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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 7-22, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919500

ABSTRACT

In this review of the most recent applications of deep learning to ultrasound imaging, the architectures of deep learning networks are briefly explained for the medical imaging applications of classification, detection, segmentation, and generation. Ultrasonography applications for image processing and diagnosis are then reviewed and summarized, along with some representative imaging studies of the breast, thyroid, heart, kidney, liver, and fetal head. Efforts towards workflow enhancement are also reviewed, with an emphasis on view recognition, scanning guide, image quality assessment, and quantification and measurement. Finally some future prospects are presented regarding image quality enhancement, diagnostic support, and improvements in workflow efficiency, along with remarks on hurdles, benefits, and necessary collaborations.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914172

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: There are many methods for converting scores from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to those on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). In this study we aimed to validate 4 methods that convert the full score range (0–30 points) of the MoCA to an equivalent range for the MMSE. @*Methods@#We examined the medical records of 506 subjects who completed the MoCA and MMSE-second edition (MMSE-2) on the same day. For the validation index, we calculated mean, median, and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of the difference between true and equivalent MMSE-2 scores. We also calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), the Bland-Altman plot, and the generalizability coefficient between true and equivalent MMSE-2 scores for reliability. We compared the ICCs according to age, sex, education, MMSE, and cognitive-status subgroups. For accuracy, we evaluated a ±2 point difference between the true and equivalent MMSE-2 scores. @*Results@#The 4 conversion methods had a mean of −0.79 to −0.05, a median of −1 to 0, and an RMSE of 2.61–2.94 between true and equivalent MMSE-2 scores. All conversion methods had excellent reliability, with an ICC greater than 0.75 between true and equivalent MMSE-2 scores. These results were almost maintained in the subgroup analyses. These conversion methods provided more than 65% accuracy within ±2 points of the true MMSE-2 scores. @*Conclusions@#We suggest that these 4 conversion methods are applicable for converting MoCA scores to MMSE-2 scores. They will greatly enhance the usefulness of existing cognitive data in clinical and research settings.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833668

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function, depression, and quality of life in elderly individuals. @*Methods@#This study prospectively recruited 605 participants, and constructed an exercise pyramid comprising even distributions of daily physical activities, aerobic exercise, musclestrengthening exercise, flexibility exercise, balance exercise, and activities that subjects could perform while sitting down. The exercise program was divided into six stages according to the participant’s level of frailty. The 12-week exercise program intervention was conducted once yearly. @*Results@#The exercise regimen was followed by 402 of the 605 enrolled participants, giving a dropout rate of 33.6%. The 27-month exercise program was completed by 60 participants.The scores for the Mini Mental State Examination for dementia screening (MMSE-DS), short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), fear of falling, handgrip strength, and walking speed were improved after the exercise intervention. The analysis of frailty revealed that participants in the frail group showed greater improvements for the MMSE-DS, WHOQOL-BREF, IPAQ, fear of falling, handgrip strength, and walking speed. @*Conclusions@#Individually customized, multicomponent exercise programs lead to improved levels of cognitive function, depression, and quality of life, especially among those who are more frail.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761280

ABSTRACT

Rotatory vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) is characterized by recurrent attacks of vertigo, nystagmus, and syncope induced by compression of the vertebral artery during head rotation. A 60-year-old man with atlas vertebrae fracture presented recurrent attacks of positional vertigo. Left-beat, upbeat and count clock-wise torsional nystagmus occurred after lying down and bilateral head roll (HR) showing no latency or fatigue. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) and dominancy of right vertebral artery (VA). The flow of the right VA on transcranial Doppler decreased significantly during left HR. The slower the velocity was, the more the nystagmus was aggravated. RVAS can be evoked by FMS causing compression of the VA. And the nystagmus might be aggravated according to the blood flow insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Deception , Fatigue , Foramen Magnum , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Spine , Syncope , Vertebral Artery , Vertigo
5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 384-389, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire (KDSQ) is an informant-based instrument used to screen for cognitive dysfunction. However, its ability to only dichotomously discriminate between dementia and normal cognition has been previously investigated. This study investigated the ability of the KDSQ to classify not only dichotomous but also multiple stages of cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: We examined 582 participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine dichotomous classification parameters. Multi-category ROC surfaces were evaluated to classify the three stages of cognitive dysfunction. RESULTS: Dichotomous classification using the ROC curve analyses showed that the area under the curve was 0.92 for dementia for subjects without dementia and 0.96 for dementia in controls. Simultaneous multi-category classification analyses showed that the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) was 0.57 and that the derived optimal cut-off points were 2 and 8 for controls, MCI, and dementia. The estimated Youden index for the KDSQ was 0.48, and the derived optimal cut-off points were 5 and 10. The overall classification accuracy of the VUS and Youden index was 61.2% and 58.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The KDSQ is useful for classifying dichotomous and multi-category stages of cognitive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Classification , Cognition , Dementia , Mass Screening , Cognitive Dysfunction , ROC Curve
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173346

