±7.4)mmHg at 2 minutes, (36.3±6.3)mmHg vs. (28.2±6.3)mmHg at 3 minutes, (40.1±7.1)mmHg vs. (30.5±6.2)mmHg at 4 minutes, (38.1±7.5)mmHg vs. (29.8±5.3)mmHg at 5 minutes; rSO2: (45.4±5.2)% vs. (39.2±5.1)% at 1 minute, (47.2±3.6)% vs. (42.0±6.4)% at 2 minutes, (47.7±3.0)% vs. (41.5±5.4)% at 3 minutes, (47.0±2.5)% vs. (42.1±5.9)% at 4 minutes, (47.1±2.0)% vs. (41.5±7.4)% at 5 minutes; PETCO2: (17.0±3.5)mmHg vs. (12.7±4.2)mmHg at 1 minute, (18.5±3.7)mmHg vs. (14.5±2.7)mmHg at 2 minutes, (20.7±5.3)mmHg vs. (15.5±3.2)mmHg at 3 minutes, (18.7±4.5)mmHg vs. (14.9±3.5)mmHg at 4 minutes, (18.2±3.2)mmHg vs. (14.5±4.2)mmHg at 5 minutes] (all P<0.05). The rate of ROSC was significantly higher in the ABO group than in the model group[100%(15/15) vs. 75%(9/12)] (P<0.05). Additionally, shorter duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, less number of shocks and lower doses of epinephrine were observed in the ABO group when compared with the model group[duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: 5(5, 5)minutes vs. 5(5, 12.5)minutes, number of shocks: 1(1, 1)times vs. 1(1, 4)times, dose of epinephrine: 0.62(0.62, 0.74)mg vs. 0.64(0.59, 2.59)mg] (all P<0.05). At 5 minutes after resuscitation, the level of arterial lactate was significantly decreased and the value of SjvO2 was significantly increased in the ABO group compared with the model group[Lactate: (9.6±0.8)mmol/L vs. (10.8±1.4)mmol/L; SjvO2: (50.0±8.6)% vs. (37.9±16.3)%] (both P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#In a swine model of TCA, ABO can increase cardiac and cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It might provide a novel and effective method for the resuscitation of TCA in the clinical setting.

4.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 942-947, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-791254

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the resuscitation effect of aortic balloon occlusion (ABO) on the traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) in swine.Methods Twenty-seven male domestic swine weighing (32.7 ± 3.8) kg were utilized.After 40% of estimated blood volume was removed within 20 minutes,the animals were subjected to 5 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation and then 5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Additionally,fluid resuscitation was initiated coincident with the beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.The animals were randomly divided into model group (n =12) and ABO group (n =15).Once cardiopulmonary resuscitation was implemented,aortic balloon was concurrently inflated to stop the blood flow of descending thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm in the ABO group.In the model group,aortic balloon was placed in the same position without inflation.During cardiopulmonary resuscitation,the changes of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP),forehead's regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) were continuously monitored,and the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC),duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation,number of shocks and dose of epinephrine were recorded.At 5 minutes after successful resuscitation,the levels of arterial blood gas,lactate and jugular venous blood oxygen saturation (SjvO2) were measured.Results Compared with the model group,the values of CPP,rSO2 and PETCO2 during cardiopulmonary resuscitation were significantly increased in the ABO group [CPP:(33.5 ± 5.6)mmHg vs.(23.1 ± 5.2)mmHg at 1 minute,(35.3 ± 6.0) mmHg vs.(26.8 ± 7.4) mmHg at 2 minutes,(36.3 ± 6.3) mmHg vs.(28.2 ± 6.3) mmHg at 3 minutes,(40.1 ± 7.1) mmHg vs.(30.5 ± 6.2) mmHg at 4 minutes,(38.1 ±7.5)mmHg vs.(29.8 ±5.3)mmHg at 5 minutes;rSO2:(45.4±5.2)% vs.(39.2 ±5.1)% at 1 minute,(47.2 ±3.6)% vs.(42.0±6.4)% at 2 minutes,(47.7 ±3.0)% vs.(41.5 ±5.4)% at 3 minutes,(47.0±2.5)% vs.(42.1 ±5.9)% at4 minutes,(47.1 ±2.0)% vs.(41.5 ±7.4)% at 5 minutes;PETCO2:(17.0 ± 3.5) mmHg vs.(12.7 ± 4.2) mmHg at 1 minute,(18.5 ± 3.7) mmHg vs.(14.5 ±2.7)mmHg at 2 minutes,(20.7 ±5.3)mmHg vs.(15.5 ±3.2)mmHg at 3 minutes,(18.7 ±4.5) mmHg vs.(14.9 ± 3.5) mmHg at 4 minutes,(18.2 ± 3.2) mmHg vs.(14.5 ± 4.2) mmHg at 5 minutes] (all P <0.05).The rate of ROSC was significantly higher in the ABO group than in the model group[100% (15/15) vs.75% (9/12)] (P <0.05).Additionally,shorter duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation,less number of shocks and lower doses of epinephrine were observed in the ABO group when compared with the model group [duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation:5 (5,5) minutes vs.5 (5,12.5) minutes,number of shocks:1 (1,1) times vs.1 (1,4) times,dose of epinephrine:0.62(0.62,0.74) mg vs.0.64 (0.59,2.59) mg] (all P < 0.05).At 5 minutes after resuscitation,the level of arterial lactate was significantly decreased and the value of SjvO2 was significantly increased in the ABO group compared with the model group [Lactate:(9.6 ± 0.8) mmol/L vs.(10.8 ± 1.4) mmol/L;SjvO2:(50.0±8.6)% vs.(37.9±16.3)%] (bothP<0.05).Conclusions In a swine model of TCA,ABO can increase cardiac and cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.It might provide a novel and effective method for the resuscitation of TCA in the clinical setting.

