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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e018521, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1357152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ectoparasites of 18 free-living Cuban Ground Doves, Columbina passerina insularis (Columbiformes: Columbidae), captured in the National Zoological Park, Havana, Cuba, were identified. The collected ectoparasites included two species of lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera): Columbicola passerinae (77.1%), and Physconelloides eurysema (50%), as well as four species of feather mites (Astigmata: Falculiferidae): Pterophagus lomatus (83.3%), Byersalges talpacoti (50%), Byersalges phyllophorus (72.2%), and Hyperaspidacarus tridentatus (27.7%). Pterophagus lomatus, B. phyllophorus, and H. tridentatus represent new records for Cuba.


Resumo Foram identificados os ectoparasitas de 18 rolinhas-cinzentas de vida livre, Columbina passerina insularis (Columbiformes: Columbidae), capturadas no Parque Zoológico Nacional de Havana, Cuba. Os ectoparasitas coletados pertencem à duas espécies de piolhos (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera): Columbicola passerinae (77,1%) e Physconelloides eurysema (50%), bem como à quatro espé cies de ácaros de pena (Astigmata: Falculiferidae): Pterophagus lomatus (83,3%), Byersalges talpacoti (50%), Byersalges phyllophorus (72,2%) e Hyperaspidacarus tridentatus (27,7%). Pterophagus lomatus, B. phyllophorus e H. tridentatus representam novos registros para Cuba.

2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e007522, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Birds of prey harbor a wide spectrum of various parasites, mostly with a heteroxenous life cycle. However, most reports on their parasites come from Europe. Although the Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) is a widespread species in America, parasitological surveys on this hawk are mostly focused on coprological findings and ectoparasites, with poor attention paid to helminths. The aim of this study was to gather new and additional data on host-parasite associations for the Harris's hawk. Twenty-nine birds from central and southern Chile were necropsied. Further, nine birds from a rehabilitation center and 22 museum specimens were inspected for ectoparasites. Sixty-eight percent of birds hosted at least one parasite species. Four lice species, one mite species and eight helminth species (five nematodes, two platyhelminthes and one acanthocephalan) were recorded. Parasitic lice Colpocephalum nanum and Nosopon chanabense, and a nematode Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana were recorded for the first time in raptors from the Neotropics. A feather mite, Pseudalloptinus sp., nematodes, Physaloptera alata and Microtetrameres sp., and a trematode Neodiplostomim travassosi, were recorded for the first time in Chile. The presence of diverse heteroxenous helminths reported here in the Harris's hawk could be explained by the generalist diet of this raptor.


Resumo As aves de rapina representam uma fonte importante de parasitas heteroxenos. Porém, a maioria dos relatos são da Europa. O gavião-asa-de-telha (Parabuteo unicinctus) é uma espécie amplamente distribuída no continente Americano, porém estudos parasitológicos nessas aves têm documentado achados coprológicos e ectoparasitas, com poucos relatos sobre endoparasitas como helmintos. Por essa razão, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever novas associações parasita-hospedeiro para o gavião-asa-de-telha e rapinantes neotropicais. Vinte nove aves provenientes do centro e sul do Chile foram submetidas à necropsia. Por outro lado, nove aves de um centro de reabilitação e 22 espécimes de museu foram inspecionados em busca de ectoparasitas. Do total de aves, 68,3% foram identificadas como portadoras de pelo menos uma espécie de parasita. Quatro espécies de piolhos, um ácaro e oito helmintos (cinco nematoides, dois platelmintos e um acantocéfalo) foram registrados. Os piolhos Colpocephalum nanum, Nosopon chanabense e o nematóide Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana são reportados pela primeira vez em rapinantes neotropicais. Colpocephalum nanum, N. chanabense, Pseudalloptinus sp., Physaloptera alata, Microtetrameres sp., C. (H.) americana e Neodiplostomim travassosi, são reportados pela primeira vez no Chile. A diversidade de helmintos heteróxenos, identificados neste trabalho, poderia ser explicada devido à dieta geralista do gavião-asa-de-telha.

