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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898091

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and related to albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) is a renal tubular injury marker which has been reported as an early marker of DN even in patients with normoalbuminuria. This study evaluated whether uNAG is associated with the presence and severity of CAN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without nephropathy. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study comprised 247 subjects with T1DM without chronic kidney disease and albuminuria who had results for both uNAG and autonomic function tests within 3 months. The presence of CAN was assessed by age-dependent reference values for four autonomic function tests. Total CAN score was assessed as the sum of the partial points of five cardiovascular reflex tests and was used to estimatethe severity of CAN. The correlations between uNAG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#The association between log-uNAG and presence of CAN was significant in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 5.28; P=0.031). Total CAN score was positively associated with loguNAG (β=0.261, P=0.026) in the multivariate linear regression model. Log-uNAG was inversely correlated with frequency-domain and time-domain indices of HRV. @*Conclusion@#This study verified the association of uNAG with presence and severity of CAN and changes in HRV in T1DM patients without nephropathy. The potential role of uNAG should be further assessed for high-risk patients for CAN in T1DM patients without nephropathy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890387

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and related to albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) is a renal tubular injury marker which has been reported as an early marker of DN even in patients with normoalbuminuria. This study evaluated whether uNAG is associated with the presence and severity of CAN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without nephropathy. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study comprised 247 subjects with T1DM without chronic kidney disease and albuminuria who had results for both uNAG and autonomic function tests within 3 months. The presence of CAN was assessed by age-dependent reference values for four autonomic function tests. Total CAN score was assessed as the sum of the partial points of five cardiovascular reflex tests and was used to estimatethe severity of CAN. The correlations between uNAG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#The association between log-uNAG and presence of CAN was significant in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 5.28; P=0.031). Total CAN score was positively associated with loguNAG (β=0.261, P=0.026) in the multivariate linear regression model. Log-uNAG was inversely correlated with frequency-domain and time-domain indices of HRV. @*Conclusion@#This study verified the association of uNAG with presence and severity of CAN and changes in HRV in T1DM patients without nephropathy. The potential role of uNAG should be further assessed for high-risk patients for CAN in T1DM patients without nephropathy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914187

ABSTRACT

Background@#Carnitine orotate complex (Godex) has been shown to decrease glycated hemoglobin levels and improve steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the mechanisms of Godex in glucose metabolism remain unclear. @*Methods@#Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: normal-fat diet, high-fat diet, a high-fat diet supplemented with intraperitoneal injection of (500 mg or 2,000 mg/kg/day) Godex for 8 weeks. Computed tomography, indirect calorimetry, and histological analyses including electron microscopy of the liver were performed, and biochemical profiles and oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were undertaken. Expressions of genes in the lipid and glucose metabolism, activities of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes, carnitine acetyltransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)/CoA ratio were evaluated. @*Results@#Godex improved insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, steatosis, and gluconeogenesis, with a marked increase in fatty acid oxidation as well as better use of glucose in high-fat diet-fed mice. It preserved mitochondrial function and ultrastructure, restored oxidative phosphorylation enzyme activities, decreased acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio, and increased carnitine acetyltransferase content and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Carnitine acetyltransferase knockdown partially reversed the effects of Godex in liver and in vitro. @*Conclusion@#Godex improved insulin resistance and steatosis by regulating carnitine acetyltransferase in liver in high-fat diet-fed mice.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the outcome of a computerized intravenous insulin infusion (CII) protocol integrated to the electronic health record (EHR) system and to improve the CII protocol in silico using the EHR-based predictors of the outcome.METHODS: Clinical outcomes of the patients who underwent the CII protocol between July 2016 and February 2017 and their matched controls were evaluated. In the CII protocol group (n=91), multivariable binary logistic regression analysis models were used to determine the independent associates with a delayed response (taking ≥6.0 hours for entering a glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL). The CII protocol was adjusted in silico according to the EHR-based parameters obtained in the first 3 hours of CII.RESULTS: Use of the CII protocol was associated with fewer subjects with hypoglycemia alert values (P=0.003), earlier (P=0.002), and more stable (P=0.017) achievement of a glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL. Initial glucose level (P=0.001), change in glucose during the first 2 hours (P=0.026), and change in insulin infusion rate during the first 3 hours (P=0.029) were independently associated with delayed responses. Increasing the insulin infusion rate temporarily according to these parameters in silico significantly reduced delayed responses (P<0.0001) without hypoglycemia, especially in refractory patients.CONCLUSION: Our CII protocol enabled faster and more stable glycemic control than conventional care with minimized risk of hypoglycemia. An EHR-based adjustment was simulated to reduce delayed responses without increased incidence of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Electronic Health Records , Glucose , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Insulin , Logistic Models , Medical Records Systems, Computerized
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk remains increased despite optimal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level induced by intensive statin therapy. Therefore, recent guidelines recommend non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a secondary target for preventing cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) in combination with atorvastatin compared to atorvastatin alone in patients with mixed dyslipidemia.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, and phase III multicenter study included adults with fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥200 and <500 mg/dL and LDL-C levels <110 mg/dL. Eligible subjects were randomized to ATOMEGA (OM3-FAs 4,000 mg plus atorvastatin calcium 20 mg) or atorvastatin 20 mg plus placebo groups. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent changes in TG and non-HDL-C levels from baseline at the end of treatment.RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, the percent changes from baseline in TG (−29.8% vs. 3.6%, P<0.001) and non-HDL-C (−10.1% vs. 4.9%, P<0.001) levels were significantly greater in the ATOMEGA group (n=97) than in the atorvastatin group (n=103). Moreover, the proportion of total subjects reaching TG target of <200 mg/dL in the ATOMEGA group was significantly higher than that in the atorvastatin group (62.9% vs. 22.3%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The addition of OM3-FAs to atorvastatin improved TG and non-HDL-C levels to a significant extent compared to atorvastatin alone in subjects with residual hypertriglyceridemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Incidence , Lipoproteins , Triglycerides
6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832391

