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1.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 85-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874467

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Small bowel malignancies often present a diagnostic challenge due to their relative rarity and nonspecific clinical symptoms. However, technical developments in endoscopic instruments, including video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and enteroscopy, have allowed for the visualization of the entire small bowel. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of small bowel malignant tumors diagnosed by VCE and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in a single tertiary center. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed VCE and DBE findings from Korea University Guro Hospital from January 2010 through September 2018. @*Results@#A total of 510 VCE and 126 DBE examinations were performed in 478 patients. Small bowel malignancies were diagnosed in 28 patients (15 males; mean age, 61.0 years; range, 42 to 81 years). Among them, 8 had lymphoma, 8 had primary adenocarcinoma, 7 had gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and 5 had metastatic cancer. Abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms were the most common findings in metastatic cancers (4/5, 80%). On the other hand, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common symptom of GIST (6/7, 85.7%) and adenocarcinoma (3/8, 37.5%). @*Conclusions@#Approximately 6% of the patients who underwent either VCE or DBE were diagnosed with small bowel malignancy. These findings demonstrated the different clinical characteristics among small bowel malignancies and merit further study.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903649

ABSTRACT

Recently, results from clinical studies of endoscopic resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach are being reported. This procedure has several advantages, such as the provision of a definite diagnosis and therapeutic plan, avoidance of frequent follow-up examination, and reduction of patients’ anxiety. However, several concerns also exist such as a limited number of studies, low R0 resection rate, and relatively shorter follow-up period compared with surgical resection. Nevertheless, it is encouraging that most of the post-procedural complications have been treated with conservative management and that some of the patients did not show recurrence of the tumor during long-term follow-up. The selection of suitable cases and the experience of the endoscopists are the most important factors for successful endoscopic resection of gastric GIST. Development of novel procedures as well as collaboration with laparoscopic surgeons are currently in progress.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895945

ABSTRACT

Recently, results from clinical studies of endoscopic resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach are being reported. This procedure has several advantages, such as the provision of a definite diagnosis and therapeutic plan, avoidance of frequent follow-up examination, and reduction of patients’ anxiety. However, several concerns also exist such as a limited number of studies, low R0 resection rate, and relatively shorter follow-up period compared with surgical resection. Nevertheless, it is encouraging that most of the post-procedural complications have been treated with conservative management and that some of the patients did not show recurrence of the tumor during long-term follow-up. The selection of suitable cases and the experience of the endoscopists are the most important factors for successful endoscopic resection of gastric GIST. Development of novel procedures as well as collaboration with laparoscopic surgeons are currently in progress.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914361

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The mucoprotective drug rebamipide is used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. We compared the efficacy of Mucosta Ⓡ (rebamipide 100 mg) and its new formulation, AD-203 (rebamipide 150 mg), in treating erosive gastritis. @*Methods@#This double-blind, active control, noninferiority, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trial randomly assigned 475 patients with endoscopically proven erosive gastritis to two groups: AD-203 twice daily or Mucosta Ⓡ thrice daily for 2 weeks. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis included 454 patients (AD-203, n=229; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=225), and the per-protocol (PP) analysis included 439 patients (AD-203, n=224; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=215). The posttreatment assessments included the primary (erosion improvement rate) and secondary endpoints (erosion and edema cure rates; improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal symptoms). Drug-related adverse events were evaluated. @*Results@#According to the ITT analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.7% and 43.8%, respectively. According to the PP analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.3% and 43.7%, respectively. The one-sided 97.5% lower limit for the improvement rate difference between the study groups was −4.01% (95% confidence interval [CI], –13.09% to 5.06%) in the ITT analysis and −4.44% (95% CI, –13.65% to 4.78%) in the PP analysis. The groups did not significantly differ in the secondary endpoints in either analysis. Twenty-four AD-203-treated and 20 Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients reported adverse events but no serious adverse drug reactions; both groups presented similar adverse event rates. @*Conclusions@#The new formulation of rebamipide 150 mg (AD-203) twice daily was not inferior to rebamipide 100 mg (Mucosta Ⓡ ) thrice daily. Both formulations showed a similar efficacy in treating erosive gastritis.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834120

ABSTRACT

The Korean guidelines for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced peptic ulcers were previously developed under co-work with the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research and Korean Society of Gastroenterology at 2009. On the other hand, the previous guidelines were based mainly on a literature review and expert opinions. Therefore, the guidelines need to be revised. In this study, a guideline development committee for drug-induced peptic ulcers was organized under the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research in 2017. Nine statements were developed, including four for NSAID, three for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and two for anticoagulants through de novo processes based on evidence-based medicine, such as a literature search, meta-analysis, and the consensus was established using the modified Delphi method. The primary target of this guideline was adult patients taking long-term NSAIDs, aspirin, or other antiplatelet agent and anticoagulants. The revised guidelines reflect the consensus of expert opinions and are intended to assist relevant clinicians in the management and prevention of drug-induced peptic ulcers and associated conditions.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834101

