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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0244, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360830

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Bothrops envenomations can often lead to complications, such as secondary infections. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with snakebite. Results: A total of 127 patients were included. Clindamycin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, with 105 patients (82.7%) receiving it as the primary antibiotic regimen. In 31 (24.4%) individuals, the first-choice antibiotic did not cease the infection. Conclusions: Secondary infection is an important complication resulting from snakebites, and evidence-based management of this complication can contribute to better clinical outcomes.

2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00912021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The efficacy of 20-minute whole blood clotting (WBCT20) and the Lee-White clotting time (LWCT) tests in diagnosing coagulation alterations from snakebites were compared. Methods: We evaluated 89 snakebite cases treated at the Hospital Regional do Juruá em Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Results: WBCT20 results were normal in 33.7% and unclottable in 66.3% of cases, while LWCT results were normal in 23.6% and altered (prolonged or unclottable) in 76.4% of cases, with no significant differences. Conclusions: The WBCT20 is important for rapidly diagnosing coagulation alterations from snakebites. Furthermore, it is efficient, inexpensive, and can be deployed in isolated hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Snake Bites/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation , Brazil , Hospitals
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200319, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143888

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bee venom is a natural toxin composed of several peptides. Massive envenoming causes severe local and systemic reactions. We report two cases of severe bee envenomation, of which one was fatal. We also describe clinical characteristics and immune markers. Both victims suffered from respiratory distress, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and shock. They required invasive mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs, and renal replacement therapy. Moreover, serum levels of chemokines, cytokines, and cell-free circulating nucleic acids demonstrated an intense inflammatory process. Massive envenoming produced systemic injury in the victims, with an uncontrolled inflammatory response, and a more significant chemotactic response in the fatal case.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Bee Venoms , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Bees , Brazil , Biomarkers
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0850, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288094

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Electron microscopy (EM) is a rapid and effective tool that can be used to create images of a whole spectrum of virus-host interactions and, as such, has long been used in the discovery and description of viral mechanisms. METHODS: Electron microscopy was used to evaluate the pulmonary pathologies of postmortem lung sections from three patients who died from infection with SARS-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new member of the Coronaviridae family. RESULTS: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was predominant in all three patients. The early exudative stage was characterized principally by edema and extravasation of red blood cells into the alveolar space with injury to the alveolar epithelial cells; this was followed by detachment, apoptosis, and necrosis of type I and II pneumocytes. The capillaries exhibited congestion, exposure of the basement membrane from denuded endothelial cells, platelet adhesion, fibrin thrombi, and rupture of the capillary walls. The proliferative stage was characterized by pronounced proliferation of type II alveolar pneumocytes and multinucleated giant cells. The cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 was observed both in degenerated type II pneumocytes and freely circulating in the alveoli, with components from virions, macrophages, lymphocytes, and cellular debris. CONCLUSIONS: Viral particles consistent with the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 were observed mainly in degenerated pneumocytes, in the endothelium, or freely circulating in the alveoli. In the final stage of illness, the alveolar spaces were replaced by fibrosis.

6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0374-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155569

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon are caused mostly by snakes from the Bothrops genus and envenomated patients may suffer from tissue complications. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for severe tissue complications (STC) in patients with Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil. RESULTS: Snakebites that were classified as severe and affected female patients with comorbidities presented greater risks of developing STCs. In addition, hospitalizations of patients with STC exceeded 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics can prove essential for assessing the evolution of STC and clinical prognosis of patients with Bothrops snakebites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Snake Bites/complications , Snake Bites/diagnosis , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms , Snakes , Brazil/epidemiology , Antivenins , Risk Factors
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/transmission
9.
Acta amaz ; 50(1): 90-99, jan. - mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118771

ABSTRACT

This study addresses the clinical and epidemiological aspects of envenoming cases resulting from snakebites treated at a hospital in Cruzeiro do Sul, in the upper Juruá River region, western Brazilian Amazonia. The specific identity of snakes that caused the envenomings was inferred (a) from the diagnosis of patient symptoms and signs upon hospital admission, (b) by enzyme immunoassay for detection of Bothrops atrox and Lachesis muta venom from serum samples taken from patients before antivenom therapy, or (c) by direct identification of the snake, when it was brought along to the hospital or photographed. There were 133 snakebites (76.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) registered during one year (July 2017 to June 2018). Most snakebites (88.7%) were caused by Bothrops spp., and the rest by non-venomous snakes or dry bites. Snakebites tended to occur more often during the rainy season, coinciding with the period of greater reproductive activity of the snakes and greater availability of their prey. In addition, the increase in the water level of rivers and lakes during the rainy season tends to concentrate snakes in dry places and, thus, to increase encounters with humans. Information campaigns on prevention and first aid, specially among the most vulnerable groups (indigenous people, farmers, and children and teenagers in rural areas), and the importance of using protective equipment (boots, leggings, leather gloves) in certain high risk activities (e.g. agriculture and extractivism in forests) are fundamental for the reduction of snakebite morbidity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Poisoning , Snakes , Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique , Bothrops , Animals, Poisonous
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190305, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057260

