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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834892

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This aim examined the outcomes of resuscitation and the clinical characteristics of patients with pre-hospitaltraumatic cardiac arrests (TCA). @*Methods@#The charts of patients with pre-hospital TCA who visited the various emergency department (ED) in Gangwondofrom January 2013 to December 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#TCA patients comprised 0.3% of patients transferred by 119. A total of 367 patients were enrolled in the study.Traffic accidents were the leading cause of the arrest. The initial field and ED rhythm were mostly asystole (field, 79.6%;ED, 82.3%). It took 11.24±9.95 minutes from the call to the field. From the field to ED, it took 22.87±15.37 minutes. Thetotal CPR time before ED arrival was 21.62±15.29 minutes. The causes of TCA were brain injury (35.7%), hypovolemicshock (29.2%), and severe lung injury (16.3%). Seventy TCA patients experienced at least one return of spontaneous circulation(ROSC). Twenty-six patients (7.14%) were admitted to the ward, and their average injury severity score was38.96. Eight patients expired before 12 hours after transient ROSC. Four more patients expired before 24 hours. Fourpatients were discharged alive among patients who lived for more than 24 hours. @*Conclusion@#In this study, 1.5% of patients were discharged alive. The possibility of ROSC was higher as the time to ED,and the cardiopulmonary resuscitation time of 119 was shorter. Pulseless electrical activity rather than asystole tends topromote ROSC. The survival rate increased when ROSC occurred before arriving at the ED.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the latent class, according to the risk factors, of the patients hospitalized due to intentional self-harm by lethal means. METHODS: The risk factors were derived by categorizing the intentional self-harming measures by lethal (hanging, pesticide poisoning, jumping, and drowning) and non-lethal (drug poisoning and stab) measures and comparing the demographics, diseased state, and suicide-related characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed to identify the type of intentional self-harm. RESULTS: Male (sex), elderly (age), rural (residing location), and comorbid diseases were found to be the risk factors for fatal injuries. For this, four latent classes were modeled. Factors, such as the age group between 20 to 40 years, women, and family conflict were included in the first class. The second class included the age group between 30 to 50 years, men, and financial problems. The third class covered the age group between 60 to 70 years and comorbidity. The fourth class contained the age group of 10 to 50 years, women, and mental problems. The rate of suicide and choice of fatal suicide was ranked in the order of 3 (62.7%, 21.5%), 2 (59.8%, 13.9%), 4 (36.8%, 5.7%), and 1 (29.5%, 5.9%). CONCLUSION: A lethal mean access control policy needs to be established for the high-risk group of self-harm. Moreover, establishing an emergency room-community link prevention policy could help reduce the re-suicide attempt among suffering patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cluster Analysis , Comorbidity , Demography , Emergencies , Family Conflict , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Methods , Poisoning , Risk Factors , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766588

