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1.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 91-104, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913976

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening compared to no screening in the Korean population from societal and healthcare system perspectives. @*Methods@#A published decision-tree plus Markov model was used to compare the expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between one-time universal HCV screening and no screening in the population aged 40–65 years using the National Health Examination (NHE) program. Input parameters were obtained from analyses of the National Health Insurance claims data, Korean HCV cohort data, or from the literature review. The population aged 40–65 years was simulated in a model spanning a lifetime from both the healthcare system and societal perspectives, which included the cost of productivity loss due to HCV-related deaths. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between universal screening and no screening was estimated. @*Results@#The HCV screening strategy had an ICER of $2,666/QALY and $431/QALY from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. Both ICERs were far less than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $25,000/QALY, showing that universal screening was highly cost-effective compared to no screening. In various sensitivity analyses, the most influential parameters on cost-effectiveness were the antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence, screening costs, and treatment acceptance; however, all ICERs were consistently less than the threshold. If the anti-HCV prevalence was over 0.18%, screening could be cost-effective. @*Conclusions@#One-time universal HCV screening in the Korean population aged 40–65 years using NHE program would be highly cost-effective from both healthcare system and societal perspectives.

2.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022010-2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#In an era when the average life expectancy and overall mortality rate have improved, Korea remains at risk for infectious disease outbreaks that place substantial burdens on the healthcare system. This study investigated trends in mortality and the economic burden of infectious diseases. @*METHODS@#Healthcare data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (2009-2019) and the Korean Statistics Information Service (1997-2019) were used. We selected 10 infectious disease groups (intestinal infections, tuberculosis, vaccine- preventable diseases, sepsis, viral hepatitis, HIV-related diseases, central nervous system infections, rheumatic heart diseases, respiratory tract infections, and arthropod-borne viral diseases). @*RESULTS@#The age-standardized mortality rate for infectious diseases increased from 27.2 per 100,000 population in 1997 to 37.1 per 100,000 population in 2019 and has had an upward trend since 2004. During this same period, significant increases were seen in respiratory tract infections and among elderly persons, especially those aged ≥85 years. The costs for infectious diseases increased from 4.126 billion US dollar (USD) in 2009 to 6.612 billion USD in 2019, with respiratory tract infections accounting for 3.699 billion USD (69%). The annual cost per patient for visits for medical care due to infectious diseases increased from 131 USD in 2009 to 204 USD in 2019. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Mortality among elderly persons and those with respiratory tract infections increased during the study period. The economic burden of infectious diseases has consistently increased, especially for respiratory tract infections. It is therefore essential to establish effective management policies that considers specific infectious diseases and patient groups.

3.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022027-2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to investigate the association between levels of physical activity (PA) and low handgrip strength in Korean adults. @*METHODS@#Our cross-sectional study design included 24,109 Korean adults older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014–2019. Low handgrip strength is described as hand strength less than the cut-off value of the 20th percentile of handgrip strength from a healthy population in each gender and age group. PA was categorized into three levels (inactive, active, and highly active) according to the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on PA for health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between levels of PA and low handgrip strength. @*RESULTS@#Odds ratios (ORs) for low handgrip strength were significantly higher in middle-aged women who were active (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.69) and inactive (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.76) than in those highly active in walking exercise. Most of older people had significantly higher ORs for low handgrip strength in active compared to highly active in the context of aerobic, muscle strengthening, and walking exercise. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Walking exercise was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia in middle-aged women and older individuals. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the causal relationship between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.

4.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021019-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 and is potentially preventable through vaccination. This study estimated the incidence of juvenile-onset RRP before the implementation of the national HPV vaccination program in Korea. @*METHODS@#We conducted a cohort study using claims data provided by a mandatory insurance program to estimate the incidence of RRP and associated healthcare use. Patients with juvenile RRP were defined as those aged ≤12 years with ≥2 admissions or ≥2 outpatient visits during which they received the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code for benign neoplasms of the larynx (D14.1). @*RESULTS@#During 2002-2014, 123 children (74 boys and 49 girls) were diagnosed with RRP. The patients had a mean of 6.5 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was estimated at 0.30/100,000 person-years. The median age at diagnosis was 4.0 years (mean, 4.3). Thirty-six (29.3%) patients underwent surgery, including 23 patients (18.7%) who underwent 2 or more surgical procedures. Severe disease, measured by more frequent surgical procedures and shorter time intervals between consecutive operations, was associated with a younger age at diagnosis. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The estimated incidence of juvenile-onset RRP in Korea was similar to that reported in other countries. The RRP burden should continue to be monitored using National Health Insurance Service claims data.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 744-753, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889760