4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e004221, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288707

ABSTRACT

Abstract Invasive species impact native wildlife in several ways, as they compete for resources and may transmit their specific pathogens. However, the potential consequences of co-introduced parasites are not fully understood. While the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) was introduced in Chile about a century ago, no data are available regarding its parasites. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the parasitic fauna of this avian invader and to determine whether there are co-introduced/co-invasive parasites shared with native birds. One hundred and eight birds were collected from three different localities in the Ñuble region of Chile, and a complete parasitic necropsy was performed in the laboratory. Twenty-three (21.3%) were parasitized by six arthropod species and four (3.7%) were parasitized by two helminth species. Four out of eight taxa are reported for the first time in Chile; among them, three arthropod parasites and the tapeworm, Anonchotaenia globate, are considered as co-introduced parasites. Only A. globata is a potential co-invasive parasite given its low degree specificity in terms of its definitive hosts. Future research should examine whether additional co-introduced/co-invasive parasites have been brought by the house sparrow, and what their potential consequences might be on the health of native birds in Chile.


Resumo As espécies invasoras de vertebrados competem com espécies nativas no uso de recursos e transmitem patógenos. Contudo as consequências da co-introdução de parasitos permanecem pouco estudadas. O pardal (Passer domesticus) foi introduzido há um século no Chile, porém não existem dados sobre seus parasitos. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a fauna parasitária e avaliar se existem espécies co-introduzidas/co-invasivas compartilhadas com as espécies de aves nativas do Chile. Um total de 108 aves foram coletadas em diferentes localidades da região de Ñuble. Seis espécies de artrópodes parasitos foram coletadas de 23 (21,3%) aves. Quatro aves (3,7%) estavam parasitadas por duas espécies de helmintos. Quatro de um total de oito espécies de parasitos correspondem aos primeiros relatos para o Chile. Três artrópodes parasitos e o helminto Anonchotaenia globata são considerados parasitos co-introduzidos no país. Apenas A. globata possui potencial para ser considerada uma espécie co-invasiva, pois pode parasitar Passeriformes em geral. Pesquisas futuras devem investigar se os demais parasitos identificados neste estudo correspondem a espécies co-introduzidas ou co-invasoras e avaliar as possíveis consequências na saúde das aves nativas do país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Sparrows , Chile , Introduced Species , Animals, Wild
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e016420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144225

ABSTRACT

Abstract Parasitological studies of the Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan, are scarce, and knowledge about its endoparasites is quite limited. In order to describe its parasitic community, a total of 60 Franklin's gulls were captured in the coastal area in central Chile, using modified Bal-chatri traps. Ectoparasites were collected from all 60 live individuals through inspection of their plumage, while 30 were examined for endoparasites by standard parasitological necropsy. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 78.3%, including the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica (43.3%) and four species of lice: Actornithophilus piceus lari (15.0%), Austromenopon transversum (6.7%), Quadraceps punctatus (10.0%) and Saemundssonia lari (46.7%). Some 25 of 30 (83.3%) of birds necropsied were parasitized with the following helminths: Aporchis sp. (6.7%), Tetrabothrius cylindraceus (56.7%), Cyclophyllidea gen. sp. (3.3%), Profilicollis altmani (56.7%), Eucoleus contortus (10.0%), Cosmocephalus obvelatus (13.3%), Paracuaria adunca (10.0%), Stegophorus sp. (3.3%) and Tetrameres skrjabini (3.3%). To our knowledge, with the exception of P. altmani, these helminths are reported for first time in the Franklin's gull.