ABSTRACT

The fatality rate of a disaster is associated with the impact of the disaster and the case fatality rate. The severity of the disaster can be reduced by an efficient disaster management system, and the capacity of the trained disaster response system can lower the case mortality rate. The severity of a disaster is determined by the interaction of risk factors and vulnerabilities in a particular area, and the case-fatality rate is determined by a correlation between the capacity of the disaster response team and the survivability of the victims. The disaster management system and the disaster response system are complementary and interconnected, and the efficiency of cooperation and linkage can be improved by developing well organized digitalization. Efforts to increase the survival rate of victims through digitalization has been a continued process and new alternatives are being developed in accordance with the advances in information and communication technology to manage disaster risk factors and to improve disaster response capabilities. However, in case of mass casualty incidents, it is still difficult to reduce the case mortality rate by securing the survival time limit of the victims. Often, sharing the disaster scene information and communicating with the victim is not feasible. A lack of ability to provide real time escape route to exit or safe zone proves fatal. The communication revolution of the next generation wireless wide area network called 5G can overcome the disruption of communication network during the disaster incidents. It can enable real time tracking of the position of victim and linking the victims with its rescuers. Hence, it is possible to increase the survival rate of victims during mass casualty incidents by associating information and communication technologies with appropriate disaster management and response strategies, real-time information exchange and education and training of rescuers and citizens.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Education , Emergencies , Mass Casualty Incidents , Mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , United Nations
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to identify the factors that contribute to successful telemedicine service. This was done by analyzing the operational state of successful telemedicine services offered in Gangwon Province of Korea and their outcome for the last fifteen years. METHODS: A comparative analysis was made based on reports and a thesis on the satisfaction rate of patients and providers, patient compliance to treatment, and economic assessment of Gangwon telemedicine service, which were carried out in three periods: the years 2006, 2010, and 2012. RESULTS: The satisfaction surveys in all three periods showed similar results for patients (4.46+/-0.70 point) and healthcare practitioners, including nurses (3.82+/-0.62 point) and physicians (3.60+/-0.56 point), in decreasing order from the year 2012. Through the survey of patients' compliance with treatment, it was confirmed that telemedicine services increased patients' compliance with drug administration, facilitated improvement of lifestyle habits, improved glycated hemoglobin for patients with diabetes mellitus, and enhanced the rate of blood pressure control. In the survey conducted on patients' willingness to pay for telemedicine services in 2007, it was found that those patients were willing to pay about $3.5 for services. CONCLUSIONS: The telemedicine services of Gangwon Province increased patients' compliance with drug administration, improved blood glucose control, enhanced blood pressure control for patients with hypertension, and provided economic advantage.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Compliance , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Life Style , Patient Compliance , Patient Satisfaction , Rural Health Services , Telemedicine
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted in the base hospital of Tangalle, Sri Lanka, in order to improve a new emergency operating system. METHODS: Emergency staff and patients were surveyed based on the five point Likert scale. Doctors and nurses were asked to rate their level of satisfaction regarding their relationship with patients. Patients were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with doctors, facilities, and the environment in the hospital. RESULTS: Doctors were overall satisfied with their job, scoring an average of 3.7. They were displeased with limitation of autonomous decision making on medical treatment, which they gave a score of 2.80. Nurses were generally satisfied with emergency services, with a score of 4.53. Nurses feel discomfort in non-specialized training (3.02). They also sense a lack of opportunities in their hospital (3.12). Patients' findings indicate that most patients were satisfied (4.2) and were displeased with wait time (3.429) and the attention that was given to each patient (3.92). When asked if they would recommend their physician to others and were willing to come back to their physician, outcomes were generally positive, receiving scores of 4.1, respectively. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that in order to create a well-structured system in the emergency centers around the Tangalle area, it is crucial to meet the needs of both patients and the emergency staff. Patients must have a sense of rapid treatment as well as privacy. Training should be provided to the staff so that they are better informed in quality care and up to date on recent studies.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Emergencies , Humans , Privacy , Sri Lanka
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138357

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the expierience of the Wonju Disaster Medical Assistant Team (DMAT)'s activities during the Chun-cheon landslide (AM 00:08 on July 7th, 2011) and to present damages caused by the landslide. The scale of the domestic DMAT in the landslide disaster was also assessed. METHODS: In a retrograde study, victims were analyzed video camera recordings and medical records at the landslide disaster. Follow-up surveys of patients taken to the hospital after the Chun-cheon landslide were also analyzed. In addition, pertinence of the Wonju DMAT's activities during the rescue activity, designated by National Emergency Management, were evaluated. RESULTS: Rescue efforts continued until 13:00 on July 7th, 2011. The number of casualties was forty one, consisted of three immediate patients, six delayed patients, nineteen minimal patients, and thirteen expectant patients. The Wonju DMAT arrived at the scene of the landslide disaster at AM 02:30 on July 7th, 2011. After installing a medical office, they categorized patients by ID-ME classification and provided medical treatment to twenty-two patients, including local residents and rescue workers. CONCLUSION: The cause of death in the landslide disaster was suffocation. A small-scale DMAT rescue, composed on five to six people, is more proper for disaster response in a landslide disaster.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Cause of Death , Classification , Disasters , Emergencies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Landslides , Medical Assistance , Medical Records , Rescue Work
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138356

