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Ciênc. rural ; 46(12): 2182-2188, Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-797921


ABSTRACT: Often fractures of long bones in horses are comminuted and form bone gaps, which represent a major challenge for the fixation of these fractures by loss of contact between the fragments. Bone grafts help in treating this kind of fracture and synthetic materials have been gaining ground because of the limitations of autologous and heterologous grafts. In this study were performed compressive non destructive test in 10 bones with complete cross-bone gap in mid-diaphyseal of the third metacarpal bone of horses. Using a mechanism of "crossing" the 10 bones were used in the three groups (control, castor oil poliuretane and chitosan) according to the filling material. After the test with maximum load of 1000N bone had a gap filled by another material and the test was repeated. Deformations caused on the whole bone, plate and bone tissue near and distant of gap were evaluated, using strain gauges adhered to the surface at these locations. There was a reduction in bone deformation from 14% (control) to 3,5% and 4,8% by filling the gap with Chitosan and castor oil respectively, and a reduction of strain on the plate of 96% and 85% by filling gap with chitosan and castor respectively. An increase in intensity and direction of deformations occurred in bone near to gap after its filling; however, there was no difference in bone deformations occurring far the gap.

RESUMO: Frequentemente, as fraturas de ossos longos nos equinos são cominutivas, formando falhas ósseas, que representam um grande desafio no momento de sua fixação, devido à perda de contato entre os fragmentos. Os substitutos ósseos sintéticos auxiliam no tratamento desse tipo de fratura. Neste estudo, foram realizados ensaios compressivos não destrutivos em 10 ossos com falha óssea transversal completa em diáfise do terceiro metacarpiano de equinos. Utilizando um mecanismo de "crossing", os 10 ossos foram utilizados nos três grupos (controle, mamona e quitosana) de acordo com o material de preenchimento da falha. Para cada peça, realizaram-se ensaios referentes aos três grupos, com carga máxima de 1000N, por não se tratarem de ensaios destrutivos. Foram avaliadas as deformações causadas no osso, na placa e no tecido ósseo próximo e distante da falha, por meio de extensômetros. Observou-se que houve redução da deformação do osso de 14% (controle) para 3,5% e 4,8%, com o preenchimento da falha com quitosana e mamona, respectivamente. Houve redução da deformação na placa de 96% e 85% com o preenchimento da falha com quitosana e mamona, respectivamente. Houve aumento em intensidade e direção das deformações ocorridas no osso próximas à falha após seu preenchimento, contudo não se observaram diferenças nas deformações ocorridas no osso distantes a falha. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o preenchimento das falhas com quitosana e poliuretana de mamona trouxe benefícios quanto à redução das deformações no foco da fratura, alívio das cargas na placa, contudo elevou as cargas no tecido ósseo próximo à falha.

Res. Biomed. Eng. (Online) ; 31(4): 334-342, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-829448


Introduction: Bone diseases, aging and traumas can cause bone loss and lead to bone defects. Treatment of bone defects is challenging, requiring chirurgical procedures. Bone grafts are widely used for bone replacement, but they are limited and expensive. Due to bone graft limitations, natural, semi-synthetic, synthetic and composite materials have been studied as potential bone-graft substitutes. Desirable characteristics of bone-graft substitutes are high osteoinductive and angiogenic potentials, biological safety, biodegradability, bone-like mechanical properties, and reasonable cost. Herein, we prepared and characterized potential bone-graft substitutes composed of calcium phosphate (CP) - a component of natural bone, and chitosan (CS) - a biocompatible biopolymer. Methods CP-CS composites were synthetized, molded, dried and characterized. The effect of drying temperatures (38 and 60 °C) on the morphology, porosity and chemical composition of the composites was evaluated. As well, the effects of drying temperature and period of drying (3, 24, 48 and 72 hours) on the mechanical properties - compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and relative deformation-of the demolded samples were investigated. Results Scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption-desorption analyses of the CS-CP composites showed interconnected pores, indicating that the drying temperature played an important role on pores size and distribution. In addition, drying temperature have altered the color (brownish at 60 °C due to Maillard reaction) and the chemical composition of the samples, confirmed by FTIR. Conclusion Particularly, prolonged period of drying have improved mechanical properties of the CS-CP composites dried at 38 °C, which can be designed according to the mechanical needs of the replaceable bone.