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the proportion of gastric cancer attributable to Helicobactor pylori in the Korean population. Infection with H. pylori has been recognized as the most significant risk factor for gastric cancer. In Korea, gastric cancer is the most common cancer that accounted for 13.3% of all cancers in 2016. In particular, men are most commonly diagnosed with gastric cancer; the age-standardized incidence rate in men is 49.6 per 100,000, which is more than twice the incidence in women. @*Materials and Methods@#The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated as a function of the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer associated with H. pylori infections. To estimate PAF of gastric cancer due to H. pylori, the prevalence of H. pylori infections was extrapolated for the year of 1990 and a pooled RR was obtained by conducting a meta-analysis of studies recently published in Korea. @*Results@#The estimated prevalence of H. pylori was 76.4% in men and 71.9% in women. The RRs (95% confidence interval) pooled from case-control studies using a random effects model was 1.69 (1.29-2.22) for overall gastric cancer and 2.17 (1.04-4.55) for non-cardia gastric cancer. Using the RR for overall gastric cancer, the estimated PAFs due to H. pylori were 34.5% in men and 33.2% in women. @*Conclusion@#The occurrence of gastric cancer in Koreans may be affected by other risk factors in addition to H. pylori infection, which may contribute to increasing baseline risk for gastric cancer.

6.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021019-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 and is potentially preventable through vaccination. This study estimated the incidence of juvenile-onset RRP before the implementation of the national HPV vaccination program in Korea. @*METHODS@#We conducted a cohort study using claims data provided by a mandatory insurance program to estimate the incidence of RRP and associated healthcare use. Patients with juvenile RRP were defined as those aged ≤12 years with ≥2 admissions or ≥2 outpatient visits during which they received the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code for benign neoplasms of the larynx (D14.1). @*RESULTS@#During 2002-2014, 123 children (74 boys and 49 girls) were diagnosed with RRP. The patients had a mean of 6.5 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was estimated at 0.30/100,000 person-years. The median age at diagnosis was 4.0 years (mean, 4.3). Thirty-six (29.3%) patients underwent surgery, including 23 patients (18.7%) who underwent 2 or more surgical procedures. Severe disease, measured by more frequent surgical procedures and shorter time intervals between consecutive operations, was associated with a younger age at diagnosis. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The estimated incidence of juvenile-onset RRP in Korea was similar to that reported in other countries. The RRP burden should continue to be monitored using National Health Insurance Service claims data.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 295-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874590

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Extrahepatic comorbidities and comedication are important to consider in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) due to the risk of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and the effect of comorbidities on clinical outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the detailed profiles of comorbidities and comedication among Korean CHC patients. @*Methods@#All adult patients (≥18 years old) with a primary diagnostic code of CHC in 2013 were selected from the National Health Insurance claims database. For each patient, all ICD-10 codes listed as primary or secondary diagnoses and all prescribed medications were collected. @*Results@#Among 47,104 CHC patients (median age, 57 years; male, 49.3%), 84.8% had at least one comorbidity for a mean number of 2.4, which increased with age. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension, esophagitis, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer. Overall, 96.8% of the patients took at least one prescribed medication, with a mean of 8.1 medications/ year, and the three most common drug types were analgesics, gastrointestinal agents, and antibacterials. Use of at least one drug with a DDI risk category of “contraindicated medication” or “required dose- reduction/additional monitoring” was observed in 97% of the overall patients. The proportion of prescribed medications that were contraindicated with DAAs varied from 2.0% to 38.9% depending on the hepatitis C virus regimen. @*Conclusions@#The majority of CHC patients had comorbidities; almost all patients took multiple prescribed medications, the number of which increased with age, and significant DDI risk was present in 97% of this Korean patient cohort. Comorbidities and comedication profiles should be considered during DAA therapy.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 744-753, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897464