5.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 490-493, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755589

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of hypothermia on Ca2+∕calmodulin-dependent pro-tein kinase Ⅱ ( CaMKⅡ) and cell autophagy in brain tissues after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary re-suscitation ( CA-CPR) in swine. Methods Twenty-one healthy male white swine, weighing 33-40 kg, were divided into 3 groups using a random number table method: sham operation group ( group S, n=5) , CA-CPR group ( n=8) and hypothermia group ( group H, n=8) . The experimental model of CA-CPR was established in CA-CPR and H groups. The Swan-Ganz catheters were placed in the right femoral artery and vein to monitor the pressure of thoracic aorta and right atrium and body temperature and to collect blood sam-ples. A pacing catheter was advanced from the right external jugular vein into the right ventricle. Ventricu-lar fibrillation was induced by using a 1 mA alternating current through the pacing catheter. Once ventricular fibrillation was successfully induced, mechanical ventilation was discontinued for 8 min, and then CPR was initiated. Epinephrine 20 μg∕kg was intravenously injected at 2. 5 min of CPR, followed by repetition once every 3 min. Defibrillation was delivered at 5 min of CPR, and then spontaneous circulation was evaluated. If the spontaneous circulation was not restored, CPR was immediately resumed for 2 min, and then defibril-lation was delivered again. Mechanical ventilation was continued for 30 h after successful CPR. At 5 min af-ter successful resuscitation, body temperature was decreased to 33 ℃ by using a cooling blanket, then maintained at 33 ℃ until 24 h after resuscitation, and finally increased at a rate of 1℃∕h for 5 h in group H. The temperature was maintained at a normal level of 37. 5-38. 5 ℃ with the aid of a cooling blanket in S and CA-CPR groups. At 1, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h after resuscitation (T1-5), blood samples were collected from the femoral vein for measurement of the concentration of neuron specific enolase ( NSE) and S100βprotein in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Five animals in each group were then sacrificed, and brains were removed to determine the expression of CaMKⅡ, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅱ( LC3Ⅱ) and p62 in cerebral cortex by Western blot. Neurological deficit score was evaluated in the remaining three swine at 48, 72 and 96 h after resuscitation (T6-8) in CA-CPR and H groups. Results Compared with group S, the concentrations of NSE and S100β protein in serum were significantly in-creased at T1-5 , the expression of CaMKⅡand LC3Ⅱin cerebral cortex was up-regulated, and the expres-sion of p62 in cerebral cortex was down-regulated in CA-CPR and H groups (P<0. 05). Compared with group CA-CPR, the concentrations of NSE and S100βprotein in serum were significantly decreased at T3-5, the neurological deficit score was decreased at T6-8 , the expression of CaMKⅡand LC3Ⅱin cerebral cortex was down-regulated, and the expression of p62 in cerebral cortex was up-regulated in group H ( P<0. 05) . Conclusion The mechanism by which hypothermia alleviates brain injury after CA-CPR may be related to inhibiting CaMKⅡ activation and reducing cell autophagy in brain tissues of swine.

6.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 863-868, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751865

