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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875418

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) alone therapy is as effective as mesalamine in inducing and maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). The efficacy and safety of EcN in combination with standard therapies have not been studied.This study examined the changes in the inflammation markers and symptoms following the additional administration of EcN to patients showing the clinical remission of UC. @*Methods@#UC patients who received EcN after being in clinical remission for more than 3 months at Kosin University Gospel Hospital between 2013 and 2018 were evaluated through the retrospective medical-record-based review. The partial Mayo score, fecal calprotectin (FC), BMI, hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, serum albumin levels, and the safety profiles were examined at 3rd and 6th months after initiating EcN. @*Results@#Ninety-four patients were included. After 3 months of treatment, there was no significant change in FC (156.3 μg/g to 141.1 μg/g) (p=0.653). On the other hand, partial Mayo score decreased significantly from 0.085 to 0.014 (p=0.025), and the bodyweight (p=0.001), BMI (p<0.001), hemoglobin (p=0.009), and cholesterol level increased (p=0.148). One patient (1.1%) experienced a serious adverse event with UC flare-up, and 14 patients (14.9%) discontinued EcN due to adverse events; all developed within 3 months. @*Conclusions@#Additional administration of EcN to clinically remission-attained UC patients may improve the UC symptoms without changing the FC levels. EcN-associated adverse events develop within the early few weeks.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875410

ABSTRACT

Dysphagia has been reported to be relatively common and seems to be increased in Korea. Dysphagia can be classified as oropharyngeal dysphagia or esophageal dysphagia. In patients with swallowing difficulties, it is important to determine whether the dysphagia is oropharyngeal or esophageal. Patients with orophayngeal dysphagia are likely to develop aspiration and aspiration pneumonia, so accurate diagnosis should be made in the early stages of complaining of swallowing difficulties. Patients with orophayngeal dysphagia complained difficulty initiating a swallow. Swallowing may be accompanied by coughing, choking, nasopharyngeal regurgitation, aspiration, and a sensation of residual food remaining in the pharynx. Patients with esophageal dysphagia complained difficulty swallowing several seconds after initiating a swallow and a sensation of food getting stuck in the esophagus. Esophageal dysphagia should be characterized by analyzing whether foods that cause swallowing difficulties are solid, liquids or both, whether symptoms are progressive or intermittent, how severe, and associated symptoms, such as weight loss, heartburn, or regurgitation. The approach to diagnostic testing to determine the cause of esophageal dysphagia is based upon the medical history. If esophageal motility disorder is suspected, barium esophagogram is performed first, and upper endoscopy is performed first if structural abnormalities are suspected. If an upper endoscopy shows normal findings, but the esophagus is still suspected of mechanical obstruction, a barium esophagogram is performed. Esophageal manometry should be performed in patients with swallowing difficulties who are suspected of esophageal motility disorder or have normal findings in upper endoscopy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874872

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing in Korea and there are few single-center studies regarding eosinophilic esophagitis in Korea. In particular, data about management for eosinophilic esophagitis are lacking. We aim to evaluate the practice patterns, including initial treatment and response, in the Busan city and Gyeongnam province area. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records to gain data on patient characteristics, medication, endoscopic images, and esophageal biopsy results. From January 2009 to December 2019, a total of 42 patients were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. @*Results@#The mean age was 50.7 (from 22 to 81) years and the cohort was predominantly male (78.6%, 33/42). The proton pump inhibitor was the preferred treatment as an initial trial for 64.3% (27/42) of patients, followed by swallowed topical steroids (16.7%, 7/42).Clinical improvement after proton pump inhibitor therapy was achieved in 88.9% (24/27) of patients. Two patients who did not achieve improvement showed a clinical and endoscopic response after swallowed topical steroids treatment. No patient received diet elimination or balloon dilatation therapy. @*Conclusions@#The treatment response of eosinophilic esophagitis was good in Busan city and Gyeongnam province area in Korea. Proton pump inhibitor therapy was the preferred and most effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis as the initial therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874871

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD. @*Methods@#In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed. @*Results@#The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: − 10.04 ± 4.45 and − 10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; P < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, − 1.17, 2.81; P = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events. @*Conclusion@#In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.

5.
Intestinal Research ; : 341-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891116

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Minor complications that might occur after colonoscopy, including abdominal discomfort, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation, could a barrier for patients to undergo a screening colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to identify the effect of gut microbial diversity and composition on minor complications after colonoscopy. @*Methods@#A total of 24 healthy subjects provided their stools before bowel preparation and on the 7th and 28th day after colonoscopy. On the 7th day after colonoscopy, the presence of minor complications was investigated using a questionnaire. We divided patients into 2 groups, the no complication group and complications group. The fecal microbial diversity, distribution, and composition were then compared between the groups. @*Results@#Five of the 24 subjects reported that they had undergone minor complications after colonoscopy. Most of the symptoms were mild and self-limited, but 1 patient needed medication. Interestingly, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the initial stool samples before bowel preparation in the complication group was significantly higher than that in no complication group. After bowel preparation, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the complication group decreased, but not in the no complication group. The microbial diversity of the no complication group decreased after bowel preparation, but not in the complication group. @*Conclusions@#The gut microbial composition and diversity before and after bowel preparation could be considered as one of the causes of minor complications after colonoscopy. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of gut microbiota in the occurrence of minor complications after colonoscopy.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903623