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the proportion of gastric cancer attributable to Helicobactor pylori in the Korean population. Infection with H. pylori has been recognized as the most significant risk factor for gastric cancer. In Korea, gastric cancer is the most common cancer that accounted for 13.3% of all cancers in 2016. In particular, men are most commonly diagnosed with gastric cancer; the age-standardized incidence rate in men is 49.6 per 100,000, which is more than twice the incidence in women. @*Materials and Methods@#The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated as a function of the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer associated with H. pylori infections. To estimate PAF of gastric cancer due to H. pylori, the prevalence of H. pylori infections was extrapolated for the year of 1990 and a pooled RR was obtained by conducting a meta-analysis of studies recently published in Korea. @*Results@#The estimated prevalence of H. pylori was 76.4% in men and 71.9% in women. The RRs (95% confidence interval) pooled from case-control studies using a random effects model was 1.69 (1.29-2.22) for overall gastric cancer and 2.17 (1.04-4.55) for non-cardia gastric cancer. Using the RR for overall gastric cancer, the estimated PAFs due to H. pylori were 34.5% in men and 33.2% in women. @*Conclusion@#The occurrence of gastric cancer in Koreans may be affected by other risk factors in addition to H. pylori infection, which may contribute to increasing baseline risk for gastric cancer.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020007-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890592

ABSTRACT

In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease.

10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020011-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Since the first novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient in Korea was diagnosed on January 20, 2020, 30 patients were diagnosed until February 17, 2020. However, 5,298 additional patients were confirmed until March 4, 2020. Therefore, our objective was to estimate the reproduction number (R) and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive measures. @*METHODS@#A COVID-19 transmission model (SEIHR) was established to suit the Korean outbreak. The number of daily confirmed cases in Daegu and North Gyeongsang Province (NGP), the main area of outbreak, was used. The first patient’ symptom onset date in the Daegu/NGP outbreak was assumed as January 22, 2020. The R according to the start date of the effect of preventive measures was estimated. @*RESULTS@#The estimated R in Hubei Province, China, was 4.0281, whereas the estimated initial R in Korea was 0.555, but later in Daegu/NGP, the value was between 3.472 and 3.543. When the transmission period decreases from 4-day to 2-day, the outbreak ends early, but the peak of the epidemic increases, and the total number of patients does not change greatly. It was found that, if transmission rate decreases, the outbreak ends early, and the size of the peak and the total number of patients also decreases. @*CONCLUSIONS@#To end the COVID-19 epidemic, efforts to reduce the spread of the virus, such as social distancing and wearing masks, are absolutely crucial with the participation of the public, along with the policy of reducing the transmission period by finding and isolating patients as quickly as possible through the efforts of the quarantine authorities.

11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020064-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#During the 6 months since the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient was diagnosed in Korea on January 20, 2020, various prevention and control measures have been implemented according to the COVID-19 epidemic pattern. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the reproductive numbers (R) for each epidemic stage to analyze the effects of the preventive measures and to predict the COVID-19 transmission trends. @*METHODS@#We estimated the transmission rates for each epidemic stage by fitting a COVID-19 transmission model, based on a deterministic mathematical model, to the data on confirmed cases. The effects of preventive measures such as social distancing by time period were analyzed, and the size and trends of future COVID-19 outbreaks were estimated. @*RESULTS@#The value of R was 3.53 from February18, 2020 to February 28, 2020, and the mean R reduced to 0.45 from March 14, 2020 to April 29, 2020, but it significantly increased to 2.69 from April 30, 2020 to May13, 2020 and it was maintained at 1.03 from May 14, 2020 to July 23, 2020. @*CONCLUSIONS@#According to the estimated R, it had fallen to below 1 and was maintained at that level owing to the isolation of infected persons by the public health authorities and social distancing measures followed by the general public. Then, the estimated R increased rapidly as the contact among individuals increased during the long holiday period from April 30, 2020 to May 5, 2020. Thereafter, the value of R dropped, with the continued use of preventive measures but remained higher than 1.00, indicating that the COVID-19 outbreak can be prolonged and develop into a severe outbreak at any time.