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine postconditioning on brain injury after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in a swine model.Methods Twenty-eight healthy male domestic pigs,weighing 36±2 kg,were randomized (random number) into 4 groups (n=7 each group):sham operation group (S group),cardiopulmonary resuscitation group (CPR group),low-dose dexmedetomidine postconditioning group (LDP group),and high-dose dexmedetomidine postconditioning group (HDP group).Animals in the S group only underwent the surgical preparation.In the other three groups,the experimental model was established by 8 mins of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation and then 5 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.At 5 min after resuscitation,a loading dose of dexmedetomidine of 0.25 μg/kg was intravenously infused followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 0.25 μg/(kg·h) for 6 h in the LDP group,and a loading dose of dexmedetomidine of 0.5 μ.g/kg was infused followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 0.5 μg/(kg·h) for 6 h in the HDP group.The same amount of normal saline was administered in the S and CPR groups.At 1 h,3 h,6 h and 24 h after resuscitation,the levels of serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100B protein were measured.At 24 h after resuscitation,neurologic deficit score (NSD) was evaluated.After that,the animals were euthanized and cerebral cortex was obtained for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6)and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents,superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity,cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression.Results Compared with the S group,post-resuscitation neurologic dysfunction and brain injury were observed in the other three groups,which were indicated by significantly higher NDS and markedly greater levels of serum NSE and S 100B (all P<0.05).Compared with the CPR group,the score of NDS at 24 h post-resuscitation were significantly lower and the levels of serum NSE and S100B at 6 h and 24 h post-resuscitation were significantly less in the LDP and HDP groups [NDS:194±26,103±16 vs 278±23 at 24 h;NSE (ng/mL):32.4±1.8,28.6±3.7 vs 36.2±2.8 at 6 h,39.9±4.2,35.1±1.5 vs 45.1±3.0 at 24 h;S100B (pg/mL):2 534±207,2 382±170 vs 2 825±113 at 6 h,3 719±164,3 246±176 vs 4 085±161 at 24 h,all P<0.05].Compared with the LDP group,neurologic dysfunction and brain injury at 24 h postresuscitation were further significantly alleviated in the HDP group (all P<0.05).Pathological analysis indicated that brain inflammation,oxidative stress and cell apoptosis were observed after resuscitation in the CPR,LDP and HDP groups.However,the contents of TNF-α,IL-6 and MDA were significantly lower while the activity of SOD was significantly higher,and cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression were significantly reduced in the brain after resuscitation in the LDP and HDP groups compared with the CPR group (all P<0.05).In addition,those pathological injuries mentioned above were further significantly alleviated in the brain after resuscitation in the HDP group compared to the LDP group (all P<0.05).Conclusions Dexmedetomidine postconditioning significantly alleviated the severity of postresuscitation brain injury in a dose-dependent manner,in which the protection was produced possibly through reducing tissue inflammation,oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

7.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 399-404, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694392

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of rapid hypothermia induced via esophagus on intestinal mucous injury in early stage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a swine model of cardiac arrest.Methods Twenty-seven male domestic pigs weighing (36±2)kg were utilized.The animals were randomly crandom number divided into 3 groups (n=9 in each):normothermia group (NT group),surface cooling group (SC group),and esophageal cooling group (EC group).The pig model was established by 8 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation and then 5 mins of CPR.At 5 mins after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC),therapeutic hypothermia was applied by either an esophageal cooling device in the EC group or a surface cooling blanket in the SC group to reach a targeted temperature of 33 ℃ maintained for 24 h after ROSC,and then followed by warming up in a rate of 1 ℃ / hr for 5 hrs.A normal temperature of (38.0±0.5)℃ was maintained throughout the experiment in the NT group.The core temperature was continuously monitored during a period of 30 h after ROSC.At 3 h,6 h,12 h,24 h and 30 h after ROSC,intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) content and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity in serum were measured by ELISA.At 30 h after ROSC,the pigs were sacrificed,and then intestinal tissue was rapidly obtained for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contents by ELISA,cell apoptosis by TUNEL,and caspase-3 expression by immunohistochemistry.Results The rate of temperature decrease was 2.8 ℃/h and the time required for target temperature was 102 min in the EC group,while the rate of temperature decrease was 1.5 /h and the time consumed for target temperature was 185 mins in the SC group,which suggested the efficacy of cooling was significantly better in the EC group than that in the SC group (both P<0.05).Compared with the NT group,serum IFABP content and DAO activity were significantly decreased at 3 hrs after ROSC in the EC group and at 6 hrs after ROSC in the SC group.Compared with the SC group,serum IFABP content at 6 hrs after ROSC and DAO activity at 12 h after ROSC were significantly decreased in the EC group IFABP (pg/mL):(710±32) vs.(777±52) at 6 h,(870±49) vs.(960±64) at 12 h,(1 022±65)vs.(1 143±63) at 24 h,(882±71) vs.(1 006±45) at 30 h DAO (U/mL):(39.9±1.9) vs.(43.4±3.2) at 12 h,(30.6±2.4) vs.(34.0±3.1) at 24 h,(26.1±2.7) vs.(29.4±2.2) at 30 h,all P<0.05.In the intestinal tissue,TNF-α and IL-6 contents were significantly reduced,and cell apoptosis index and caspase-3 expression were significantly decreased in the SC and EC groups compared with the NT group.Additionally,inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in intestinal tissue were further significantly lesser in the EC group compared with the SC group TNF-α (pg/mL):(721±94) vs.(922±125);IL-6(pg/mL):(454±69) vs.(697±132);Apoptotic index(%):(6.2±2.6)vs.(12.8±3.0);caspase-3 expression (IOD):(8.9±1.6) vs.(15.9±1.9),all P<0.05.Conclusions In a swine model of cardiac arrest,rapid hypothermia could be successfully induced via esophagus and consequently produced a greater protective effect on post-resuscitation intestinal injury compared with the conventional surface cooling.The protective mechanisms are associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response and cell apoptosis.