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the expierience of the Wonju Disaster Medical Assistant Team (DMAT)'s activities during the Chun-cheon landslide (AM 00:08 on July 7th, 2011) and to present damages caused by the landslide. The scale of the domestic DMAT in the landslide disaster was also assessed. METHODS: In a retrograde study, victims were analyzed video camera recordings and medical records at the landslide disaster. Follow-up surveys of patients taken to the hospital after the Chun-cheon landslide were also analyzed. In addition, pertinence of the Wonju DMAT's activities during the rescue activity, designated by National Emergency Management, were evaluated. RESULTS: Rescue efforts continued until 13:00 on July 7th, 2011. The number of casualties was forty one, consisted of three immediate patients, six delayed patients, nineteen minimal patients, and thirteen expectant patients. The Wonju DMAT arrived at the scene of the landslide disaster at AM 02:30 on July 7th, 2011. After installing a medical office, they categorized patients by ID-ME classification and provided medical treatment to twenty-two patients, including local residents and rescue workers. CONCLUSION: The cause of death in the landslide disaster was suffocation. A small-scale DMAT rescue, composed on five to six people, is more proper for disaster response in a landslide disaster.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Cause of Death , Classification , Disasters , Emergencies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Landslides , Medical Assistance , Medical Records , Rescue Work
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an increase in acute poisonings in the elderly, which may be associated with attempts at suicide. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the clinical aspects and outcomes of acute poisonings in aged individuals with those of younger individuals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 207 patients seen in the emergency department (ED) with acute poisoning from January 2009 to December 2010. Two groups were created, >65 years and 65 group and 0.3% in the 65 years than in those <65 years. As motive for suicide, health problem was cited more often in the older group (p=0.000). The older group had fewer interviews with psychiatrists and were more often diagnosed with depressive disorder (p=0.010, p=0.041, respectively). PSS and mortality were higher in the older group (p=0.002, p=0.010, respectively). CONCLUSION: A better understanding for the cause of poisonings and the poisonous substance used in the aged population is needed. And because of the more serious effects of acute poisonings to the elderly patient, they should readily receive regular comprehensive care including psychiatric care.


Subject(s)
Aged , Depressive Disorder , Emergencies , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mental Disorders , Psychiatry , Retrospective Studies , Suicide
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155406

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: All-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries have increased since the introduction of ATVs to Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with ATV-related injuries (PATV) to patients with motorcycle (MC)-related injuries (PMC). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of PATV and PMC who visited an emergency center in 2008. The cases of PMC were 164, and those of PATV were 52. RESULTS: While PMC are seen evenly in the first half year and the second half year, PATV are seen mainly the first half year (from March to June: 73%). For PMC the most frequent injury mechanism was collision with another vehicle, while for PATV, it was side overturn/roll over. The injury severity score (ISS), the revised trauma score (RTS), the trauma score and the injury severity score (TRISS) were 5.6+/-5.6, 7.7+/-0.7, 5.0+/-2.1 for PMC and 7.1+/-7.5, 7.7+/-1.1, 5.5+/-1.5 for PATV, respectively. The most common injury sites were the lower extremities for PMC and the face for PATV. The rates of admission, surgery and the length of hospital stay were similar between PMC and PATV. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the risk of ATV accidents is similar to that of MC accidents. We recommend that the same safety standards and regulations that are applied to MCs should be used for ATVs. Safe and enjoyable paths have to be sought for drivers of ATVs.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Korea , Length of Stay , Lower Extremity , Motorcycles , Off-Road Motor Vehicles , Retrospective Studies , Social Control, Formal
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical aspects of pelvic fractures in an aged group with a non-aged group and to delineate its characteristics to improve prevention and treatment. METHODS: Medical records and radiological examinations of 100 cases were reviewed. Two groups were created, older than 65 years and younger than 65 years. In addition, the following were carefully examined and recorded-gender distribution, cause and types of fractures, associated injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale, need for intensive care unit admission, duration of hospitalization, and mortality rate. RESULTS: A difference in gender distribution was seen with 12 males and 26 females in the aged group and 35 males and 27 females in the non-aged group (p<0.05). The mechanism of injury for the aged group in decreasing order was pedstrian accidents, falls, and passenger accidents while it was passenger accidents, pedestrian accidents, and falls for the non-aged group (p<0.05). Level of severity was higher in the non-aged group for fracture type, ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admission, and hospitalization duration. However, when ISS was greater than 15, this was seen in the aged group with also a higher mortality rate in the same group. CONCLUSION: Education and prevention, particularly about gender distribution and mechanism of injury, of pelvic fractures in the aged population are needed, and because of the potential seriousness of fractures in the elderly, active assessment and treatment are also necessary.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hospitalization , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Male , Medical Records , Pelvic Bones
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129384