ABSTRACT

Subepithelial tumor-like gastric cancer (SET-like GC) is a special type of gastric cancer with a relatively low prevalence of approximately 1%. Diagnosing SET-like GC is challenging because the tumor is often covered with normal mucosa. The mechanisms of occurrence of SET-like GC include: 1) excessive infiltration of lymphocytes in the cancer, 2) intensive secretion of mucin by mucinous adenocarcinoma, 3) excessive fibrosis around the cancer, and 4) adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic gastric glands in the submucosa. It is important to be aware of the endoscopic features of SET-like GC to differentiate it from other subepithelial tumors, to recognize the possibility of SET-like GC, and to make a diagnosis before treatment. In this review, we summarized the epidemiologic and clinicopathologic characteristics of SET-like GC.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900412

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) enables the comprehensive evaluation of the esophageal motor function. However, protocols are not uniform and clinical practices vary widely among institutions. This study aims to understand the current HRM practice in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was sent via email through the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The questions covered descriptive information, preparation, techniques, analysis, and reporting of esophageal HRM. @*Results@#The survey was completed in 32 (74.4%) out of 43 centers, including 24 tertiary and 8 secondary referral centers. Of the 32 centers, 25 (78.1%) performed HRM in a sitting position, while 7 centers (21.9%) reported performing HRM in a supine position. All the centers utilized single wet swallows as a standard, but the volume, frequency, and interval between swallows varied widely. Sixteen centers (50.0%) applied adjunctive tests, including multiple rapid swallows (n = 16) and rapid drink challenges (n = 9). Parameters assessed and documented in the report were similar. In addition to the assessment of the esophagogastric junction and esophageal body, 27 centers (84.8%) and 18 centers (56.3%) included measurements for the upper esophageal sphincter and the pharynx, respectively, in the HRM protocol. @*Conclusions@#We found a variation in the available HRM practice among centers, even though they broadly agreed in the data analysis. Efforts are needed to develop a standardized protocol for HRM measurement.

10.
Intestinal Research ; : 341-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898820

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Minor complications that might occur after colonoscopy, including abdominal discomfort, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation, could a barrier for patients to undergo a screening colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to identify the effect of gut microbial diversity and composition on minor complications after colonoscopy. @*Methods@#A total of 24 healthy subjects provided their stools before bowel preparation and on the 7th and 28th day after colonoscopy. On the 7th day after colonoscopy, the presence of minor complications was investigated using a questionnaire. We divided patients into 2 groups, the no complication group and complications group. The fecal microbial diversity, distribution, and composition were then compared between the groups. @*Results@#Five of the 24 subjects reported that they had undergone minor complications after colonoscopy. Most of the symptoms were mild and self-limited, but 1 patient needed medication. Interestingly, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the initial stool samples before bowel preparation in the complication group was significantly higher than that in no complication group. After bowel preparation, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the complication group decreased, but not in the no complication group. The microbial diversity of the no complication group decreased after bowel preparation, but not in the complication group. @*Conclusions@#The gut microbial composition and diversity before and after bowel preparation could be considered as one of the causes of minor complications after colonoscopy. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of gut microbiota in the occurrence of minor complications after colonoscopy.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895919

ABSTRACT

Subepithelial tumor-like gastric cancer (SET-like GC) is a special type of gastric cancer with a relatively low prevalence of approximately 1%. Diagnosing SET-like GC is challenging because the tumor is often covered with normal mucosa. The mechanisms of occurrence of SET-like GC include: 1) excessive infiltration of lymphocytes in the cancer, 2) intensive secretion of mucin by mucinous adenocarcinoma, 3) excessive fibrosis around the cancer, and 4) adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic gastric glands in the submucosa. It is important to be aware of the endoscopic features of SET-like GC to differentiate it from other subepithelial tumors, to recognize the possibility of SET-like GC, and to make a diagnosis before treatment. In this review, we summarized the epidemiologic and clinicopathologic characteristics of SET-like GC.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892708