8.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1517-1520, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745646

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) signaling pathway during myocardial injury after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in swine.Methods Twenty-one healthy male white swine,weighing 33-41 kg,were divided into 3 groups using a random number table method:sham operation group (group S,n =5),cardiac arrest-cardiopulmonary resuscitation group (group CA-CPR,n=8),and mild hypothermia group (group MH,n=8).The model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation was established based on the previously reported method.The catheters placed in the left femoral artery and right internal jugular vein were connected to the PiCCO Monitor system,and another pacing catheter was advanced from the right external jugular vein into the right ventricle.Ventricular fibrillation was induced by using a 1 mA alternating current through the pacing catheter.Once ventricular fibrillation was successfully induced,mechanical ventilation was discontinued for 8 min,and then cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated.Epinephrine 20 μg/kg was administered at 2.5 min of resuscitation followed by repetition every 3 min.Defibrillation was delivered at 5 min of resuscitation,and then spontaneous circulation was evaluated.If return of spontaneous circulation was not achieved,cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately resumed for 2 min and then defibrillation was delivered again.Mechanical ventilation was continued for 30 h after successful resuscitation.Animals in group S only underwent surgical preparation without experiencing cardiac arrest and resuscitation.At 5 min after successful resuscitation,body temperature was cooled down to 33 ℃ by using a cooling blanket,and then maintained at this level until 24 h after resuscitation,followed by 5 h of re-warming at a rate of 1 ℃/h in group MH.The temperature was maintained at 37.5-38.5 ℃ with the aid of surface cooling blanket in the other two groups.At 1,6,12,24 and 30 h after resuscitation (T1-5),the values of stroke volume (SV) and global ejection fraction (GEF) were recorded,and meanwhile 2 ml of blood samples was obtained via the femoral vein to measure the concentration of serum cardiac troponin Ⅰ (cTnI) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and activity of serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) (by immunosuppression).The swine were sacrificed at 30 h after resuscitation,and then myocardial specimens from the left ventricle were obtained for determination of the expression of caspase-3 (by immunohistochemistry),cell apoptosis (by TUNEL),and expression of IRE1 and casepase-12 (by Western blot).Apoptosis index was calculated.Results Compared with group S,SV and GEF were significantly decreased and the serum CK-MB activity was increased at T1-5,the concentration of serum cTnI was increased at T2-5,the expression of IRE1,caspase-12 and caspase-3 in myocardium was up-regulated,and apoptosis index was increased in CA-CPR and MH groups (P<0.05).Compared with group CA-CPR,the SV and GEF were significantly increased and the concentration of serum cTnI was decreased at T2-5,the activity of serum CK-MB was decreased at T3-5,the expression of IRE1,caspase-12 and caspase-3 in myocardium was down-regulated,and apoptosis index was decreased in group MH (P<0.05).Conclusion The mechanism by which mild hypothermia mitigates myocardial injury after cardiac arrest and resuscitation may be related to inhibiting IRE1 signaling pathway in swine.

9.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1393-1396, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745618

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) signaling pathway during brain injury after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pigs.Methods Twenty-one healthy domestic male white pigs,weighing 33-41 kg,were divided into 3 groups (n =7 each) using a random number table method:sham operation group (group S),cardiac arrest-resuscitation group (group CA-R) and dexmedetomidine group (group D).Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 8 min followed by 5 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to establish the model of brain injury after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in anesthetized domestic white pigs.Dexmedetomidine was infused via the femoral vein in a loading dose of 0.5 μg/kg at 5 min after successful resuscitation,followed by an infusion of 0.5 μg · kg-1 · h-1 for 6 h in group D.The equal volume of normal saline was given instead in S and CA-R groups.The concentrations of neuron-specific endase (NSE) and S-100β protein in serum were measured at 1,3,6 and 24 h after resuscitation (T1-4).Neurologic deficit score (NDS) was evaluated at T4.The animals were sacrificed at T4,brains were removed and cerebral cortex tissues were obtained for determination of the expression of RIP1,RIP3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) by Western blot.Results Compared with group S,the serum concentrations of NSE and S-100β protein were significantly increased at T1-4,the NDS was increased at T4,and the expression of RIP1,R1P3 and MLKL in cerebral cortex tissues was up-regulated in CA-R and D groups (P<0.05).Compared with group CA-R,the serum concentrations of NSE and S-100β protein were significantly decreased at T3,4,the NDS was decreased at T4,and the expression of RIP1,RIP3 and MLKL in cerebral cortex tissues was down-regulated in group D (P<0.05).Conclusion The mechanism by which dexmedetomidine reduces brain injury after cardiac arrest and resuscitation may be related to inhibiting the activation of RIP 1 signaling pathway in pigs.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 835-837, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To improve the method for the determination of 2 main components in Ticarcillin disodium and potas-sium clavulanate for injection. METHODS:HPLC was performed on the column of Waters XBridgeTM C18 with mobile phase of 0.01 mol/L ammonium dibasic phosphate solution(pH 7.0)-menthol(80:20,V/V)at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min,the detection wave-length was 220 nm, column temperature was 30 ℃, and injection volume was 20 μL. RESULTS:The linear range was 1.95-195.22 μg/mL for ticarcillin (r=0.9999) and 0.12-12.18 μg/mL for clavulanate(r=0.9999);RSDs of precision,stability (under 4 ℃) and reproducibility tests were lower than 1.0%;recoveries were 99.3%-100.5%(RSD=0.4%,n=9) and 99.2%-101.0%(RSD=0.7%,n=9). CONCLUSIONS:The method is rapid,accurate and reliable,and can be used for the determination of 2 main components in Ticarcillin disodium and potassium clavulanate for injection.