Resumo Existem escassos estudos de parasitismo em gaivota-de-Franklin Leucophaeus pipixcan, e o conhecimento sobre seus endoparasitas é ainda mais limitado. Com o objetivo de descrever sua comunidade parasitaria, um total de 60 gaivotas-de-Franklin foram capturadas usando-se armadilhas Bal-chatri numa zona costeira do centro do Chile. A pesquisa de ectoparasitas foi realizada em todos os indivíduos capturados e, para os endoparasitas, foram examinados 30 deles por necropsias. A prevalência de ectoparasitas foi de 78,3%, incluíndo o ácaro de pena Zachvatkinia larica (43,3%) e outras quatro espécies de piolhos, Actornithophilus piceus lari (15,0%), Austromenopon transversum (6,7%), Quadraceps punctatus (10,0%) e Saemundssonia lari (46,7%). Das aves necropsiadas, 83,3% estavam parasitadas por helmintos, sendo registrados Aporchis sp. (6,7%), Tetrabothrius cylindraceus (56,7%), Cyclophyllidea gen. sp. (3,3%), Profilicollis altmani (56,7%), Eucoleus contortus (10,0%), Cosmocephalus obvelatus (13,3%), Paracuaria adunca (10,0%), Stegophorus sp. (3,3%) e Tetrameres skrjabini (3,3%). Com exceção de P. altmani, este é o primeiro relato desses helmintos parasitando gaivotas-de-Franklin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Charadriiformes/parasitology , Chile/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e021819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Comparative studies of parasites in sympatric bird species have been generally scarce. Parasitic infection/transmission can be spread in a number of ways that suggests possible direct and indirect, horizontal transmission between avian hosts. In order to determine whether two sympatric icterids from Central and Southern Chile share their parasite fauna (ecto- and endoparasites), we examined parasites of 27 Shiny Cowbirds, Molothrus bonariensis, and 28 Austral Blackbirds, Curaeus curaeus, including individuals captured in the wild and carcasses. We found that Shiny Cowbirds were infected with the chewing lice Brueelia bonariensis, Philopterus sp. 1, the feather mites Amerodectes molothrus, Proctophyllodes spp. (species 1 and 2), and the helminths Mediorhynchus papillosus, Plagiorhynchus sp., Dispharynx nasuta and Tetrameres paucispina, while Austral Blackbirds had the chewing lice Myrsidea sp., Philopterus sp. 2, the feather mites Proctophyllodes sp. 3, Amerodectes sp., and three helminths: Anonchotaenia sp., Capillaria sp. and M. papillosus. The flea Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) cteniopus was found only on the Austral Blackbird. The only parasite species shared by both icterids was the acanthocephalan M. papillosus, possibly due to their feeding on the same intermediate insect hosts. With the exception of B. bonariensis and Philopterus sp. 1 found on the Shiny Cowbird, all species reported in this study represent new parasite-host associations and new records of parasite diversity in Chile.


Resumo Estudos comparativos de parasitas em espécies de aves simpátricas são escassos. A infecção/transmissão de parasitas pode acontecer de diversas maneiras, incluindo possível transmissão direta, indireta ou horizontal entre as aves hospedeiras. Com o objetivo de determinar se dois icterídeos simpátricos do centro e sul do Chile compartilham a sua fauna parasitária (ecto- e endoparasitas), foram examinados os parasitas de 27 chupins Molothrus bonariensis e 28 pássaros-pretos-austral Curaeus curaeus, incluindo indivíduos capturados com rede de neblina e em carcaças. Nos chupins analisados, foram encontrados os piolhos de penas Brueelia bonariensis, Philopterus sp. 1, os ácaros Amerodectes molothrus, Proctophyllodes spp. (espécie 1 e 2), e os helmintos Mediorhynchus papillosus, Plagiorhynchus sp., Dispharynx nasuta e Tetrameres paucispina. Em contraste, os pássaros-pretos-austral estavam infectados com os piolhos Myrsidea sp., Philopterus sp. 2, os ácaros Proctophyllodes sp. 3, Amerodectes sp., e os helmintos Anonchotaenia sp., Capillaria sp. e M. papillosus. Adicionalmente, um espécime de pássaro-preto-austral estava parasitado pela pulga Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) cteniopus. A única espécie de parasita que foi encontrada nas duas espécies de aves foi o acantocéfalo M. papillosus, possivelmente devido ao fato de que ambas as aves se alimentam dos insetos que são os hospedeiros intermediários deste parasita. Exceto os registros de B. bonariensis e Philopterus sp. 1 encontrados no chupim, todas as espécies reportadas neste estudo correspondem à novas associações de parasita/hospedeiro e novos registros para a diversidade parasitológica do Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Parasites/physiology , Passeriformes/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Chile , Host Specificity , Helminths/physiology , Mites/physiology
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e003920, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138118