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) enables the comprehensive evaluation of the esophageal motor function. However, protocols are not uniform and clinical practices vary widely among institutions. This study aims to understand the current HRM practice in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was sent via email through the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The questions covered descriptive information, preparation, techniques, analysis, and reporting of esophageal HRM. @*Results@#The survey was completed in 32 (74.4%) out of 43 centers, including 24 tertiary and 8 secondary referral centers. Of the 32 centers, 25 (78.1%) performed HRM in a sitting position, while 7 centers (21.9%) reported performing HRM in a supine position. All the centers utilized single wet swallows as a standard, but the volume, frequency, and interval between swallows varied widely. Sixteen centers (50.0%) applied adjunctive tests, including multiple rapid swallows (n = 16) and rapid drink challenges (n = 9). Parameters assessed and documented in the report were similar. In addition to the assessment of the esophagogastric junction and esophageal body, 27 centers (84.8%) and 18 centers (56.3%) included measurements for the upper esophageal sphincter and the pharynx, respectively, in the HRM protocol. @*Conclusions@#We found a variation in the available HRM practice among centers, even though they broadly agreed in the data analysis. Efforts are needed to develop a standardized protocol for HRM measurement.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891542

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is easy to infiltrate and metastasize because esophagus does not have serosa, and is difficult to remove it because esophagus is in the middle of the chest. Because of this, treatments of esophageal cancer do not always follow the guideline. In this situation, efforts to increase treatment efficiency and improve survival rate through multidisciplinary treatment are increasing. In this case, we report the patient with three superficial esophageal cancers (one in cervical esophagus and two in thoracic esophagus). The patient was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy instead of surgery through multidisciplinary discussion. The patient reached a complete remission through this discussion. This case is intended to inform the usefulness of multidisciplinary treatment in patients with esophageal cancer.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837282

ABSTRACT

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS), also called sideropenic dysphagia or Paterson-Kelly syndrome, is a condition characterized by a triad of chronic iron-deficiency anemia, esophageal webs, and dysphagia. This syndrome is considered as a precancerous condition due to the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in the hypopharynx, upper esophagus and oral cavity. Although exact data on the prevalence of the syndrome are not evidently available, physicians need to recognize this rare syndrome. Most of the patients are elderly Caucasian women aged 40 to 70 years, but cases in children, adolescents, or men have also been described. At present, the prevalence of PVS is decreasing due to improvement in nutritional habits and intake of iron supplements. Therefore, the syndrome accompanied with gastric cancer is even more uncommon. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman with PVS who was diagnosed with gastric cancer and improved after treatment.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834118

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication have declined with the use of proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-clarithromycin as the first-line triple therapy. On the other hand, several studies have suggested that high gastric pH levels could affect the H. pylori eradication rate by enhancing the efficacy of antimicrobials. This study compared the efficacy of seven-day high-dose esomeprazole-based triple therapy (7-HEAC) for first-line H. pylori eradication with the seven-day standard dose non-esomeprazole-based triple therapy (7-NEAC) to identify the risk factors related to eradication failure. @*Methods@#This study included 223 patients who were diagnosed with a H. pylori infection and received 7-HEAC or 7-NEAC between June 2016 and January 2017. The H. pylori eradication rates, as well as demographic and clinical factors, were investigated retrospectively. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test or rapid urease test at least 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. @*Results@#The eradication rates were 67.7% (105/155; 95% CI 59.5-74.8%) in the 7-NEAC group and 80.9% (55/68; 95% CI 69.9-89.8%) in the 7-HEAC group (p=0.045). The adverse event rates were 5.8% (9/155) in the 7-NEAC group and 7.4% (5/68) in the 7-HEAC group (p=0.661). Multivariate analysis revealed being female (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.15-3.76) to be associated with the failure of H. pylori eradication therapy. @*Conclusions@#The eradication rate of the 7-HEAC group was higher than that of the 7-NEAC group. Nevertheless, more effective first-line therapies may be necessary for H. pylori eradication in the near future.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834068

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The molecular underpinnings of colorectal cancer (CRC) vary according to the tumor location. The advantages of a palliative primary tumor resection in patients with metastatic CRC are controversial. This study examined the survival outcomes of a palliative primary tumor resection based on the tumor location in patients with metastatic CRC. @*Methods@#The medical records of 600 patients diagnosed with metastatic CRC between January 2000 and June 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients undergoing surgery for both the primary tumor and metastatic lesions were excluded. The clinical factors affecting the long-term outcomes were evaluated according to the primary tumor location, and the long-term survival was compared between patients with and without a palliative primary tumor resection. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and multivariate Cox regression models. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 18 months (interquartile range, 10-28). Patients with right-sided CRC had a poor overall- and progression-free survival compared to those with left-sided CRC. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the palliative primary tumor resection was an independent prognostic factor predicting better overall survival in patients with metastatic CRC, regardless of the primary tumor location. @*Conclusions@#The primary tumor location influences the prognosis, and that a primary tumor resection can improve the overall survival in patients with metastatic CRC, regardless of the primary tumor location.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834065

ABSTRACT

Although not as common as foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract, rectal foreign body insertion is often encountered in emergency departments. The diverse types of rectal foreign bodies have led to various removal methods. When removing a foreign body, the first thing to consider is which method is the least invasive and safest for the patient. This paper reports the successful removal of a rectal foreign body from the rectum using the Valsalva maneuver without anesthesia in a patient.

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