ABSTRACT

Background@#Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most important sequelae of obesity and the leading cause of death. We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes, CVD, and all-cause mortality in a prospective study of a Korean population. @*Methods@#The shapes of the associations were modeled by restricted cubic splines regression analysis. After categorizing all subjects (n=8,900) into octiles based on their BMI levels, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of categorized BMI levels with the risk of incident CVD and type 2 diabetes using a Cox’s proportional hazard analysis. @*Results@#The mean age of participants was 52 years and 48% were men. Of the subjects at baseline, 39.0% of men and 45.6% of women were classified as obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Over a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, CVD events occurred in 509 participants; 436 died; and 1,258 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of incident diabetes began to be significant at BMI 23 to 24 kg/m2 in both sexes (HR, 1.8). For CVD events, the risk began to increase significantly at BMI 26 to 28 kg/m2 (HR, 1.6). We found a reverse J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality, with an increased risk among individuals with BMI values in lower range (BMI <21 kg/m2). @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the BMI cut-off points for observed risk were varied depending on the diseases and that the BMI classification of obesity need to be revised to reflect differential risk of obesity-related diseases.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832362

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM). @*Methods@#In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM. @*Results@#The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men. @*Conclusion@#In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Removal of uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate by AST-120 is known to improve renal function and delay the initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. However, it is unclear whether the addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments is effective in delaying the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine levels ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dL) were recruited from eight centers in Korea and treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was improvement in renal function measured as the gradient of the reciprocal serum creatinine level (1/sCr) over time (i.e., the ratio of 1/sCr time slope for post- to pre-AST-120 therapy). A response was defined as a ratio change of the regression coefficient of 1/sCr ≤ 0.90. RESULTS: Renal function improved in 80.3% of patients (61/76) after 24 weeks of AST-120 treatment. There were no differences between responder and non-responder groups in baseline characteristics except for diastolic blood pressure (73.5 ± 9.5 mmHg in the responder group vs. 79.3 ± 11.1 mmHg in the non-responder group; P = 0.046). Serum lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in the responder group (from 2.25 ± 0.56 μmol/L to 1.91 ± 0.72 μmol/L; P = 0.002) but not in the non-responder group. CONCLUSION: The addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments may delay the progression of renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effect of AST-120 might contribute to improvement in renal function.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dialysis , Humans , Indican , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metformin, sulfonylurea, and dietary fiber are known to affect gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This open and single-arm pilot trial investigated the effects of the additional use of fiber on glycemic parameters, insulin, incretins, and microbiota in patients with T2DM who had been treated with metformin and sulfonylurea. METHODS: Participants took fiber for 4 weeks and stopped for the next 4 weeks. Glycemic parameters, insulin, incretins during mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, and fecal microbiota were analyzed at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The first tertile of difference in glucose area under the curve during MMTT between weeks 0 and 4 was defined as ‘responders’ and the third as ‘nonresponders,’ respectively. RESULTS: In all 10 participants, the peak incretin levels during MMTT were higher and LPS were lower at week 4 as compared with at baseline. While the insulin sensitivity of the ‘responders’ increased at week 4, that of the ‘nonresponders’ showed opposite results. However, the results were not statistically significant. In all participants, metabolically unfavorable microbiota decreased at week 4 and were restored at week 8. At baseline, metabolically hostile bacteria were more abundant in the ‘nonresponders.’ In ‘responders,’ Roseburia intestinalis increased at week 4. CONCLUSION: While dietary fiber did not induce additional changes in glycemic parameters, it showed a trend of improvement in insulin sensitivity in ‘responders.’ Even if patients are already receiving diabetes treatment, the additional administration of fiber can lead to additional benefits in the treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dietary Fiber , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose , Humans , Incretins , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Microbiota , Sulfonylurea Compounds