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Neotropic cormorant Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Chile, information about parasites for this species is limited to helminths and nematodes, and little is known about other parasite groups. This study documents the parasitic fauna present in 80 Neotropic cormorants' carcasses collected from 2001 to 2008 in Antofagasta, Biobío, and Ñuble regions. Birds were externally inspected for ectoparasites and necropsies were performed to examine digestive and respiratory organs in search of endoparasites. Ectoparasites collected were cleared and mounted for identification under a microscope. Fecal samples were also evaluated to determine the presence of protozoan parasites employing a flotation technique. A total of 44 (42.5%) of birds were infested with at least one ectoparasite species, while 77 (96.25%) were carrying endoparasites. No protozoan forms were found after examination. Most prevalent endoparasite species found were Contracaecum rudolphii s. l. (72/80, 90%), followed by Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%), and Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). This is the first report of P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci, and Eidmaniella pelucida in the Neotropic cormorant. These findings also expand the distributional range of Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Hysteromorpha triloba, and P. gyroceras to Chile.


Resumo O Biguá Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) é amplamente distribuído na América Central e na do Sul. No Chile, as informações sobre parasitos para essa espécie são limitadas a helmintos e nematoides, e pouco se sabe sobre outros grupos de parasitos. Este estudo documenta a fauna parasitária presente em 80 biguás coletados de 2001 a 2008, nas regiões de Antofagasta, Biobío e Ñuble. As aves foram inspecionadas externamente em busca de ectoparasitas; adicionalmente, foram realizadas necropsias para examinar os órgãos digestivos e respiratórios em busca de endoparasitos. Os ectoparasitos coletados foram limpos e montados para identificação ao microscópio. As amostras de fezes também foram avaliadas para determinar a presença de parasitos protozoários, empregando-se uma técnica de flutuação. Um total de 44 (42,5%) aves estavam infectadas com pelo menos um ectoparasito, enquanto 77 (96,25%) estavam portando endoparasito. Nenhuma forma de protozoário foi encontrada após o exame. As espécies de endoparasitos mais prevalentes encontradas foram Contracaecum rudolphii (72/80, 90%), Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%) e Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). Este é o primeiro registro de P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci e Eidmaniella pelucida no biguá. Esses resultados também expandem a distribuição de Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Ascocotyle felippei, Hysteromorpha triloba e P. gyroceras no Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Parasites/physiology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Chile , Helminths
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 432-442, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042531

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of thirty Austral thrushes Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Turdidae) carcasses were brought to the Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, to be examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Ectoparasites were found on 20% (6/30) of the thrushes and belonged to species Brueelia magellanica Cichino, 1986 (Phthiraptera), Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 (Phthiraptera) and Tyrannidectes falcklandicus Mironov & González-Acuña, 2011 (Acari). Endoparasites were isolated from 26.6% (8/30) of the birds and identified as Lueheia inscripta Westrumb, 1821 (Acanthocephala), Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus Goeze, 1782 (Acanthocephala), Wardium sp. sensu Mayhew, 1925 (Cestoda), Dilepis undula (Cestoda) Schrank, 1788, and Zonorchis sp. (sensu Travassos, 1944) (Trematoda). To our knowledge, all endoparasites collected in this study are new records in T. falcklandii and expand their distributional range to Chile.