11.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-610796

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of resolvin D1 in reducing brain injury after porcine cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its potential mechanisms.Methods Twenty-eight male domestic pigs weighing (36 ±3)kg were utilized.The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =7 each):sham operation group (group S),cardiopulmonary resuscitation group (group CPR),low-dose resolvin D1 gToup (group LRD),and high-dose resolvin D1 group (group HRD).The animals in group S only got the general preparation without the procedure of cardiac arrest and resuscitation.The pig model was established by 8 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation and then 5 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.At 5 min post-resuscitation,the doses of resolvin D10.3 μg/kg,and 0.6 μg/kg were correspondingly injected via the femoral vein in LRD and HRD groups,and meanwhile the same amount of vehicle was given into the animals inthe other two groups.At 3 h,6 h and 24 h post-resuscitation,the concentrations of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100B protein (S100B) in serum was measured.At 24 h post-resuscitation,neurological deficit score (NDS) was evaluated;thereafter the pigs were sacrificed,and cerebral cortex was obtained for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents,and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.Results Compared to group S,post-resuscitation brain injury was observed in the other three groups,which was indicated by significantly increased NDS score,and markedly elevated concentrations of serum NSE and S100B.Compared to group CPR,the NDS was significantly decreased at 24 h post-resuscitation,and the concentrations of serum NSE and S100B were significantly reduced at 6 h and 24 h post-resuscitation in LRD and HRD groups.Compared to group LRD,the NDS score and its serum markers were further significantly decreased in group HRD.The inflammatory response and oxidative stress in brain tissue were observed in all the animals experiencing cardiac arrest and resuscitation,which were indicated by increased contents of TNF-α,IL-6 and MDA and decreased SOD activity.Compared to group CPR,the contents of TNF-α,IL-6 and MDA were significantly decreasedwhile SOD activity was significantly increased in LRD and HRD groups.The indicators of inflammatory response and oxidative stress in brain tissue were further significantly improved in group HRD when compared to group LRD.Conclusions Resolvin D1 can reduce post-resuscitation brain injury in a dose-dependent manner in swine,and the mechanism is related to the inhibition of inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

12.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 1149-1154, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-668756

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a porcine model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to explore the effectiveness of resolvin D1 in improving post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and its potential mechanisms.Methods Twenty-eight male domestic pigs weighing 36 ± 3 kg were utilized.The pig model was established by 8 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation and then 5 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =7 each):sham operation group (group S),cardiopulmonary resuscitation group (group CPR),low-dose resolvin D1 group (group LRD),and high-dose resolvin D1 group (group HRD).The animals in group S only got the general preparation without the procedure of cardiac arrest and resuscitation.At 5 min after resuscitation,the doses of resolvin D1 0.3 μg/kg and 0.6 μg/kg were respectively injected via the femoral vein of pigs in LRD and HRD groups,and meanwhile the equal volume of vehicle was given into the animals in the other two groups.At 3 h,6 h and 24 h after resuscitation,the changes of stroke volume (SV) and global ejection fraction (GEF) were evaluated by a PiCCO monitor,and meanwhile the concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTNI) in serum was measured.At 24 h after resuscitation,the pigs were sacrificed,and myocardial tissue was obtained for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),malondialdehyde (MDA),and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.Results Compared with group S,significantly decreased SV and GEF and markedly increased concentration of serum cTNI were observed in the other three groups with post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction (all P < 0.05).Compared with group CPR,the values of SV and GEF were significantly increased while the concentration of serum cTNI was significantly decreased in LRD and HRD groups [SV (ml):28 ±5,31 ±5 vs.23 ±4 at 3 hrs,32 ±3,36 ±6 vs.27 ± 6 at6 hrs,35 ±5,41 ±5 vs.29±5 at24 hrs;GEF (%):17±2,19±2 vs.14±1 at3 hrs,20±2,23 ± ±3 vs.16 ±3 at 6 hrs,23 ±2,26 ±3 vs.20 ±2 at 24 hrs;cTNI (pg/ml):247 ±34,230 ±26 vs.324 ± 56 at 3 hrs,553 ± 37,501 ± 34 vs.611 ± 44 at 6 hrs,436 ± 23,371 ± 29 vs.553 ± 47 at 24 hrs,all P < 0.05].Compared with group LRD,myocardial function and serum markers were further significantly improved in group HRD (all P < 0.05).The inflammation and oxidative stress in myocardial tissue were observed in all the animals experiencing cardiac arrest and resuscitation,which were indicated by increased levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and MDA and decreased SOD activity.Compared with group CPR,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and MDA were significantly decreased while SOD activity was significantly increased in LRD and HRD groups [TNF-α (pg/ml):442 ±87,218 ±55 vs.653 ± 112;IL-6 (pg/ml):563 ± 68,403±61vs.824±117;MDA (nmol/mg):3.95±0.96,2.54±1.21vs.6.37±1.26;SOD (U/mg):2.27±0.93,3.36±0.74vs.0.89±0.31,all P<0.05].The morbidity of myocardial inflammation and oxidative stress were further significantly ameliorated in group HRD evidenced by the figure of biomarkers compared with group LRD (all P < 0.05).Conclusions Resolvin D1 can improve post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner in swine,and the mechanism is related to the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