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has not been determined whether changes in serum uric acid (SUA) level are associated with incident metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between changes in SUA level and development of MetS in a large number of subjects. METHODS: In total, 13,057 subjects participating in a medical health check-up program without a diagnosis of MetS at baseline were enrolled. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the independent association of percent changes in SUA level with development of MetS. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, fat-free mass (%), estimated glomerular filtration rate, smoking status, fasting glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and baseline SUA levels, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for incident MetS in the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile of percent change in SUA level were 1.055 (0.936 to 1.190), 0.927 (0.818 to 1.050), and 0.807 (0.707 to 0.922) in male (P for trend <0.001) and 1.000 (0.843 to 1.186), 0.744 (0.615 to 0.900), and 0.684 (0.557 to 0.840) in female (P for trend <0.001), respectively. As a continuous variable in the fully-adjusted model, each one-standard deviation increase in percent change in SUA level was associated with an HR (95% CI) for incident MetS of 0.944 (0.906 to 0.982) in male (P=0.005) and 0.851 (0.801 to 0.905) in female (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that increasing SUA level independently protected against the development of MetS, suggesting a possible role of SUA as an antioxidant in the pathogenesis of incident MetS.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Diagnosis , Fasting , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Smoke , Smoking , Triglycerides , Uric Acid
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combination of metformin to reduce the fasting plasma glucose level and an α-glucosidase inhibitor to decrease the postprandial glucose level is expected to generate a complementary effect. We compared the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of voglibose plus metformin (vogmet) with metformin monotherapy in drug-naïve newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 187 eligible patients aged 20 to 70 years, with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7.0% to 11.0%, were randomized into either vogmet or metformin treatments for 24 weeks. A change in the HbA1c level from baseline was measured at week 24. RESULTS: The reduction in the levels of HbA1c was −1.62%±0.07% in the vogmet group and −1.31%±0.07% in the metformin group (P=0.003), and significantly more vogmet-treated patients achieved the target HbA1c levels of <6.5% (P=0.002) or <7% (P=0.039). Glycemic variability was also significantly improved with vogmet treatment, estimated by M-values (P=0.004). Gastrointestinal adverse events and hypoglycemia (%) were numerically lower in the vogmet-treated group. Moreover, a significant weight loss was observed with vogmet treatment compared with metformin (−1.63 kg vs. −0.86 kg, P=0.039). CONCLUSION: Vogmet is a safe antihyperglycemic agent that controls blood glucose level effectively, yields weight loss, and is superior to metformin in terms of various key glycemic parameters without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Metformin , Weight Loss
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seizure can be triggered by the non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH). Recently we analysed 18 cases of NKH induced seizure to identify the causes for NKH, seizure types, prognosis, and the differences of clinical presentation between the patient with chronic brain structural lesion (CBSL) and the patient without. METHODS: Eighteen patients with NKH induced seizure were selected from the database. Data regarding brain images, clinical symptoms, co-morbid illnesses, blood laboratories, and prognosis were collected. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of CBSL. RESULTS: The patients with CBSL showed more generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) than without. Focal seizures in this group appeared to be originated from the pre-existing lesion in many situations. The poor compliance to anti-diabetic treatment and physical stresses were most common causes for NKH. One year seizure remission without anti-epileptic drug treatment was achieved in 17 of 18 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with CBSL might have more GTCS than without. The impairment of inhibitory mechanism surrounding the focal irritative zone might be one of plausible explanation for this phenomenon. The prognosis was favorable. Further large studies are required.