Resumo Um total de trinta carcaças do tordo-austral Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Turdidae) foi encaminhado ao Departamento de Ciência Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, para ser examinado quanto a presença de parasitas externos e internos. Parasitas externos foram encontrados em 20% (6/30) dos tordos inspecionados e identificados como Brueelia magellanica Cichino, 1986 (Phthiraptera), Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 (Phthiraptera), e Tyrannidectes falcklandicus Mironov & González-Acuña, 2011 (Acari). Parasitas internos foram identificados em 26,6% (8/30) dos espécimes examinados como Lueheia inscripta Westrumb, 1821 (Acanthocephala), Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus Goeze, 1782 (Acanthocephala), Wardium sp. sensu Mayhew, 1925 (Cestoda), Dilepis undula sensu Schrank, 1788 (Cestoda) e Zonorchis sp. (sensu Travassos, 1944) (Trematoda). Tanto quanto é do nosso conhecimento, todos os parasitas internos coletados neste estudo pertencem a novos registros em T. falcklandii e com expansão de sua distribuição para o Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/diagnosis , Songbirds/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Bird Diseases/pathology , Chile , Ectoparasitic Infestations/diagnosis , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 376-382, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042512

ABSTRACT

Abstract Information about parasites associated with diurnal raptors from Chile is scarce. Between 2006 and 2017, a total of 15 specimens of the Variable hawk, Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) were collected, 14 of them from different localities in the Biobío region and one specimen from the Valparaíso region. An external examination of the plumage was made to collect ectoparasites, and necropsies were performed, focusing primarily on the gastrointestinal tract. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) were found on five (33.3%) of the birds corresponding to three species: 97 specimens of Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874), six specimens of Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny, 1842 and nine belonging to an unidentified species of the genus Craspedorrhynchus Kéler, 1938. Endoparasites found in three (20%) of the birds included round worms (Nematoda) of the genus Procyrnea Chabaud, 1958, and spiny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) of the genus Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911. The species Colpocephalum turbinatum and the genera: Craspedorrhynchus sp., Procyrnea sp. and Centrorhynchus sp. are new records for the Variable hawk.


Resumo No Chile, informações sobre parasitas associados a aves de rapina diurnas são escassas. Entre os anos 2006 e 2017, um total de 15 espécimes do Falcão Variável Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) mortos, foram examinados, 14 deles provenientes de diferentes localidades da região do Biobío e um espécime na região de Valparaíso. Um exame externo da plumagem foi feito para coletar os ectoparasitas e necropsias do tracto gastrointestinal para coleta de endoparasitas. Cinco aves (33,3%) foram positivas para três espécies de piolhos (Phthiraptera): 97 espécimes de Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874), seis espécimes de Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny, 1842 e nove espécimes não identificados do gênero Craspedorrhynchus Keler, 1938. Endoparasitas foram encontrados em três aves (20%), incluindo vermes redondos (Nematoda) do gênero Procyrnea Chabaud, 1958, e vermes achatados (Acanthocephala) do gênero Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911. As espécies Colpocephalum turbinatum e os dos gêneros Craspedorrhynchus, Centrorhynchus e Procyrnea corresponderam a novos registros para o Falcão Variável.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Hawks/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Acanthocephala/classification , Phthiraptera/classification , Nematoda/classification , Chile , Acanthocephala/isolation & purification , Nematoda/isolation & purification
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 301-312, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959192

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the aim to identify the parasite fauna of plumbeous rail, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Aves: Rallidae) in Chile, 26 carcasses were parasitologically necropsied. The present study revealed the presence of 14 species of parasites (inverse Simpson index = 4.64; evenness = 0.332), including ectoparasites: feather mites: Analloptes megnini , Grallobia sp., Grallolichus sp., Megniniella sp., and Metanalges sp.; the feather lice Pseudomenopon meinertzhageni, Rallicola andinus, and Fulicoffula sp.; and six species of gastrointestinal helminths: Heterakis psophiae, Porrocaecum ardeae, Tetrameres sp., Capillaria sp., Diorchis sp., and Plagiorhynchus sp. The relatively high parasite richness that was found could be attributed to the highly favorable conditions of wetlands for parasite development. All parasites found, except feather lice, are new records for plumbeous rail. A checklist of parasites for plumbeous rail is presented.