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Barriers to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education are magnified by relative cost and course availability. E-learning has emerged as a viable solution for continuous, on-demand training and organizational learning. We assessed the hypothesis that E-learning is a viable strategy for CPR training of the general public and sought to evaluate its effects on CPR quality compared to traditional classroom-based methods. METHODS: The E-learning program was specifically designed to teach basic life support skills, and consisted of 50 minutes internet lectures and simulation videos. The training session was freely available to twenty two officers in rural South Korea. The trainees were able to practice with a mannequin and an automated external defibrillator (AED) trainer at their place of employment over the course of 3 days. The control group was trained at a hospital by certified instructors using the same equipment during a 2 hour period. At the end of the course, the participant's skills were evaluated using a checklist and a skill performance test. RESULTS: Forty two subjects were enrolled finally with 19 and 23 belonging to the E-learning and the control groups, respectively. One E-learning trainee was excluded because he was absent from the skills test. The mean time to learn CPR and AED techniques was 29.0+/-24.5 minutes in the elearning group. The mean age of the E-learning group was significantly older than that of the control group (32.4+/-4.0 vs. 26.0+/-1.5, p<0.001). However, we did not find any significant differences in their weight, height or CPR educational status. Before the education sessions, the willingness to perform CPR and their confidence in performing CPR were not significantly different among the two groups. Regarding skill performance, there were no significant differences between the groups except the volume of ventilation. The control group showed a higher volume of ventilation than the elearning group (1,031.7+/-521.6 vs. 548.8+/-303.3, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: E-learning accompanied with appropriate practice can be a helpful tool for public CPR training. The demand for E-learning will increase, and this study shows that e-learning programs can be successful, yielding similar results as traditional, classroom-based training.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Checklist , Defibrillators , Education, Distance , Educational Status , Employment , Hypogonadism , Internet , Learning , Lecture , Life Support Care , Manikins , Mitochondrial Diseases , Ophthalmoplegia , Republic of Korea , Ventilation
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129369

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Barriers to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education are magnified by relative cost and course availability. E-learning has emerged as a viable solution for continuous, on-demand training and organizational learning. We assessed the hypothesis that E-learning is a viable strategy for CPR training of the general public and sought to evaluate its effects on CPR quality compared to traditional classroom-based methods. METHODS: The E-learning program was specifically designed to teach basic life support skills, and consisted of 50 minutes internet lectures and simulation videos. The training session was freely available to twenty two officers in rural South Korea. The trainees were able to practice with a mannequin and an automated external defibrillator (AED) trainer at their place of employment over the course of 3 days. The control group was trained at a hospital by certified instructors using the same equipment during a 2 hour period. At the end of the course, the participant's skills were evaluated using a checklist and a skill performance test. RESULTS: Forty two subjects were enrolled finally with 19 and 23 belonging to the E-learning and the control groups, respectively. One E-learning trainee was excluded because he was absent from the skills test. The mean time to learn CPR and AED techniques was 29.0+/-24.5 minutes in the elearning group. The mean age of the E-learning group was significantly older than that of the control group (32.4+/-4.0 vs. 26.0+/-1.5, p<0.001). However, we did not find any significant differences in their weight, height or CPR educational status. Before the education sessions, the willingness to perform CPR and their confidence in performing CPR were not significantly different among the two groups. Regarding skill performance, there were no significant differences between the groups except the volume of ventilation. The control group showed a higher volume of ventilation than the elearning group (1,031.7+/-521.6 vs. 548.8+/-303.3, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: E-learning accompanied with appropriate practice can be a helpful tool for public CPR training. The demand for E-learning will increase, and this study shows that e-learning programs can be successful, yielding similar results as traditional, classroom-based training.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Checklist , Defibrillators , Education, Distance , Educational Status , Employment , Hypogonadism , Internet , Learning , Lecture , Life Support Care , Manikins , Mitochondrial Diseases , Ophthalmoplegia , Republic of Korea , Ventilation
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207280