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Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 2497-2500, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663498

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application of work shop in health education in the rehabilitation period of cerebral infarction. Methods A total of 44 patients with cerebral infarction from January to June 2016 were selected as the observation group, they were given work shop in health education. Then 40 patients with cerebral infarction from July to December 2015 were selected as the control group,and they were given routine health education.The health knowledge mastery,rehabilitation and health education satisfaction were compared between two groups. Results The knowledge rate of health education knowledge in knowledge of disease medicine, placement of good limb position, limb function training,medication was respectively 97.37%(43/44),93.18%(41/44),95.45%(42/44),95.45%(42/44) in the observation group and 82.50%(33/40), 77.50%(31/40), 77.50%(31/40), 77.50%(31/40) in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=4.01-5.94, P<0.05). The satisfaction of health education in health education skills,communication skills,service attitude was respectively 97.73% (43/44), 100.00%(44/44), 97.73%(43/44) in the observation group and 82.50%(33/40), 82.50%(33/40), 82.50%(33/40)in the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(χ2=4.01,6.27,4.01,P<0.05). The level of compliance, demand, compatibility score was (8.32 ± 1.34), (8.45 ± 1.21), (8.38 ± 1.29) points in the observation group and(5.89±1.74),(5.64±1.53),(5.76±1.35)points in the control group,the difference was statistically significant (t=2.42, 2.74, 2.35, P<0.05). Conclusions Work shop in health education can increase the health knowledge of patients in rehabilitation period of cerebral infarction,and improve the enthusiasm of health education and rehabilitation training satisfaction.

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Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1123-1128, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-506869

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of limb ischemic post-conditioning (LIpostC) alone or its combination with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on systemic inflammatory response and lung injury after cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Methods Twenty-one healthy male pigs weighing (37±2) kg were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 7 each): control group, LIpostC group, and LIpostC+TH group. The animal model was established by 10 minutes of untreated CA and then 5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).Coincident with the start of CPR, LIpostC was induced by four cycles of 5 minutes of limb ischemia followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion in the LIpostC and LIpostC+TH groups. After successful resuscitation, TH was implemented by surface cooling to reach a temperature of 32-34℃ until 4 hours post-resuscitation, followed by a re-warming rate of 1 ℃/h for 4 hours in the LIpostC+TH group. Normal temperature was maintained in the control and LIpostC groups. The resuscitation outcomes in each group were recorded during CPR. At 15 minutes prior to CA (baseline) and during 4 hours post-resuscitation, the level of arterial lactate was measured and PaO2/FiO2 was calculated, and extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured meanwhile by a PiCCO monitor. At 15 minutes prior to CA (baseline) and during 24 hours post-resuscitation, the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Six animals in each group were successfully resuscitated. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), duration of resuscitation, number of shocks and epinephrine dosage during CPR were not statistically significant among the three groups. The baseline of arterial lactate, PaO2/FiO2, EVLWI, PVPI and cytokines prior to CA were also not statistically significant among the three groups. The levels of serum TNF-α and IL-6 after resuscitation were gradually increased in all the three groups; however, the values of TNF-αand IL-6 were significantly lower in the LIpostC and LIpostC+TH groups than that in the control group, and they were further decreased in the LIpostC+TH group when compared to the LIpostC group [TNF-α (ng/L): 305±22 vs. 343±26 at 4 hours, 350±29 vs. 389±18 at 24 hours; IL-6 (ng/L): 239±14 vs. 263±19 at 24 hours, all P < 0.05]. The levels of lactate reached the peak at 2 hours post-resuscitation and then gradually decreased in all the three groups; it finally returned to the baseline in the LIpostC and LIpostC+TH groups, which was markedly lower than that in the control group (mmol/L: 1.4±0.7, 1.2±0.3 vs. 3.1±1.7, both P < 0.05). During 4 hours post-resuscitation, PaO2/FiO2 was significantly higher and EVLWI and PVPI were markedly lower in the LIpostC and LIpostC+TH groups than that in the control group; additionally, PaO2/FiO2 and EVLWI were further improved in the LIpostC+TH group than the LIpostC group [4-hour PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 391±26 vs. 361±20; 4-hour EVLWI (mL/kg): 10.1±1.5 vs. 12.1±1.2, both P < 0.05]. Conclusion LIpostC can be used to alleviate systemic inflammatory response and lung injury after porcine CA and CPR, and its combination with TH further enhanced its protective effects.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1695-1698, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-501237