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We examined the ethnobiological perception of the population of the Alto Juruá region about different snake species, in terms of their dangerousness and manifestations of envenomation. METHODS: We interviewed 100 villagers who were active in the forests. RESULTS: Lachesis muta was considered the most venomous snake, and Bothrops atrox appeared to be the most feared snake species. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence, severity, and mortality of B. atrox bites and the severity and mortality of L. muta bites were the factors that contributed to these species being perceived as the most feared and venomous snakes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Snakes/classification , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Popular Culture , Rural Population , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 30(1): 120-128, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1101246

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Snakebites are a public health problem and are considered clinical emergencies, what makes studies in high-incidence regions very importantOBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients suffering from snakebite accidents in a region of the Western Amazon, BrazilMETHODS: It is a cross-sectional, retrospective and documentary quantitative approach, from 2015 to 2016, held at the Regional Hospital of Juruá, located in the city of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Epidemiological data were obtained from the forms of the Notification Disease Information System (SINAN), in the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector of the hospital. The following variables were verified: month of occurrence, snake identification (type of accident), accident location (urban and rural), locality, municipality, victim data (age group, sex, anatomical region affected), symptoms and signs circumstances of the accident, time elapsed between accident and care, number of ampoules used, and type of serumRESULTS: An average of 124 cases of snakebites were treated per year (76.71 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year), most of them were botropic accidents and the patients were male adult and rural workers, bitten in the lower limbs. More than 30% of cases were treated six hours after poisoning and 24-hour care is a risk factor for complications, as seven of the eight patients who had complications were treated within one day of the accidentCONCLUSION: It was presented a constant increase in the cases, which generated a worrying point of reflection, which may be associated with two factors, where one turns to the improvement in the displacement of victims (improvements in branch roads and implementation of SAMU speedboat) facilitating plus transport and telephone coverage by improving communication, or the failure of public health policies to provide better conditions and guidance to the population


INTRODUÇÃO: Os acidentes ofídicos são um problema de saúde pública e são considerados emergências clínicas, motivo este que torna os estudos em regiões de grande incidência muito importantesOBJETIVO: Descrever os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de pacientes vítimas de acidentes ofídicos em uma região da Amazônia Ocidental, BrasilMÉTODO: Trata-se de um transversal, retrospectivo e documental de abordagem quantitativa, no período de 2015 a 2016, realizado no Hospital Regional do Juruá, localizado na cidade de Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brasil. Os dados epidemiológicos foram obtidos a partir das fichas do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), no Setor de Vigilância Epidemiológica do hospital. Foram verificadas as seguintes variáveis: mês de ocorrência, identificação da serpente (tipo de acidente), local do acidente (zona urbana e rural), localidade, município, dados da vítima (faixa etária, sexo, região anatômica atingida), sintomas e sinais apresentados, circunstâncias do acidente, tempo decorrido entre o acidente e o atendimento, a quantidade de ampolas utilizadas e o tipo de soro no tratamento das vítimasRESULTADOS: Foram atendidos em média 124 casos de acidentes ofídicos por ano (76,71 casos por 100.000 habitantes/ano), sendo a maioria acidentes botrópicos e os pacientes constituídos por indivíduos adultos do sexo masculino e trabalhadores rurais, picados nos membros inferiores. Mais de 30% dos casos foram atendidos seis horas após o envenenamento e o atendimento após 24 horas é um fator de risco para complicações, uma vez que sete dos oito pacientes que apresentaram complicações foram atendidos depois de um dia do acidenteCONCLUSÃO: Apresentou um crescente constante nos casos, o que gerou um ponto de reflexão preocupante, que pode estar associado a dois fatores, onde um volta-se para a melhora no deslocamento das vítimas (melhorias nas estradas dos ramais e implantação de lancha do SAMU) facilitando mais o transporte e na cobertura de telefonia melhorando a comunicação, ou a falha das políticas de saúde pública na oferta de melhores condições e orientações para a população

14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200076, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143214

ABSTRACT

Snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA2) are biologically active toxins, capable of triggering and modulating a wide range of biological functions. Among the svPLA2s, crotoxin (CTX) has been in the spotlight of bioprospecting research due to its role in modulating immune response and hemostasis. In the present study, novel anticoagulant mechanisms of CTX, and the modulation of inflammation-induced coagulation were investigated. Methods: CTX anticoagulant activity was evaluated using platelet poor plasma (PPP) and whole blood (WB), and also using isolated coagulation factors and complexes. The toxin modulation of procoagulant and pro-inflammatory effects was evaluated using the expression of tissue factor (TF) and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in WB. Results: The results showed that CTX impaired clot formation in both PPP and WB, and was responsible for the inhibition of both intrinsic (TF/factor VIIa) and extrinsic (factor IXa/factor VIIIa) tenase complexes, but not for factor Xa and thrombin alone. In addition, the PLA2 mitigated the prothrombinase complex by modulating the coagulation phospholipid role in the complex. In regards to the inflammation-coagulation cross talk, the toxin was capable of reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and was followed by decreased levels of TF and procoagulant activity from LPS-treated PBMC either isolated or in WB. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study recognize the toxin as a novel medicinal candidate to be applied in inflammatory diseases with coagulation disorders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Phospholipids , Snake Venoms , Crotoxin , Phospholipases A2 , Anticoagulants , Biological Products , Lipopolysaccharides
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200427, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136890