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To minimize an interruption in chest compression, reduce the hands-off time, the American Heart Association has recommended changing the ratio of chest compression to ventilation ratio to 30:2. However, current studies have shown that the hands-off time was >10 seconds with that method. For this reason, we reasoned that a chest compression to ventilation ratio of 15:1 would be a more suitable way to reduce hands-off time because this ratio will not change the total compression and ventilation count. METHODS: The subjects were asked to perform CPR for 5 cycles with a compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2. The subjects rested for 5 minutes, then performed CPR with a compression to ventilation of 15:1. The skill performance was measured and analyzed using a statistical program. RESULTS: In the group which performed CPR with a chest compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2, the average number of compressions per minute was 76+/-9, while at a chest compression to ventilation ratio of 15:1, the average number of compressions per minute was 68+/-9. Between the compression to ventilation ratios of 30:2 and 15:1, the count gap was 8.3+/-3.2. When CPR was performed at a chest compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2, the average hands-off time was 9.3+/-1.9. When CPR was performed at a chest compression to ventilation ratio of 15:1, the average hands-off time was 6.7+/-1.3. Between chest compression to ventilation ratios of 30:2 and 15:1, the time gap of the average hands-off time was 2.7+/-1.2 seconds. CONCLUSION: When the chest compression to ventilation ratio was 15:1, the hands-off time was significantly reduced, but the compressions per minute were also reduced.


Subject(s)
American Heart Association , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Manikins , Thorax , Ventilation
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207277

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries have increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and analyze the ATV injuries in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed the patients who visited Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital emergency center with ATVrelated injuries, from 2004 January to 2008 December. The injury severity was evaluated according to the injury severity score (ISS), the revised trauma score (RTS), and the yrauma score and the injury severity score (TRISS). RESULTS: From 2004 to 2008, a total of 78 cases, 28 male and 50 female, of ATV-related injuries were reviewed. The annual incidence had increased 22.5-fold from 2004(2 cases) to 2008(45 cases). The age ranged from 8 to 68 years (median, 24 years). The most frequently injured site was the lower extremity(48.7%). The primary mechanism of injury was roll-over(35.9%), the next was falling down (33.3%). Eighty-two percent(82%) of accidents occurred on paved roads when ATVs are legislated for off-road use only. The average ISS was 6.8. In cases including both the driver and the passenger, the ISS of passengers was higher than that of drivers(7.4 vs. 4.7). Fifty percent (50%) of patients required an operation. The rate of admission was 62.8%. The average length of hospital stay was 25 days. Eighty-one percent (81%) of patients had no previous experience of operating an ATV. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of patients did not receive any formal training before operating an ATVs. CONCLUSION: Both the incidence and severity of ATV-related injuries are increasing in Korea. There is a lack of regulation enforcement and public awareness of the dangers of ATV use. The wearing of appropriate safety equipment and sufficient education about driving skills can reduce the ATVrelated injuries.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Female , Heart , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Injury Severity Score , Korea , Length of Stay , Male , Off-Road Motor Vehicles
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63977

ABSTRACT

As Information Technology has developed, there has been a birth of new medical fields including telemedicine, e-Health, and u-Health. The differences between the new terms resulted from renewed definitions with the development of technology. However, aside from the simple change in terminology medical services that use the terms has expanded along with the change in terminology. Currently most countries use telemedicine as a part of their healthcare system. As such, related devices and services have been slated to become a totally new industry. In Korea, due to the advances in IT, Increase in medically vulnerable and aging population, and increase in the number of patients with chronic disease, telemedicine has been widely used in public healthcare system. Several developmental attempts by public and private sectors have had limited success due to legal and institutional limitations but recent changes in medical law and movement to allow tele-diagnosis and treatment in the public sector has brought in a new era. Although development of telemedicine technology may be the key, it is even more important that the development in medical services models as well as their application be on the same track. Furthermore, from the clinical and academic standpoint, the aspects of safety, efficiency, and economic viability must be thoroughly tested and applied. Most importantly, active involvement from the medical community in development of new medical technology as well as new service models for diagnosis and treatment is required. The most advanced technology would be useless if it is not being actively utilized by the medical community in the treatment and management of patients.


