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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915751

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome characterized by compromised peristalsis and intestinal obstruction. Variants of actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a protein crucial for correct enteric muscle contraction, have been found in CIPO patients. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical features and ACTG2 variants in Korean patients with CIPO. @*Methods@#From January 1995 to August 2020, 12 patients diagnosed with CIPO were included and genetic analysis testing of ACTG2 was performed. @*Results@#Heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants were found in 6 patients (50.0%). The p.Arg257Cys variant was found in 3 patients, and p.Arg63Gln and p.Arg178His variants were found in 1 patient each. A novel variant, p.Ile193Phe, was found in 1 patient. Three patients were diagnosed at birth, 2 at the age of 1 year, and 1 at 3 years of age. Abnormal prenatal genitourinary ultrasonographic findings were found in all 6 patients; microcolon was found in 4 patients (66.7%), and megacystis in all 6 patients. The pathology showed abnormal ganglion cells as well as myopathic findings. All patients are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and are to date alive. @*Conclusions@#ACTG2 variants are commonly found in Korean patients with CIPO. In CIPO patients with megacystis and abnormal prenatal ultrasonography, genetic testing of ACTG2 should be considered. Molecular diagnosis of CIPO is more important than pathologic diagnosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Blood Research ; : S39-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897352

ABSTRACT

Thalassemia is characterized by the impaired synthesis of globin chains due to disease-causing variants in α- or β-globin genes. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular basis underlying α- and β-thalassemia, and of the current technologies used to characterize these disease-causing variants for the diagnosis of thalassemia.Understanding these molecular basis and technologies will prove to be beneficial for the accurate diagnosis of thalassemia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

5.
Blood Research ; : S39-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889648

ABSTRACT

Thalassemia is characterized by the impaired synthesis of globin chains due to disease-causing variants in α- or β-globin genes. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular basis underlying α- and β-thalassemia, and of the current technologies used to characterize these disease-causing variants for the diagnosis of thalassemia.Understanding these molecular basis and technologies will prove to be beneficial for the accurate diagnosis of thalassemia.

6.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1287-1297, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914245

ABSTRACT

Background@#An activating mutation (c.617A>C/p.Lys206Arg, L206R) in protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA) has been reported in 35% to 65% of cases of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and transcriptome analysis between PRKACA L206R mutants and wild-type CPAs in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 57 subjects with CPAs who underwent adrenalectomy at Seoul National University Hospital. Sanger sequencing for PRKACA was conducted in 57 CPA tumor tissues. RNA sequencing was performed in 13 fresh-frozen tumor tissues. @*Results@#The prevalence of the PRKACA L206R mutation was 51% (29/57). The mean age of the study subjects was 42±12 years, and 87.7% (50/57) of the patients were female. Subjects with PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs showed smaller adenoma size (3.3±0.7 cm vs. 3.8±1.2 cm, P=0.059) and lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (218±180 ng/mL vs. 1,511±3,307 ng/mL, P=0.001) than those with PRKACA wild-type CPAs. Transcriptome profiling identified 244 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PRKACA L206R mutant (n=8) and wild-type CPAs (n=5), including five upregulated and 239 downregulated genes in PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs (|fold change| ≥2, P<0.05). Among the upstream regulators of DEGs, CTNNB1 was the most significant transcription regulator. In several pathway analyses, the Wnt signaling pathway was downregulated and the steroid biosynthesis pathway was upregulated in PRKACA mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis also showed that PRKACA downregulates Wnt signaling and upregulates steroid biosynthesis. @*Conclusion@#The PRKACA L206R mutation in CPAs causes high hormonal activity with a limited proliferative capacity, as supported by transcriptome profiling.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 95-98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875597

ABSTRACT

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant muscular disorder characterized by weakness of facial, shoulder, abdominal, hip girdle, humeral, and anterior distal leg muscles, with descending progression from the face to the legs in an asymmetric pattern. In about 5% of patients with FSHD, no D4Z4 repeat contraction on chromosome 4q35 is observed;this disease entity is called FSHD2. FSHD2 is characterized by DNA hypomethylation on the 4q-subtelomeric macrosatellite repeat array D4Z4. In Korea, there have been no previous reports of FSHD2. We report the first two cases of FSHD2 in Korea, carrying c.3801delG and c.1580C>T mutations in the SMCHD1 gene, respectively. For rapid and accurate diagnosis of FSHD2, genetic analysis of the D4Z4 haplotype and methylation with next-generation sequencing are required.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Understanding leukemic stem cell (LSC) is important for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment. However, association of LSC with patient prognosis and genetic information in AML patients is unclear. @*Methods@#Here we investigated the associations between genetic information and the various LSC phenotypes, namely multipotent progenitor (MPP)-like, lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP)-like and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP)-like LSC in 52 AML patients. @*Results@#In secondary AML patients, MPP-like LSC was significantly higher than de novo AML (p = 0.0037). The proportion of MPP-like LSC was especially high in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm AML (p = 0.0485). There was no correlation between age and LSC phenotype. Mutations of KRAS and NRAS were observed in MPP-like LSC dominant patients, TP53 and ASXL1 mutations in LMPP-like LSC dominant patients, and CEBPA, DNMT3A and IDH1 mutations in GMP-like LSC dominant patients. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with MPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0540), and TP53 mutation with LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0276). When the patients were separated according to the combined risk including next generation sequencing data, the poorer the prognosis, the higher the LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0052). This suggests that the dominant phenotype of LSC is one of the important factors in predicting the prognosis and treatment of AML. @*Conclusions@#LSC phenotype in AML is closely associated with the recurrent mutations which has prognostic implication. Further research to confirm the meaning of LSC phenotype in the context of genetic aberration is warranted.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 142-145, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874568