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OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the inherent quality differences of different batches of Compound norethisterone tablet from different domestic enterprises by researching its in vitro dissolution,to provide reference for improving relevant standards in pharmacopoeia and optimizing production processes in drug manufacturers. METHODS:Orthogonal test was adopted to screen its dissolving conditions,small glass method was finally confirmed by detecting rotating speed,sampling time and dissolution medi-um,sampling determination was conducted with the dissolution medium of 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfonate and rotating speed of 50 r/min and 45 min. And HPLC was adopted to simultaneously determine the in vitro dissolution of norethindrone and ethinyl estra-diol,then AV value method was adopted to detect the similarity of dissolution profiles of 8 batches of products from 2 domestic en-terprises. RESULTS:The dissolution profiles and similarity of AV value method showed the cumulative dissolution of 8 batches of Compound norethisterone tablet from 2 domestic enterprises had no significant difference at different time points,overall similarity was relatively high;but the ethinyl estradiol had certain difference,overall similarity was relatively low. CONCLUSIONS:The dif-ference of dissolution profiles of Compound norethisterone tablet may has effect on the drug efficacy,the production process and quality in domestic enterprises should be managed strictly. Meanwhile,the current method of dissolution is weak to distinguish from the quality,which needs to be improved urgently.

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Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 1135-1140, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-480744

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a swine model of 10 min prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) induced by electrically triggered ventricular fibrillation,and then evaluate the quality of the model and the value in the establishment of post-cardiac arrest syndrome.Methods Fourteen domestic healthy swine weighing 38 ±3 kg were selected for study.Ventricular fibrillation was induced for 10 min,and then cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated and continued for 5 min.The resuscitated animals were observed for 72 h after resuscitation.The resuscitation outcomes and survival rate were recorded.The functions of heart,lung and brain,and systemic inflammatory response and tissue perfusion were regularly evaluated for 72 h post-resuscitation.Results Eleven of the fourteen swine obtained restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC),and the rate of successful resuscitation and 72 h survival were both 78.6%.Significantly worse post-resuscitation myocardial function was found in all animals compared to the value prior to CA and the myocardial function was evaluated by decreased stroke volume and global ejection fraction,and increased levels of serum cardiac troponin-Ⅰ and n-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide.Postresuscitation extra-vascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were significantly increased accompanied with significantly decreased oxygenation index compared with the values before CA,indicating the occurrence of acute lung injury.In addition,post-resuscitation systemic inflammatory response and tissue low perfusion evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and arterial blood lactate were observed.Consequently,severe neurological deficit with significantly higher levels of serum neuron-specific enolase and S-100B was observed following 72 h postresuscitation.Conclusions This swine model of prolonged cardiac arrest induced by electrically triggered ventricular fibrillation was a well established model with high success rate of resuscitation,significant vital organ injury and relatively long duration of survival;it is an excellent model for the study of post-cardiac arrest syndrome.

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China Pharmacist ; (12): 1980-1983, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-460071

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a determination method for the related substances in josamycin and josamycin tablets by HPLC. Methods:High performance liquid chromatography was used. The column was Ultimate-AQ-C18(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm), the mobile phase respectively was mobile phase A of 0. 2 mol·L-1 tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate R-0. 2 mol·L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate(pH 3. 0)-acetonitrile R-water(3∶5∶24∶68) and mobile phase B of 0. 2 mol·L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate (pH 3. 0)-acetonitrile R-water(5∶50∶45). The flow rate was 1. 5 ml·min-1 with the detection wavelength of 232nm. The column temperature was 50℃. Results:The main component josamycin had a good separation with the other related substances. The resolution between josamycin and the related substances with the relative retention time of 1. 1-fold of josamycin was above 1. 7. The detection limit of josamycin was 1. 43ng. In josamycin raw materiel and josamycin tablets, the percentage of related substance A and B was less than 1. 5%. The percentage of related substance D was below 2. 0%. The percentage of related substance E was less than 3. 0%. The percentage of the other maximum related substances was less than 1. 0%. The percentage of all related substances was less than 12%. The percentage of related substance C was less than 1. 0% in josamycin raw materiel while 3. 0% in josamycin tablets. Conclusion:The method is accurate, sensitive and reliable in the determination of related substances in josamycin and josamycin tablets.