ABSTRACT

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is imbalance of calcium, phosphate, and bone metabolism attributed to an increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PHPT is mainly associated with musculoskeletal and kidney dysfunction, variable symptoms can be presented in the elderly patients. A 75-year-old man presented with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Through etiological work-up of hypercalcemia and increased PTH, parathyroid adenoma was found. Subtotal parathyroidectomy resulted in recovery of cognitive impairment. Primary hyperparathyroidism should be considered in a differential diagnosis of RPD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Calcium , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Kidney , Metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms , Parathyroidectomy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Loneliness is a significant concern among the elderly, particularly in societies with rapidly growing aging populations. While loneliness may influence neuropsychological function, the exact nature of the association between loneliness and neuropsychological function is poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated 50 elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 33 without cognitive dysfunction with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, depression scale, and loneliness scale. The associations between loneliness and neuropsychological assessments were evaluated. RESULTS: Although loneliness was not associated with cognitive or functional performance, it was correlated with depression in elderly patients. For elderly patients with MCI, depressive symptoms were reported more frequently in individuals with a high degree of loneliness (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Neither cognitive performance nor functional performance is associated with loneliness; however, loneliness is associated with depressive symptoms in elderly patients with MCI.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Demography , Depression , Humans , Loneliness , Cognitive Dysfunction , Pilot Projects
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The morphologic changes observed in the AD brain could be caused by a failure of mitochondrial fusion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of two genes involved in mitochondrial fusion mechanisms, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2), were associated with AD in the Korean population by analyzing genotypes and allele frequencies. METHODS: One coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MFN2, rs1042837, and two coding SNPs in the OPA1, rs7624750 and rs9851685, were compared between 165 patients with AD (83 men and 82 women, mean age 72.3±4.41) and 186 healthy control subjects (82 men and 104 women, mean age 76.5±5.98). RESULTS: Among these three SNPs, rs1042837 showed statistically significant differences in allele frequency, and genotype frequency in the co-dominant 1 model and in the dominant model. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the rs1042837 polymorphism in MFN2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Clinical Coding , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Male , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A community survey was performed to investigate the factors and perspectives associated with happiness among the elderly in Korea (> or =60 years). METHODS: Eight hundred volunteers selected from participants in the Ansan Geriatric study (AGE study) were enrolled, and 706 completed the survey. The Happiness Questionnaire (HQ), which asks four questions about happiness, was administered. To explore the relationship between happiness and depression, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) also were administered. RESULTS: The participants' average level of happiness, determined using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) of the HQ, was 64.7+/-26.0. The happiest situations for most people were "getting together with family" (23.8%) and "living in peace with family members (well-being)" (13.2%). Frequent reasons for not being happy were "worsened health condition" (28.7% of the not-happy group), "economic problems of their own" (16.5%), and "economic problems of their children" (14.8%). The participants' choices regarding the essential conditions for happiness were "good health" (65.3%) and "being with family" (20.5%). The BDI and GDS scores were negatively related to the happiness score. A preliminary scale [Happy (Haeng-Bok, ) aging scale] based on the HQ for measuring the happiness level of the Korean elderly was suggested for follow-up studies. CONCLUSION: The most important factors determining the happiness of the community-dwelling elderly in Korea were good family relationships, economic stability, and good health. A higher depression score negatively impacted happiness among Korean elders. Further studies on the factors in their happiness are required.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression , Family Relations , Follow-Up Studies , Happiness , Humans , Korea , Volunteers
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their caregivers are concerned with the likelihood and time course of progression to dementia. This study was performed to identify the clinical predictors of the MCI progression in a Korean registry, and investigated the effects of medications without evidence, frequently prescribed in clinical practice. METHODS: Using a Korean cohort that included older adults with MCI who completed at least one follow-up visit, clinical characteristics and total medical expenses including prescribed medications were compared between two groups: progressed to dementia or not. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: During the mean 1.42±0.72 years, 215 (27.63%) of 778 participants progressed to dementia. The best predictors were age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.036; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.006–1.067; p=0.018], apolipoprotein ε4 allele (HR, 2.247; 95% CI, 1.512–3.337; p<0.001), Clinical Dementia Rating scale-sum of boxes scores (HR, 1.367; 95% CI, 1.143–1.636; p=0.001), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores (HR, 1.035; 95% CI, 1.003–1.067; p=0.029), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (HR, 0.892; 95% CI, 0.839–0.949; p<0.001). Total medical expenses were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are in accordance with previous reports about clinical predictors for the progression from MCI to dementia. Total medical expenses were not different between groups with and without progression.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Alleles , Apolipoproteins , Caregivers , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The findings of head impulse tests (HIT) are usually normal in cerebellar lesions. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old male presented with progressive dizziness and imbalance of 3 weeks duration. The patient exhibited catch-up saccades during bedside horizontal HIT to either side, which was more evident during the rightward HIT. However, results of bithermal caloric tests and rotatory chair test were normal. MRI revealed a lesion in the inferior cerebellum near the flocculus. CONCLUSIONS: This case provides additional evidence that damage to the flocculus or its connections may impair the vestibulo-ocular reflex only during high-speed stimuli, especially when the stimuli are applied to the contralesional side. By observing accompanying cerebellar signs, the abnormal HIT findings caused by a cerebellar disorder can be distinguished from those produced by peripheral vestibular disorders.