12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020075-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Cervical cancer is a major disease burden in Vietnam. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Vietnam (1999-2017) in comparison to those in Korea, where a population-based cancer registry and national cervical cancer screening program have been implemented. @*METHODS@#The estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Vietnam and Korea (1999-2017) were collected from Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. Estimated age-standardized rates (ASRs) in both countries were calculated utilizing the 1999-2017 population of each country and the World Health Organization standard population. The reported ASRs in Korea were also computed using data on incidence and mortality (1999-2017) and the Korean population from the Korea Statistical Information Service. @*RESULTS@#In Vietnam, the estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer decreased annually by 0.84% and 1.01%. In Korea, the trend of reported incidence showed a dramatic drop (1999-2007 annual percent change [APC], -4.53%) before stably declining (2007-2017 APC, -2.71%). Reported mortality also significantly decreased (2003-2008 APC, -6.63%), and then maintained a stable decline (2008-2017 APC, -3.78%). The incidence and mortality rates were higher in Vietnam than in Korea. The declining trend of incidence and mortality in Vietnam was slower than the corresponding trends in Korea. @*CONCLUSIONS@#A national screening program should be implemented for Vietnamese women aged over 30 to maintain, or even hasten, the decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. A population-based cancer registry may help monitor the effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program.

13.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020007-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898296

ABSTRACT

In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease.

14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020011-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Since the first novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient in Korea was diagnosed on January 20, 2020, 30 patients were diagnosed until February 17, 2020. However, 5,298 additional patients were confirmed until March 4, 2020. Therefore, our objective was to estimate the reproduction number (R) and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive measures. @*METHODS@#A COVID-19 transmission model (SEIHR) was established to suit the Korean outbreak. The number of daily confirmed cases in Daegu and North Gyeongsang Province (NGP), the main area of outbreak, was used. The first patient’ symptom onset date in the Daegu/NGP outbreak was assumed as January 22, 2020. The R according to the start date of the effect of preventive measures was estimated. @*RESULTS@#The estimated R in Hubei Province, China, was 4.0281, whereas the estimated initial R in Korea was 0.555, but later in Daegu/NGP, the value was between 3.472 and 3.543. When the transmission period decreases from 4-day to 2-day, the outbreak ends early, but the peak of the epidemic increases, and the total number of patients does not change greatly. It was found that, if transmission rate decreases, the outbreak ends early, and the size of the peak and the total number of patients also decreases. @*CONCLUSIONS@#To end the COVID-19 epidemic, efforts to reduce the spread of the virus, such as social distancing and wearing masks, are absolutely crucial with the participation of the public, along with the policy of reducing the transmission period by finding and isolating patients as quickly as possible through the efforts of the quarantine authorities.

15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 194-203, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834250

ABSTRACT

Background@#Escherichia coli is the predominant causative pathogen for community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli is of great concern in Korea. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genotypic characteristics and molecular epidemiology of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-R) E. coli isolated from community-acquired UTIs in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#E. coli samples isolated from the blood or urine were collected from patients with community-acquired acute pyelonephritis aged 15 years and more who were admitted to 12 Korean hospitals from 1st April 2010 to 29th February 2012. Phylogenetic typing, multilocus sequence typing, and molecular characterization of β-lactamase and plasmidmediated quinolone resistance determinants were performed for CIP-R E. coli isolates. @*Results@#A total of 569 E. coli isolates were collected, and 122 (21.4%) isolates were CIP-R isolates. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST131 (28.7%, 35/122), followed by ST393 (14.7%, 18/122), ST1193 (13.1%, 16/122), ST38 (9.0%, 11/122), and ST405 (8.2%, 10/122). The antimicrobial resistance rates of ST131 to cefepime (22.9%, 8/35), ST38 to gentamicin (100%, 11/11), and ST405 to cefotaxime (66.7%, 6/9) were significantly higher than the resistance rates of all other STs combined. Notably, 40% (4/10) of ST405 clones produced extendedspectrum β-lactamases and were co-resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. aac(6′)-1b-cr (20%, 7/35) and CTX-M-14 (40%, 4/10) were more frequently observed in ST131 and ST405 compared with other clones, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Among the CIP-R uropathogenic E. coli isolates in this study, ST131, ST38, and ST405 were specifically associated with antimicrobial resistance.