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of a pandemic highlights the translational demands regarding science. This communication aims to propose theoretical-methodological elements for research on health work in pandemic context. METHODS: This reflective essay sets an framework for a research project on health work in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. RESULTS: Three axes or subsidies are presented: the construction of work environments as an analytical component, the approach of ergology as a potential and the centrality of the experiences of the worker-subject. CONCLUSIONS: New health care challenges require attention to what workers have to say about their forms of confrontation and translation of knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Research Design , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200401, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136888

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present postmortem evidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a patient with severe COVID-19. Autopsies of COVID-19 confirmed cases were performed. The patient died despite antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support. Histopathology and peripheral blood galactomannan antigen testing confirmed IPA. Aspergillus penicillioides infection was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis. Further reports are needed to assess the occurrence and frequency of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 infections, and how they interact clinically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aspergillus/genetics , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pandemics , Lung/microbiology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136880

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease in many countries in Latin America, including Brazil. As few studies have assessed snakebites in the Amazon region and especially in the state of Acre, epidemiological studies are of great importance. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites in the Rio Branco region, observing their characteristics in rural and urban areas and their correlation with rainfall and river outflow. METHODS This retrospective, descriptive study analyzed epidemiological information obtained from snakebite notifications registered on the Information System for Notifiable Diseases that occurred from March, 2018 to February, 2019. The cases of snakebite were correlated with rainfall and flow. RESULTS A total of 165 cases of snakebite were registered in the period. Most cases were caused by Bothrops and affected mainly individuals of the male sex who were between 21 and 30 years old. Most of the snakebites occurred in Rio Branco (71.52%; 29 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). Of these, 60.2% occurred in the urban area and 39.8% in the rural area and the majority occurred during the rainy season. CONCLUSIONS Although studies have shown that a majority of cases occur in rural areas, in this study, urbanization of snakebites was observed. The Bothrops genus was responsible for the highest number of snakebites and, during the rainy season, bites occurred more frequently. Educational prevention campaigns, population advice, and first aid in case of snakebites for the population are thus suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Bothrops , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200333, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136832

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Achieving viral suppression (VS) in children is challenging despite the exponential increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated VS in children >1 year of age and adolescents 5 years after they had begun ART, in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naive children >1 year of age between 1999 and 2016 were eligible. Analysis was stratified by age at ART initiation: 1-5 y, >5-10 y, and >10-19 y. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were assessed on arrival at the clinic, on ART initiation, and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years after ART initiation. The primary outcome was a viral load <50 copies/mL 5 years after ART initiation. RESULTS: Ultimately, 121 patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years (SD 3.5), mean CD4% was 17.9 (SD 9.8), and mean viral load was 4.6 log10 copies/ml (SD 0.8). Five years after ART initiation, the overall VS rate was 46.9%. VS by patient age group was as follows: 36.6% for 1-5 y, 53.3% for >5-10 y, and 30% for >10-19 y. Almost all children (90,4%) showed an increase in CD4%+ T cell count. There were no statistically significant predictors for detecting children who do not achieve VS with treatment. VS remained below 65% in all the evaluated periods. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable immunological improvement is seen in children after ART initiation. Further efforts are needed to maintain adequate long-term VS levels and improve the survival of this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , HIV , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200080, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia in malaria involves platelet destruction and consumption; however, the cellular response underlying this phenomenon has still not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE To find associations between platelet indices and unbalanced Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines as a response to thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax infected (Pv-MAL) patients. METHODS Platelet counts and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine levels were compared in 77 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria and 37 healthy donors from the same area (endemic control group - ENCG). FINDINGS Thrombocytopenia was the main manifestation in 55 patients, but was not associated with parasitaemia. The Pv-MAL patients showed increases in the mean platelet volume (MPV), which may be consistent with larger or megaplatelets. Contrary to the findings regarding the endemic control group, MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW) did not show an inverse correlation, due the increase in the heterogeneity of platelet width. In addition, the Pv-MAL patients presented increased IL-1β and reduced IL-12p70 and IL-2 serum concentrations. Furthermore, the reduction of these cytokines was associated with PDW values. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that an increase in MPV and the association between reductions of IL-2 and IL-12 and PDW values may be an immune response to thrombocytopenia in uncomplicated P. vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/parasitology , Interleukin-2/blood , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Interleukin-12/blood
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