Subject(s)
Aging , Chronic Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Jurisprudence , Korea , Parturition , Private Sector , Public Sector , Telemedicine , Track and Field
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Researchers have reported that the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA) is 1~4% in the entire population and 4~9% in the population older than 65 years. 40 to 50% of AAA patients die before arrival at a hospital; and mortality from a ruptured AAA is greater than 90%. Moreover, diagnosis is frequently delayed because the majority of patients are asymptomatic. Even if AAA is quickly diagnosed(ruptured or symptomatic) and operated on, survival rate is less than 50%. Recently, trials have been done to detect asymptomatic AAA by ultrasonography in the elderly population with a subsequent increase in the number of surgeries of asymptomatic AAA. Method: We measured the diameter of the abdominal aorta in all patients aged 65 years and older seen in the emergency room at Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University. We investigated the correlations between risk factors and prevalence of AAA and the diameter of the abdominal aorta. We also screened for age, gender, and history of smoking, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and CVA. RESULTS: 444 cases were enrolled in this study with 185 being male(41.7%) and 259 female(58.3%). Mean age was 73.91+/-7.02 years. Mean maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta was 2.08+/-0.37cm. Comparing maximum diameters, men averaged 2.17+/-0.37cm and women 2.01+/-0.35 cm (p<0.001); smokers 2.16+/-0.39cm and nonsmokers 2.05+/-0.35cm(p=0.007); hypertension history 2.10+/-0.42 cm and no hypertension history 2.06+/-0.33cm(p=0.246); coronary heart disease history 2.35+/-0.84cm and no coronary heart disease 2.07+/-0.35 cm(p=0.01); and CVA history 2.08+/-0.37 cm and no CVA history 2.08+/-0.37cm(p=0.997). CONCLUSION: There were notable differences in the maximum abdominal aortic diameter with gender and histories of smoking, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Ultrasound screening of AAA should be strongly recommended in male smokers 65 years and older with a history of coronary heart disease. Overall, ultrasound screening of AAA for elderly patients should be carefully considered.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Coronary Disease , Emergencies , Female , Heart , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Survival Rate
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objects of this study is to compare the clinical aspects and characteristics of the sternal fracture between non-old aged and the old aged. METHODS: This study is based on 105 patients who were diagnosed as a sternal fracture at the emergency center of Chunchon Sacred Heart Hospital from January of 2001 to June of 2007. RESULTS: The overall clinical presentations of sternal fracture of the old aged are similar to that of non-old aged. There were some differences in the patterns of spinal fracture occurred with sternal fracture between non-old aged and the old aged. In non-old aged group, there were 7 patients(8.6%), who had the facture of spine along with sternal fracture, and there were 4 male and 3 females. In the old aged group, there were 4 male and 4 female patients out of 8 patients. There were 2 female patients who had both thoracic and lumbar spinal fractures in the old aged group. CONCLUSION: There were many cases of injury which were accompanied with the sternal fracture. When the two groups are compared, the spinal facture were more often in the old aged group. Especially, the fracture of lumbar spine occurred more frequent in the old aged group.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Female , Heart , Humans , Male , Spinal Fractures , Spine , Sternum
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The management of hemorrhagic shock is critical for trauma patients. To assess hemorrhagic shock, the clinician commonly uses a change in positional blood pressure, the shock index, an estimate of the diameter of inferior vena cava based on sonography, and an evaluation of hypoperfusion complex shown on a CT scan. To add the finding for the hypoperfusion complex, the 'halo sign' was introduced recently. To our knowledge, this 'halo sign' has not been evaluated for its clinical usefulness, so we designed this study to evaluate its usefulness and to find the useful CT signs for hypoperfusion complex. METHODS: The study was done from January 2007 to May 2007. All medical records and CT images of 124 patients with trauma were reviewed, of which 103 patients were included. Exclusion criteria was as follows: 1) age or = 5. RESULTS: The value of kappa, to assess the inter-observer agreement, was 0.51 (p < 0.001). The variables of the halo-sign-positive group were statistically different from those of the halo-sign-negative group. The rate of transfusion for the halo-sign-positive group was about 10 times higher than that of the halo-sign-negative group and the rate of mortality was about 6 times higher. CONCLUSION: In the setting of trauma, early abdominal CT can show diffuse abnormalities due to hypoperfusion complex. Recognition of these signs is important in order to prevent an unwanted outcome in hemorrhagic shock. We conclude that the halo sign is a useful one for hypoperfusion complex and that it is useful for assessing the degree of hemorrhagic shock.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Blood Pressure , Craniocerebral Trauma , Humans , Medical Records , Mortality , Shock , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vena Cava, Inferior
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217444