ABSTRACT

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin are the most frequently prescribed drugs worldwide, and their long-term use often leads to peptic ulcers (PUs) along with serious complications, such as bleeding and perforation. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a significant risk factor for developing NSAID-related PU and ulcer bleeding during long-term aspirin use. In a revised version of the Clinical Guidelines for Drug-induced Peptic Ulcer, two statements regarding H. pylori eradication are recommended. 1) Patients scheduled for long-term NSAID therapy should be tested and treated for H. pylori infection to prevent PU and its complications. 2) Patients with a history of PU receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) therapy should undergo treatment for H. pylori infection to prevent PU and its complications. On the other hand, unlike NSAID-naïve patients, the preventive effects of H. pylori eradication in chronic NSAID users are unclear. In addition, anti-ulcer drugs, such as proton pump inhibitors, may be necessary for maintenance therapy after H. pylori eradication in a subset of long-term LDA users, particularly if the patients are taking concomitant antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834079

ABSTRACT

Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refers to bleeding that develops in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. NVUGIB is an important cause for visiting the hospital and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although European and Asian-Pacific guidelines have been published, there has been no previous guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB in Korea. Korea is a country with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and patients have easy accessibility to receive endoscopy. Therefore, we believe that guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB are mandatory. The Korean Society of Gastroenterology reviewed recent evidence and recommends practical management guidelines on NVUGIB in Korea.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 560-570, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833181

ABSTRACT

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refers to bleeding that develops in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. NVUGIB requires hospitalization and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.Although European and Asian-Pacific guidelines have been published, there have been no previous guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB in Korea. Korea has a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections, and patients have easy accessibility to endoscopy. Therefore, we believe that guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB in Korea are essential. The Korean Society of Gastroenterology reviewed the recent evidence and recommends practical management guidelines on NVUGIB in Korea.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 707-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833160

ABSTRACT

Korean guidelines for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced peptic ulcer were previously developed in 2009 with the collaboration of the Korean College of Helico-bacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research and Korean So-ciety of Gastroenterology. However, the previous guidelines were based mainly upon a review of the relevant literature and expert opinion. Therefore, the guidelines need to be revised. We organized a guideline Development Commit-tee for drug-related peptic ulcer under the auspices of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research in 2017 and developed nine statements, includ-ing four for NSAIDs, three for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and two for anticoagulants through a de novo process founded on evidence-based medicine that included a literature search and a meta-analysis, A consensus was reached through the application of the modified Delphi method. The primary target of these guidelines is adult pa-tients undergoing long-term treatment with NSAIDs, aspirin or other antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. The revised guidelines reflect the expert consensus and is intended to assist clinicians in the management and prevention of druginduced peptic ulcer and associated conditions.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 57-66, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833104

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although acid suppressants are widely used for the prevention or treatment of drug-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), evidence regarding the prevention of anticoagulant-related GIB is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acid suppressants against anticoagulant-related GIB. @*Methods@#A systematic review was conducted of studies that evaluated the protective effect of acid suppressants against anticoagulant-related GIB found in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Embase, and KoreaMed from the date of database inception to April 2018. Random effect model meta-analyses with sensitivity analyses were conducted. The methodological quality of each included publication was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Publication bias was assessed. @*Results@#In total, six nested case-control or cohort studies were identified and analyzed. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) had a protective effect against upper GIB in patients on dicumarinics (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.83; I2, 0%); however, the histamine-2 receptor antagonist did not have the same effect (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.81; I2, 0%). Acid suppressants did not have a protective effect against GIB in patients on dabigatran (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.37; I2, 81.8%). @*Conclusions@#The protective effect of PPIs against dicumarinics-related upper GIB was clear, while there was no evidence supporting the protective effect of acid suppressants against dabigatran-related GIB. However, in the absence of randomized trials demonstrating a lack of bias, solid conclusions cannot be drawn.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831814

ABSTRACT

Oral sulfate solution (OSS) is an emerging cleansing agent for bowel preparation. However, data comparing OSS to other conventional bowel preparations in Asian patients are limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of OSS to ascorbic acid plus polyethylene glycol (AA + PEG) in Asian patients. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, parallel, investigator-blind study performed in two university hospitals in Korea. Bowel preparation efficacy was evaluated using both the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (OBPS) and Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). Results: Among 173 patients, 86 received OSS while 87 received AA + PEG for bowel preparation. Total OBPS score was 2.80 ± 2.48 in the OSS group and 4.49 ± 3.08 in the AA + PEG group, indicating significantly (p < 0.001) better efficacy with OSS. Total BBPS was higher in the OSS group (7.43 ± 1.49 vs. 6.51 ± 1.76, p < 0.001), indicating superior bowel preparation quality with OSS. Preparation-related adverse events were generally acceptable. Patients receiving OSS had more nausea (1.92 ± 0.94 vs. 1.54 ± 0.76, p = 0.004) and abdominal cramping (1.45 ± 0.78 vs. 1.17 ± 0.51, p = 0.006) than those receiving AA + PEG. However, overall satisfaction and taste were similar between the two groups. Conclusions: OSS had a non-inferior bowel cleansing efficacy than AA + PEG regardless of colon segment.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787176