18.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 229-233, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-407802

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Objective To investigate the correlation between stenosis or occlusion of vertebralbasilar artery and the location of infarctions in pontine. Methods All 139 patients with acute pontine infarction who were admitted to the Department of Neurology,Xuanwu Hospital,Beijing,during February,2005 and September,2007 were studied. All patients received the examinations of head MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Patients with possible cardiac embolism were excluded from the study. All the cases were then divided into four groups: A( paracentral artery group); B (short rotary artery group); C (long rotary artery group) and D (combined group). Results In all 139 cases,78 cases (56. 1% ) were in A group,3 (2. 2% ) in B group,7 (5.0%) in C group and 51 (36.7%) in D group. Fifty-six cases (40. 3% ) have occlusion in vertebral artery,60 cases (43.2%) have stenosis of vertebral artery. Cases having stenosis or occlusion in basilar artery are 14 cases (10. 1% ) each. Sixteen cases (11.5%) have unimpaired vertebral-basilar artery. A group is related to occlusion of vertebral artery and basilar artery and unimpaired artery ( x2 =3. 945,6. 824,4. 485 ,P = 0. 043,0. 021,0. 041 respectively). D group is related to occlusion of basilar artery ( x2 = 10. 952,P = 0. 006). Logistic binary analysis found that A group is more related with occlusion of vertebral artery ( OR = 2. 261 ),while D group is more related to occlusion of basilar artery ( OR = 15. 750). Conclusions There is a significant correlation between stenosis or occlusion of vertebral-basilar artery and the locations of infarctions in pontine. The physicians are suggested to perform the examinations on cerebral vessels such as brain MRI or DSA in patients with infarctions in pontine.

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Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research ; (53): 7687-7690, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-405773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Orotracheal intubation with conventional Macintosh laryngoscope often makes strong alterations in hemodynamic responses. Compare with the Macintosh laryngoscope, the Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope has weak effect on throat irritation. However, the contrast effect on hemodynamics remains still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the hemodynamical responses to orotracheal intubation between Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized comparative observation was performed at Department of Anesthesiology, Dalian Second People's Hospital between October 2008 and April 2009. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 40 patents scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia requiring orotracheal intubation were randomly divided into Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope group and Macintosh laryngoscope group, with 20 cases in each group. METHODS: After standard intravenous anesthetic induction, orotracheal intubation was performed with Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope or Macintosh laryngoscope. Common Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope was used in the Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope group, and an endotracheal tube with internal diameter of 8.0 was inserted. No. 3 lens were used in the Macintosh laryngoscope group, and an endotracheal tube with internal diameter of 8.0 was inserted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glottic exposure time, tracheal intubation time, noninvasive heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) before (T0) and after (T1) anesthetic induction as well as at 0 minute (T2), 1 minute (T3), 2 minutes (T4), and 3 minutes (T5) after intubation, as well as rate-pressure product (RPP). RESULTS: The glottic exposure time in Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope group was significantly longer than that in Macintosh laryngoscope group (P < 0.01), while the tracheal intubation time in Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope group was significantly shorter than that in Macintosh laryngoscope group (P < 0.01). Compared with pre-induction (T0), the SBP, DBP, and RPP of the two groups decreased significantly after anesthetic induction (T1) (P < 0.05), but the HR did not change remarkably (P > 0.05). Compared with T1, all hemodynamical values at T2, T3, T4 and T5 in Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope group did not increased sign ificantly (P > 0.05). In Macintosh laryngoscope group, HR and RPP at T4, SBP, DBP, HR and RPP at T2 and T3 increased significantly compared with T1 (P < 0.05). In Macintosh laryngoscope group, HR and RPP at T2, T3 and T4 were significant higher than that in Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: In comparison to the Macintosh laryngoscope, tracheal intubation with the Airtraq~((R)) laryngoscope resulted in less alterations in hemodynamical responses.

20.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 254-257, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-401389

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between the stenosis of clinically relevant artery or the characteristics of carotid plaques and frequent transient ischemic attacks(TIA).Methods Seventy-nine consecutive patients sufiered TIA attribute to carotid territory in the acute phase(within 7 days )who had been admitted to neurology department of Xuanwu Hospital from August 2005 to January 2007 were retrospectively analyzed.Patients with nonatherosclerotic vasculal disease were excluded.According to the times of TIA from the first attack to the day of hospitaliztion(within 7 days)patients were divided into two groups:those who had sparse TIA(onsets<3 times),and those who had multiple TIA(onsets≥3 times).All patients underwent the examination of DSA.carotid ultrasound and transcranial doppler.The degree of stenosis of clinically relevant artery and the characteristics of carotid plaques were compared between the two groups.According to degree of stenosis of relevant artery,we defined as normal or<50%stenosis.50%-69%stenosis.70%-99%stenosis or occlusion.According to the characteristics of carotid plaques we divided into stable or unstable plaques.Resuits Patients with TIA in carotid territory had more intracranial artery diseases.The middle cerebral artery was the most commonly involved artery(5 1.2%).the extracranial internal carotid artery was the next(37.2%).Multiple TIA were more likely to have a short duration of symptoms≤10 min than sparse TIA(x2=5.343,P=0.021).A significant stenosis of clinically relevant artery(≥50%)was demonstrated more frequently in the multiple TIA group(66.7%)than in the sparse TIA group(35.3%,x2=7.655,P=0.006).No significant correlation was observed between the multiple TIA and characteristics of carotid plaques in the focus side(x2=0.939,P=0.332).Conclusions Frequent TIA is significantly associated with a short duration of symptoms and≥50% stenosis of clinically relevant artery.Transient flow reduction by hemodynamic compromise may he an important mechanism of frequent TIA.

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