Resumo Com o objetivo de identificar a fauna parasitária do saracura-do-banhado, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Aves: Rallidae) no Chile, 26 carcaças foram necropsiadas. O presente estudo revelou a presença de 14 espécies de parasitos (índice Simpson inverso = 4,64; equitatividade = 0,332), incluindo os ácaros de penas: Analloptes megnini, Grallobia sp., Grallolichus sp., Megniniella sp. e Metanalges sp.; os piolhos de penas Pseudomenopon meinertzhageni, Rallicola andinus e Fulicoffula sp.; e seis espécies de helmintos gastrointestinais: Heterakis psophiae, Porrocaecum ardeae, Tetrameres sp., Capillaria sp., Diorchis sp. e Plagiorhynchus sp. A riqueza parasitária relativa encontrada pode ser devido às condições altamente favoráveis das zonas úmidas para o desenvolvimento do parasita. Todos os parasitos encontrados, com exceção dos piolhos de pena, são novos registros para o saracura-do-banhado. Um checklist dos parasitos do saracura-do-banhado é apresentado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 161-168, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959180

ABSTRACT

Abstract To describe the parasitic community of the Magellanic Horned Owl, Bubo magellanicus (Aves, Strigiformes), 19 carcasses from central Chile were analyzed. Ectoparasites were collected through plumage inspection, while endoparasites were collected through traditional techniques of parasitological necropsy. Sixteen owls were infected with at least one species of ectoparasite (84.21%) or endoparasite (31.58%). Eleven of 19 birds (57.89%) harbored feather mites of the three species Pandalura cirrata (42.11%), Glaucalges attenuatus (47.37%), and Kramerella sp. (10.53%), whereas 16 individuals (84.21%) harbored the chewing louse Strigiphilus chilensis. Only six birds (31.58%) were infected with helminths; the nematodes Capillaria tenuissima (26.32%) and Dispharynx nasuta (5.26%); the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus spinosus (5.26%); and the trematode Neodiplostomum sp. (5.26%). Apart from S . chilensis, all parasites comprised new records for B . magellanicus.


Resumo Para descrever a comunidade parasitária de coruja-orelhuda Bubo magellanicus (Aves, Strigiformes), foram analisados 19 carcaças das aves do centro do Chile. Os ectoparasitos foram coletados inspecionando-se a plumagem e os endoparasitas extraídos por meio de técnicas tradicionais de necropsia parasitaria. Dezesseis corujas estavam infectadas com pelo menos uma espécie de ectoparasito (84,21%) ou endoparasito (31,58%). Onze de 19 aves (57,89%) abrigavam nas penas ácaros de três espécies: Pandalura cirrata (42,11%), Glaucalges attenuatus (47,37%) e Kramerella sp. (10,53%), enquanto que 16 indivíduos (84,21%) estavam parasitados pelo piolho Strigiphilus chilensis . Apenas seis aves (31,58%) estavam infectadas com helmintos; os nematoides Capillaria tenuissima (26,32%) e Dispharynx nasuta (5,26%); o acantocéfalo Centrorhynchus spinosus (5,26%); e o trematódeo Neodiplostomum sp. (5,26%). Excetuando-se S. chilensis , todos os parasitos incluíam novos registros para B. magellanicus .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Strigiformes/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 378-382, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042445

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 97 southern silvery grebes (Podiceps occipitalis), which died as the result of an oil spill on the coast of central Chile, were examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Two lice species including Aquanirmus rollandii (Philopteridae) and Pseudomenopon dolium (Menoponidae) were found from 6.2% (6/97) of birds. In 91.7% (89/97) of cases, grebes were infected with some kind of helminths. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths were detected: Eucoleus contortus (Nematoda), Profilicollis bullocki (Acanthocephala), and Confluaria sp. (Cestoda). In addition, Pelecitus fulicaeatrae (Nematoda) was removed from the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal articulation in 13.4% (13/97) of the specimens examined. To our knowledge, these are the first records of A. rollandii, E. contortus, and Confluaria sp. as parasites of P. occipitalis. In addition, these findings expand the distributional range of A. rollandii, E. contortus, P. fulicaeatrae, and Confluaria sp. to Chile.