ABSTRACT

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is one of the most prominent diseases in Western countries because of its potential to progress to dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. Recently, the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), American Gastroenterology Association (AGA), and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) developed clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BE. All three guidelines commonly stressed the necessity of the endoscopic eradication of confirmed, nonnodular low grade dysplasia or high grade dysplasia, as well as the endoscopic elimination of the remaining BE after an endoscopic resection of visible mucosal abnormalities. An endoscopic resection is also considered for the optimal management of esophageal adenocarcinoma confined to the mucosa (T1a), and even in selective cases of submucosal invasion (T1b). As endoscopic therapy becomes the mainstay for the treatment of BE and its complications, the eligibility of pathologic or endoscopic experts and the BE expert center are being set and strengthened. This paper introduces the statements of the ACG, AGA and ESGE guidelines and compares the similarities and differences between them.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Barrett Esophagus , Diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal Neoplasms , Gastroenterology , Mucous Membrane
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761528

ABSTRACT

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is one of the most prominent diseases in Western countries because of its potential to progress to dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. Recently, the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), American Gastroenterology Association (AGA), and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) developed clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BE. All three guidelines commonly stressed the necessity of the endoscopic eradication of confirmed, nonnodular low grade dysplasia or high grade dysplasia, as well as the endoscopic elimination of the remaining BE after an endoscopic resection of visible mucosal abnormalities. An endoscopic resection is also considered for the optimal management of esophageal adenocarcinoma confined to the mucosa (T1a), and even in selective cases of submucosal invasion (T1b). As endoscopic therapy becomes the mainstay for the treatment of BE and its complications, the eligibility of pathologic or endoscopic experts and the BE expert center are being set and strengthened. This paper introduces the statements of the ACG, AGA and ESGE guidelines and compares the similarities and differences between them.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Barrett Esophagus , Diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal Neoplasms , Gastroenterology , Mucous Membrane
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is known to be effective for reducing the size of gastric hyperplastic polyps (HPPs). This study investigated the change in size of gastric HPPs after H. pylori eradication.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study that enrolled 25 H. pylori-positive patients diagnosed as having HPPs at Korea University Guro Hospital between July 2015 and July 2016. If the patient wanted to receive eradication therapy, medication was given. If the patients refused eradication, only clinical follow-up was performed. All patients were subsequently followed up with endoscopic examination to determine any change in polyp size.RESULTS: Eighteen of the 25 H. pylori-positive patients diagnosed as having HPPs were given an eradication regimen, and 17 were confirmed to have achieved successful eradication. Twelve (70.8%) of the 17 patients in the eradication group showed ≥50% reduction in size, while two (25.0%) of the eight patients in the non-eradication group showed 50% reduction. The polyp regression rate was significantly higher in the eradication group (P=0.03). A multivariate analysis revealed that H. pylori eradication (OR, 40.047; 95% CI, 1.112~1442.767; P=0.044) and female sex (OR, 12.947; 95% CI, 1.038~161.503; P=0.047) were significant predictive factors of HPP regression.CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori eradication is an effective therapeutic modality for gastric HPP regression.


Subject(s)
Female , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Polyps , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716130

ABSTRACT

An endoscopic resection is performed widely and has been established as a standard therapeutic modality for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) without lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, the selection of suitable patients by a thorough pre-procedural evaluation is mandatory for the successful management of EGC. Moreover, a clear and unified interpretation of a resected specimen and the definition of a curative resection is the mainstay for decision-making of an additional surgical resection and post-procedural surveillance schedule. This paper summarizes the key statements of Eastern (Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society) and Western (European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) guidelines for an endoscopic resection of EGC, regarding the clinical staging and indication; pre-operative evaluation; definition of a curative resection; and post-procedural surveillance, focusing on the similarities and differences between the two guidelines.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Asians , Endoscopy , Hand , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Stomach Neoplasms
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715426

ABSTRACT

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and low-dose aspirin (LDA) are the main causes of peptic ulcer (PU), and cause major complication such as bleeding and perforation. The interaction of Helicobacter pylori infection with NSAIDs or LDA is complex and remains unclear. However, H. pylori infection may play additive, synergistic, or antagonistic roles in the development of drug-induced PU. H. pylori infection and NSAID use are independent risk factors for the development of PU, which is thought to be a synergistic effect. Eradication of H. pylori significantly reduces the incidence of PU in NSAID-naïve patients. However, the effect of secondary prevention is controversial, especially in chronic NSAID users. The use of a gastroprotective agent such as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is mandatory to prevent the recurrence of PU in patients with a previous history, especially in chronic NSAID users. H. pylori infection may also increase the risk of LDA-associated complicated and uncomplicated PU, including the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In patients taking LDA, H. pylori eradication alone may prevent the recurrence of PU bleeding. However, PPI maintenance is necessary with concomitant use of an NSAID, steroid, anticoagulant, or other antiplatelet agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Peptic Ulcer , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention
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