Subject(s)
Caloric Tests , Cerebellar Diseases , Cerebellum , Dizziness , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades , Vertigo
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive therapy may have therapeutic benefit in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD). CASE REPORT: This was a 12-week, single-blind pilot study of 4 patients with AD. The cognitive therapy included exercises for orientation to time and place; memory training, including face-name association, object recall training, and spaced retrieval; visuo-motor organization using software; similarity and ruled based categorization; and behavior modification and sequencing (e.g., making change, paying bills). The regional cerebral metabolic abnormalities and the effects of treatment on cortical metabolic responses were evaluated using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET). After 12 weeks, the participants showed slight improvement in some neuropsychological measures, and three of them showed increased regional cortical metabolism on brain PET studies. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive therapy may stabilize or improve cognitive and functional performance of patients with early AD and increase regional cortical metabolism of the patients' brain.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Behavior Therapy , Brain , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Exercise , Humans , Learning , Metabolism , Pilot Projects , Positron-Emission Tomography
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The one-day rivastigmine patch is reportedly well tolerated and has minimal side effects. However, Asian patients show more side effects than those in Western countries. We evaluated tolerability of the rivastigmine patch in South Korean patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the specific factors affecting adverse events of the skin. METHODS: A 6-month, open labeled, multi-centered, observational study was carried out in 440 patients with probable AD from July 2009 to September 2010 (NCT01312363). RESULTS: A total of 25.9% of the patients experienced adverse skin events at the rivastigmine patch application site and 17.0% discontinued treatment due to adverse events at the skin application site. The most common adverse events were itching and erythema. Patients with an allergic history and users of electric heating appliances reported skin discomfort. Older age was associated with discontinuing treatment. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the rivastigmine patch induced some adverse skin events and may contribute to understanding and improving skin tolerability to the rivastigmine patch.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Erythema , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Observational Study , Pruritus , Skin , Rivastigmine
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11858

ABSTRACT

Acute isolated vestibulopathy could be caused by either viral inflammation or ischemia. However, diagnosing ischemic vestibulopathy is difficult due to the ambiguity of the causal relationship between ischemia and peripheral vestibulopathy. We present here a patient with acute ischemic vestibulopathy without hearing loss caused by internal auditory artery occlusion, indirectly proven by the finding of a simultaneously developed silent cerebellar infarction. The details of this case suggest that patients with acute isolated peripheral vestibulopathy should be carefully evaluated for underlying causes, including vascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Hearing Loss , Humans , Infarction , Inflammation , Ischemia , Risk Factors , Stroke
18.
Neurology Asia ; : 209-211, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-628694

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke is a serious neurological complication of infective endocarditis. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), which has only been approved for treatment of hyperacute stroke, has been excluded as an ischemic stroke treatment due to infective endocarditis according to current expert consensus guidelines. Here, we describe a case of a hyperacute stroke patient treated with intravenous t-PA, who was later diagnosed with infective endocarditis.

19.
Neurology Asia ; : 423-425, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-628574

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old woman with anemia who developed headache and seizure after blood transfusion was diagnosed with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Magnetic resonance imaging showed typical PRES findings including lesions in bilateral parieto-occipital subcortical white matter and overlying cortex. Only a few cases of PRES after transfusion have been reported and this case is unique in that there was a latent period between infusion and development of PRES. We postulate that rapid change of hemoglobin level may disrupt cerebral autoregulation and result in delayed PRES. We suggest that neurological symptoms after blood transfusion should be appropriately investigated.

20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 346-351, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lexical fluency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the influences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. METHODS: We administered the lexical verbal fluency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. RESULTS: In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had significant effects on LVFT scores (p0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratified by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and > or =80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and > or =13 years). CONCLUSION: The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Education , Executive Function , Humans , Linear Models
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