16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020064-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898245

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#During the 6 months since the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient was diagnosed in Korea on January 20, 2020, various prevention and control measures have been implemented according to the COVID-19 epidemic pattern. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the reproductive numbers (R) for each epidemic stage to analyze the effects of the preventive measures and to predict the COVID-19 transmission trends. @*METHODS@#We estimated the transmission rates for each epidemic stage by fitting a COVID-19 transmission model, based on a deterministic mathematical model, to the data on confirmed cases. The effects of preventive measures such as social distancing by time period were analyzed, and the size and trends of future COVID-19 outbreaks were estimated. @*RESULTS@#The value of R was 3.53 from February18, 2020 to February 28, 2020, and the mean R reduced to 0.45 from March 14, 2020 to April 29, 2020, but it significantly increased to 2.69 from April 30, 2020 to May13, 2020 and it was maintained at 1.03 from May 14, 2020 to July 23, 2020. @*CONCLUSIONS@#According to the estimated R, it had fallen to below 1 and was maintained at that level owing to the isolation of infected persons by the public health authorities and social distancing measures followed by the general public. Then, the estimated R increased rapidly as the contact among individuals increased during the long holiday period from April 30, 2020 to May 5, 2020. Thereafter, the value of R dropped, with the continued use of preventive measures but remained higher than 1.00, indicating that the COVID-19 outbreak can be prolonged and develop into a severe outbreak at any time.

17.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020075-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Cervical cancer is a major disease burden in Vietnam. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Vietnam (1999-2017) in comparison to those in Korea, where a population-based cancer registry and national cervical cancer screening program have been implemented. @*METHODS@#The estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Vietnam and Korea (1999-2017) were collected from Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. Estimated age-standardized rates (ASRs) in both countries were calculated utilizing the 1999-2017 population of each country and the World Health Organization standard population. The reported ASRs in Korea were also computed using data on incidence and mortality (1999-2017) and the Korean population from the Korea Statistical Information Service. @*RESULTS@#In Vietnam, the estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer decreased annually by 0.84% and 1.01%. In Korea, the trend of reported incidence showed a dramatic drop (1999-2007 annual percent change [APC], -4.53%) before stably declining (2007-2017 APC, -2.71%). Reported mortality also significantly decreased (2003-2008 APC, -6.63%), and then maintained a stable decline (2008-2017 APC, -3.78%). The incidence and mortality rates were higher in Vietnam than in Korea. The declining trend of incidence and mortality in Vietnam was slower than the corresponding trends in Korea. @*CONCLUSIONS@#A national screening program should be implemented for Vietnamese women aged over 30 to maintain, or even hasten, the decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. A population-based cancer registry may help monitor the effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program.

18.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 14-20, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915823

ABSTRACT

One of the primary goals of epidemiology is to quantify various aspects of a population’s health, illness, and death status and the determinants (or risk factors) thereof by calculating health indicators that measure the magnitudes of various conditions. There has been some confusion regarding health indicators, with discrepancies in usage among organizations such as the World Health Organization the, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC of other countries, and the usage of the relevant terminology may vary across papers. Therefore, in this review, we would like to propose appropriate terminological definitions for health indicators based on the most commonly used meanings and/or the terms used by official agencies, in order to bring clarity to this area of confusion. We have used appropriate examples to make each health indicator easy for the reader to understand. We have included practical exercises for some health indicators to help readers understand the underlying concepts.

19.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019038-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937511

ABSTRACT

The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009–2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35–44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25–34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.

20.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019048-2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#According to the World Health Organization, there have been frequent reports of Ebola virus disease (EVD) since the 2014 EVD pandemic in West Africa. We aim to estimate the outbreak scale when an EVD infected person arrives in Korea. @*METHODS@#Western Africa EVD epidemic mathematical model SEIJR or SEIJQR was modified to create a Korean EVD outbreak model. The expected number of EVD patients and outbreak duration were calculated by stochastic simulation under the scenarios of Best case, Diagnosis delay, and Case missing. @*RESULTS@#The 2,000 trials of stochastic simulation for each scenario demonstrated the following results: The possible median number of patients is 2 and the estimated maximum number is 11 when the government intervention is proceeded immediately right after the first EVD case is confirmed. With a 6-day delay in diagnosis of the first case, the median number of patients becomes 7, and the maximum, 20. If the first case is missed and the government intervention is not activated until 2 cases of secondary infection occur, the median number of patients is estimated at 15, and the maximum, at 35. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Timely and rigorous diagnosis is important to reduce the spreading scale of infection when a new communicable disease is inflowed into Korea. Moreover, it is imperative to strengthen the local surveillance system and diagnostic protocols to avoid missing cases of secondary infection.

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