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We undertook this study to evaluate the effects and the appropriateness of CPR training for elementary school children. METHODS: The Kangwon National University developed a "Human Body Explorer Program", where local fifth and sixth grade students would learn about the human body. The 72 students who participated in this program were used in this study. The subjects were evaluated by comparing CPR data collected from nurses working at Kangwon National University Hospital. The education sessions consisted of a 30 minute video tape and slides; then, under the supervision of their teacher, the subjects were asked to practice what they had seen. Ten criteria were used to evaluate the subject's CPR proficiency. The CPR skill sessions used Laerdal's HeartSim(R) 4000, and the data stored from the HeartSim(R) 4000 were collected for further analysis. A statistical analysis was done using the SPSS statistical software package. A pvalue< 0.05 was considered to statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 72 subjects were evaluated. Their average age was 13.2+/-0.5 years. The subjects had very little experience with CPR education(0.17) prior to this study. The data gathered were compared to the evaluation table and yielded an average score of 20.53. The criteria used in the study had the following results: The assessing responsiveness(2.0/2.0), activating the EMS (calling for help) (1.99/2.0), checking for breathing(3.47/4.0), and compression to ventilation ratio of 15:2(1.6/2.0) showed to be at the 80 percentile. However the follow criteria showed a less than 80 percentile: opening the airway(1.54/2.0), mouth-to-mouth breathing(2.04/4.0), checking the carotid pulse(2.0/4.0), chest compression(1.88/4.0), chest compression velocity(1.02/4.0), and reassessment(1.44/2.0). The data from the manikin was extrapolated, and upon examination, we found the following: Correct ventilation was 25+/-31%, insufficient ventilation was 67+/-38% and excessive ventilation was 3+/-10%. Correct chest compression was 9+/-23% and insufficient compression was 91+/-23%, and excessive compression was absent. We compared these scores to the score from nurses of Kangwon University Hospital and found that elementary school children scored higher in all variables except in rate of chest compression. The scores were statistically significant (p<0.05) in total score, check for breathing, and reassessment. The skills evaluation showed that the adults scored higher than the elementary school children. All variables were significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We found that elementary school children were superior to adult counterparts in understanding the CPR scheme. An expansion of CPR training to elementary school children is needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Child , Education , Human Body , Humans , Manikins , Organization and Administration , Respiration , Thorax , Ventilation
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217442

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is recommended that the cuff is inflated with about 10 ml air because cuff pressure is maintained from 25 cmH2O(=18.39 mmHg) to 40 cmH2O(=29.424 mmHg). This study is performed to evaluate the air volume of highvolume and low-pressure cuff during maintaining appropriate pressure. METHODS: The tracheal models are hexahedral structures were made of monomer Cast Polyamide with a whole diameter from 10 mm to 30 mm at 1mm interval each. They were 1/100 with accuracy. Intubation tube were Hi-LoT M (Mallinckrodt, Athlone, Ireland), high-volume low-pressure cuff tube. The diameter of tubes was from 5.0 mm to 8.0 mm at 0.5 mm interval each. Cuff pressure was measured with cuff pressure control (Tracoe(R), Mains, Germany). Inflated cuff volume is measured by plastic syringe (Becton-Dickson Korea, Seoul, Korea) in maintaining recommended cuff pressure. Volume measurements were twice by each different tester. RESULTS: There were considerable volume differences between each tube size and each model. The bigger trachea model diameter was, the more intracuff air volume was. There was the least volume difference in 5.5 mm intubation tube size (3.5~11.5 ml). There was the most difference in 7.5 mm intubation tube size (3.5~19.5 ml). Totally, the maximum air volume was 22.3 ml, the mininum air volume was 1.5 ml. The difference was 20.8 ml. CONCLUSION: The inflated volumes of cuff in proper cuff pressure were considerably different by the diameter sizes of tracheal models and tube sizes. Therefore, it will be more convenient and safe to use device for maintaining cuff pressure properly.


Subject(s)
Data Collection , Intubation , Korea , Nylons , Plastics , Seoul , Syringes , Trachea
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