Subject(s)
Brain , Compliance , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Prognosis , Seizures
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between hypertension and the lesion distribution of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is in debate. METHODS: Twenty patients with PRES which developed during chemotherapy or immunosuppression treatment for the control of underlying malignancy or auto-immune disorders were selected from the database. Data regarding brain images, clinical symptoms, co-morbid illnesses, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the pre-symptomatic period (one day before the symptom onset) and at the symptom onset were collected. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of pre-symptomatic hypertension. The lesion distribution degree was calculated by numerical method (involvement score [IS]) and compared with MAP. RESULTS: No significant differences of clinical symptoms were found between two groups. IS and onset period MAP were higher in the hypertensive group. Pre-symptomatic MAP correlated with onset period MAP and IS in total patients. No significant correlation was found between IS and onset period MAP. CONCLUSIONS: The PRES patient with hypertension in the pre-symptomatic period would show more spatially distributed brain lesions than the patient with stable blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Blood Pressure , Brain , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hypertension , Immunosuppression Therapy , Methods , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This report presents the recent prevalence and comorbidities related to diabetes in Korea by analyzing the nationally representative data. METHODS: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013 to 2014, the percentages and the total number of subjects over the age of 30 years with diabetes and prediabetes were estimated and applied to the National Population Census in 2014. Diagnosis of diabetes was based on fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL), current taking of antidiabetic medication, history of previous diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined by fasting plasma glucose in the range of 100 to 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes. RESULTS: About 4.8 million (13.7%) Korean adults (≥30 years old) had diabetes, and about 8.3 million (24.8%) Korean adults had IFG. However, 29.3% of the subjects with diabetes are not aware of their condition. Of the subjects with diabetes, 48.6% and 54.7% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 31.6% had hypercholesterolemia. Although most subjects with diabetes (89.1%) were under medical treatment, and mostly being treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (80.2%), 10.8% have remained untreated. With respect to overall glycemic control, 43.5% reached the target of HbA1c < 7%, whereas 23.3% reached the target when the standard was set to HbA1c < 6.5%, according to the Korean Diabetes Association guideline. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is a major public health threat in Korea, but a significant proportion of adults were not controlling their illness. We need comprehensive approaches to overcome the upcoming diabetes-related disease burden in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Censuses , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Public Health , Republic of Korea
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the established benefits of diabetes camps for the continuing education of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, little is known about the long-term metabolic benefits of diabetes camps for middle-aged and elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability. METHODS: The 1-year mean and variability of HbA1c before and after the diabetes camp was compared between the participants of the diabetes camp (n=57; median age 65 years [range, 50 to 86 years]; median diabetes duration 14 years [range, 1 to 48 years]). Additional case-control analysis compared the metabolic outcomes of the participants of the diabetes camp and their propensity score-matched controls who underwent conventional diabetes education (n=93). RESULTS: The levels of HbA1c during the first year after the diabetes camp were comparable to those of the matched controls (P=0.341). In an analysis of all participants of the diabetes camp, the 1-year mean±standard deviation (SD) of HbA1c decreased (P=0.010 and P=0.041) after the diabetes camp, whereas the adjusted SD and coefficient of variance (CV) of HbA1c did not decrease. The adjusted SD and CV significantly decreased after the diabetes camp in participants whose 1-year mean HbA1c was ≥6.5% before the diabetes camp (n=40) and those with a duration of diabetes less than 15 years (n=32). CONCLUSION: The 1-year mean and SD of HbA1c decreased after the diabetes camp, with significant reduction in the adjusted SD and CV in those with higher baseline HbA1c and a shorter duration of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Education , Education, Continuing , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Self Care
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is a subgroup analysis of Korean patients from a phase 3 clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin. METHODS: This multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was carried out between November 2011 and January 2013. Patients entered a 2-week placebo pretreatment period, followed by a 24-week treatment period with either ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) or placebo, while continuing metformin. Efficacy outcomes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting plasma glucose [FPG], and body weight) and safety outcomes (treatment-emergent adverse events [TEAEs]) were measured and compared between the two treatment groups for patients enrolled in all 18 study sites in Korea. RESULTS: Eighty-two Korean patients received ipragliflozin (n=43) or placebo (n=39) during the study period. Mean changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to the end of treatment were –0.97% in the ipragliflozin group and –0.31% in the placebo group, with an adjusted between-group difference of –0.60% (P<0.001). Compared to placebo, FPG and body weight also decreased significantly (both P<0.001) from baseline after treatment in the ipragliflozin group, with between-group differences of –21.4 mg/dL and –1.53 kg, respectively. Decreased weight was the most common TEAE in the ipragliflozin group (7.0%); there were no reports of genital and urinary tract infection. CONCLUSION: Ipragliflozin treatment in addition to metformin led to significant improvement in glycemic outcomes and reduction in body weight in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared with metformin treatment alone; the safety profile was comparable in both groups.