ABSTRACT

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the aldolase B gene. HFI patients exhibit nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and elevated liver enzymes after dietary fructose exposure. Chronic exposure might lead to failure to thrive, liver failure, renal failure, and, eventually, death. HFI usually manifests in infants when they are being weaned off of breastmilk. Because HFI has an excellent prognosis when patients maintain a strict restrictive diet, some patients remain undiagnosed due to the voluntary avoidance of sweet foods. In the past, HFI was diagnosed using a fructose tolerance test, liver enzyme assays or intestinal biopsy specimens. Currently, HFI is diagnosed through the analysis of aldolase B mutations. Here, HFI was diagnosed in a 41-year-old woman who complained of sweating, nausea, and vomiting after consuming sweets. She had a compound heterozygous mutation in the aldolase B gene; gene analysis revealed pathogenic nonsense (c.178C>T, p.Arg60Ter) and frameshift (c.360_363delCAAA, p.Asn120LysfsTer32) variants. This is the first report of a Korean HFI patient diagnosed in adulthood.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874160

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reference intervals defined for adults or children of other ethnicities cannot be applied in the evaluation of Korean pediatric patients. Pediatric reference intervals are difficult to establish because children are in their growing stage and their physiology changes continuously. We aimed to establish reference intervals for routine laboratory tests for Korean pediatric patients through retrospective multicenter data analysis. @*Methods@#Preoperative laboratory test results from 1,031 pediatric patients aged 0 month–18 years who underwent minor surgeries in four university hospitals were collected. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals for routine laboratory tests were defined based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP28-A3c guidelines. @*Results@#The pediatric reference intervals determined in this study were different from existing adult reference intervals and pediatric reference intervals for other ethnicities. Most tests required age-specific partitioning, and some of those required sex-specific partitioning for at least one age-partitioned subgroup. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, monocyte percentage, basophil percentage, activated partial thromboplastin time, glucose, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, chloride, and C-reactive protein did not show any difference between age- or sex-partitioned subgroups. @*Conclusions@#We determined Korean pediatric reference intervals for hematology, coagulation, and chemistry tests by indirect sampling based on medical record data from multiple institutions. These reference intervals would be valuable for clinical evaluations in the Korean pediatric population.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874151

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnosis of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is based on a combination of fragment analysis (FA) and Southern blotting (SB); however, this diagnostic approach is time- and labor-intensive and has pitfalls such as the possibility of missing large number alleles. Triplet repeat primed PCR (TP-PCR) is a current alternative used to overcome these limitations. We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of TP-PCR compared with the conventional diagnostic protocol consisting of FA and/or SB in terms of allele categorization, repeat number correlation, and zygosity concordance in female genetic carriers. @*Methods@#From November 2013 to March 2018, 458 patients (326 males, 132 females) were simultaneously examined using FA and/or SB and TP-PCR by detecting CGG repeat numbers in FMR gene and diagnosed as per American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. @*Results@#The TP-PCR results showed high concordance with the FA and/or SB results for all three aspects (allele categorization, repeat number correlation, and zygosity concordance in female genetic carriers). TP-PCR detected CGG expansions ≥ 200 in all full mutation (FM) allele cases in male patients, as well as both the normal allele (NL) and FM allele in female carriers. In premutation (PM) allele carriers, the TP-PCR results were consistent with the FA and/or SB results. In terms of zygosity concordance in female genetic carriers, 12 NL cases detected by TP-PCR showed a merged peak consisting of two close heterozygous peaks; however, this issue was resolved using a 10-fold dilution. @*Conclusions@#TP-PCR may serve as a reliable alternative method for FXS diagnosis.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899772

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is found to cause a large outbreak started from Wuhan since December 2019 in China and SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported with epidemiological linkage to China in 25 countries until now. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the oropharyngeal sample obtained from the patient with the first laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Korea. Cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero cell cultures were confluent 3 days after the first blind passage of the sample. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequences showed that it clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 reported from Wuhan.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898131

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892068

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is found to cause a large outbreak started from Wuhan since December 2019 in China and SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported with epidemiological linkage to China in 25 countries until now. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the oropharyngeal sample obtained from the patient with the first laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Korea. Cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero cell cultures were confluent 3 days after the first blind passage of the sample. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequences showed that it clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 reported from Wuhan.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890427

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810955

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is found to cause a large outbreak started from Wuhan since December 2019 in China and SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported with epidemiological linkage to China in 25 countries until now. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the oropharyngeal sample obtained from the patient with the first laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Korea. Cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero cell cultures were confluent 3 days after the first blind passage of the sample. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequences showed that it clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 reported from Wuhan.