Subject(s)
Asia , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Humans , Korea , Metformin , Urinary Tract Infections
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although little is known about its origins, neck pain may be related to several associated anatomical pathologies. We aimed to characterize the incidence and features of chronic neck pain and analyze the relationship between neck pain severity and its affecting factors. METHODS: Between March 2012 and July 2013, we studied 216 patients with chronic neck pain. Initially, combined tramadol (37.5 mg) plus acetaminophen (325 mg) was administered orally twice daily (b.i.d.) to all patients over a 2-week period. After two weeks, patients were evaluated for neck pain during an outpatient clinic visit. If the numeric rating scale of the patient had not decreased to 5 or lower, a cervical medial branch block (MBB) was recommended after double-dosed previous medication trial. We classified all patients into two groups (mild vs. severe neck pain group), based on medication efficacy. Logistic regression tests were used to evaluate the factors associated with neck pain severity. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients were included in the analyses, due to follow-up loss in 18 patients. While medication was successful in reducing pain in 68.2% patients with chronic neck pain, the remaining patients required cervical MBB. Lateral cervical curvature, such as a straight or sigmoid type curve, was found to be significantly associated with the severity of neck pain. CONCLUSION: We managed chronic neck pain with a simple pharmacological management protocol followed by MBB. We should keep in mind that it may be difficult to manage the patient with straight or sigmoid lateral curvature only with oral medication.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Colon, Sigmoid , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Neck Pain , Neck , Pathology , Tramadol
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years), and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years). The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels. RESULTS: A total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1%) of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915). The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92) in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001). A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline. CONCLUSION: There was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Mass Screening , Obesity, Abdominal , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incretin hormone levels as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus have not been fully investigated. Therefore, we measured incretin hormone levels to examine the relationship between circulating incretin hormones, diabetes, and future diabetes development in this study. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a Korean cohort. The study included the following two groups: the control group (n=149), the incident diabetes group (n=65). Fasting total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels were measured and compared between these groups. RESULTS: Fasting total GIP levels were higher in the incident diabetes group than in the control group (32.64±22.68 pmol/L vs. 25.54±18.37 pmol/L, P=0.034). There was no statistically significant difference in fasting total GLP-1 levels between groups (1.14±1.43 pmol/L vs. 1.39±2.13 pmol/L, P=0.199). In multivariate analysis, fasting total GIP levels were associated with an increased risk of diabetes (odds ratio, 1.005; P=0.012) independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Fasting total GIP levels may be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This association persisted even after adjusting for other metabolic parameters such as elevated fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and obesity in the pre-diabetic period.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , Incretins , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Limited information is available on the effectiveness of lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) in the Korean population. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of different types of lipid disorders in Korean patients using LMT. METHODS: Eight hundred seventy-one dyslipidemia patients, who were LMT-naive for >1 year prior to retrospective enrollment, were included for analysis. Serum levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, TG and total cholesterol (TC) were assessed after >1 year of LMT. We also analyzed the therapeutic effects of LMT in the subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors (n=629), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) (n=296) or diabetes without ASCVD (n=316). RESULTS: The rates of elevated LDL-C without other abnormal lipids levels, elevated TG or decreased HDL-C (with normal LDL-C levels) and high LDL-C combined with elevated TG and/or decreased HDL-C were 33.4%, 13.0% and 53.6%, respectively. After at least one year on LMT (statin alone: 81%, statin and cholesterol absorption inhibitor: 10%, fibrates alone: 3%, others: 3%), 61% of patients had at least one lipid abnormality, with 3.4% failing to reach the therapeutic LDL-C target level or a normal level of HDL-C and TG. After LMT, 64.9% of patients with high cardiovascular risk factors, 64.5% of those with ASCVD or and 64.2% of those with diabetes without ASCVD also had at least one lipid abnormality. CONCLUSION: Approximately two-thirds of patients did not reach the target or normal lipid profile after taking LMT, irrespective of combining disease and high cardiovascular risk factors. Tight lipid control is required, especially in patients with dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk factors or comorbid diseases.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Fibric Acids , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Korea , Lipoproteins , Observational Study , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Therapeutic Uses , Triglycerides
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