Subject(s)
China , Coronavirus , Crowns , Genome , Humans , Korea , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Phylogeny , Vero Cells
17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836056

ABSTRACT

Background@#Next-generation sequencing is a powerful technology thatallows simultaneous analysis of several genes but also demands a welldesignedquality management system owing to its complexity. We aimed toanalyze the results of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-germline proficiencytesting (PT) survey performed by the Korean Association of External QualityAssessment Service during 2017–2019 to assess the current status of theNGS-based genetic testing in Korea. @*Methods@#The recent 3-year results from the PT survey were investigated.During this period, PT survey was performed twice every year with two orthree challenges per round. Correct results (%) were calculated from alltested regions; the trend by year and variation type was analyzed and theprobable causes estimated. @*Results@#During this period, the number of participating laboratoriesincreased from 5 to 22. The correct results were 97.2% in average andshowed a gradual increase with year. The most common ‘unacceptable’results were false-negative or false-positive, followed by inappropriatenomenclature and zygosity assignment. @*Conclusions@#The PT survey shows that the overall performance of NGSlaboratories in Korea is highly confident, although some improvements maybe needed. A method-based PT survey for the NGS test serves as a usefulapproach to assess the performance of NGS laboratories.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835777

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common lethal muscular dystrophy and is caused by the genetic variants of DMD gene. Because DMD is X-linked recessive and shows familial aggregates, prenatal diagnosis is an important role in the management of DMD family. We present our experience of prenatal molecular diagnosis and carrier detection based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and linkage analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#During study period, 34 cases of prenatal diagnosis and 21 cases of carrier detection were performed at the Seoul National University Hospital. Multiplex PCR and MLPA was used to detect the exon deletions or duplications. When the DMD pathogenic variant in the affected males is unknown and no DMD pathogenic variant is detected in atrisk females, linkage analysis was used. @*Results@#The prenatal molecular diagnosis was offered to 34 fetuses. Twenty-five fetuses were male and 6 fetuses (24.0%) were affected. Remaining cases had no pathogenic mutation. We had 24 (80.0%) cases of known proband results; exon deletion mutation in 19 (79.2%) cases and duplication in 5 (20.8%) cases. Linkage analysis was performed in 4 cases in which 2 cases (50.0%) were found to be affected. In the carrier testing, among 21 cases including 15 cases of mother and 6 cases of female relative, 9 (42.9%) cases showed positive results and 12 (57.1%) cases showed negative results. @*Conclusion@#Prenatal molecular diagnosis and carrier detection of DMD are effective and feasible. They are useful in genetic counseling for DMD families.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831790

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As the coronavirus disease-2019 global pandemic progresses, screening of antiviral agents effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed. In addition, considering the viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2, which peaks early in the illness, and the massive burden of the disease, which may increase in the near future, identifying well-tolerated oral antivirals becomes increasingly important. We examined the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, at concentrations which can be used to treat coronavirus-19 patients with little concern of toxicity. @*Methods@#Lopinavir/ritonavir (7/1.75 μg/mL), hydroxychloroquine base (1 or 2 μg/mL), or a combination thereof were administered 1 hour after the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 to Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.05. We examined cytopathic effects of virus 48 hours after administration of the respective treatments and measured viral loads at three time points (0, 24, and 48 hours post-treatment) by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and compared the results obtained from the different antiviral regimens tested. @*Results@#The severity of cytopathic effects was lower in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated cells, and viral load was significantly reduced in this group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). However, hydroxychloroquine did not show significant inhibitory effects on anti-SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytotoxicity or on viral load at either concentration. @*Conclusions@#Lopinavir/ritonavir showed significant inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at its usual plasma concentration. However, the in vitro antiviral activity of hydroxychloroquine at concentrations commonly used in humans was minimal, whether used alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831788

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As the global impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been severe, many countries have intensified containment activities to eliminate virus transmission, through early detection and isolation strategies. To establish a proper quarantine strategy, it is essential to understand how easily the virus can spread in the communities. @*Methods@#In this study, we collected detailed information on the circumstances in which human-to-human transmission occurred in the tertiary transmission cases of COVID-19 in the community. @*Results@#On January 26, 2020, an imported case of COVID-19 was confirmed, and by February 10, 2020, one secondary transmission and three tertiary transmissions were identified. Secondary transmission occurred on the first day of illness of the infector, and his symptoms were suggestive of a common cold. The transmission occurred during a 90-minute long meal together in a restaurant. The people were sitting within one meter of each other, and had no direct contact. The tertiary transmission also occurred on the first-day illness of the other infector, and his only symptom was slight chills. The transmission occurred at a church during 2-hour-long worship, and two rows separated them. @*Conclusions@#Our findings suggest that mildly symptomatic patients with COVID-19 could transmit the virus from the first day of illness through daily activities in the community. Early detection and isolation of patients with COVID-19 may be challenging.

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