Resumo Um total de 97 mergulhões-de-orelha-amarela (Podiceps occipitalis), que morreram devido a um derramamento de óleo na costa do Chile central, foram examinados em busca de parasitos internos e externos. Parasitos externos foram encontrados em 6,2% (6/97) das aves, com a identificação de duas espécies de piolhos: Aquanirmus rollandii (Philopteridae) e Pseudomenopon dolium (Menoponidae). Em 91,7% (89/97) dos casos, os mergulhões apresentaram algum tipo de parasito interno. Foram detectadas três espécies de parasitos gastrointestinais: Eucoleus contortus (Nematoda), Profilicollis bullocki (Acanthocephala) e Confluaria sp. (Cestoda). Além disso, Pelecitus fulicaeatrae (Nematoda) foi isolado das articulação tibiotársica e tarsometatarsal em 13,4% (13/97) das aves examinados. Estes resultados correspondem ao primeiro relato de A. rollandii, E. contortus e Confluaria sp. associados com P. occipitalis, e expandem a distribuição destes parasitos e P. fulicaeatrae para o Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Chile , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 314-322, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899289

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae), were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region) were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277) of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae), Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae), and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae); a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera); and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae). Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae). To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.


Resumo Um total de 277 tico-tico Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae) foram examinados em busca de ectoparasitos. As aves foram capturadas com redes em sete localidades do norte e centro do Chile. Além disso, sete carcaças do centro Chile (Região de Biobío) foram examinadas para avaliar a infecção por endoparasitos. Ectoparasitos foram encontrados em 35,8% (99/277) das aves examinadas com a identificação dos ácaros Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae), Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae) e Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae), piolho Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) e carrapatos Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidea) e Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidea). Duas das sete carcaças examinadas foram infectadas com o Acantocephala Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae). Para o nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo para descrever P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum e M. papillosus em Z. capensis e expande a distribuição de T. capensis ao Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sparrows/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Chile , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Feathers/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestines/parasitology
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 243-247, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042439

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.


Resumo Espécies exóticas podem se introduzir em um novo território com seus parasitas, porém nesses casos, a riqueza parasitária seria menor. Contudo, hospedeiros exóticos e seus parasitas associados podem afetar a fauna nativa. Depois de ser dispensado do uso em laboratórios e solto em ambientes naturais, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 tem se espalhado massivamente no Chile central. O único patógeno descrito para este anuro é o fungo Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999. O presente estudo constitui a primeira pesquisa parasitológica realizada nesta espécie de rã introduzida no Chile. Em 10 localidades do Chile central, foram capturados 179 espécimes de X. laevis que foram examinadas em busca de parasitos dentro tubo digestivo, cavidades corporais, pulmões, fígado e pele. Nove espécimes do gênero Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 foram encontrados em seis espécimes de X. laevis de uma barragem em La Patagua. É provável que a origem destes parasitas sejam espécies de aves nativas. Este é o primeiro relato de Contracaecum sp. em anuros do Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Xenopus laevis/microbiology , Xenopus laevis/parasitology , Ascaridoidea/isolation & purification , Chytridiomycota/isolation & purification , Introduced Species , Ascaridoidea/classification , Chile
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(4): 476-483, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830045

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite being a bird with a broad and extensive distribution in Chile, the black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbatus Molina, 1782 is not well studied in relation to its parasites. This paper aims to describe the ectoparasite fauna of S. barbatus in central and southern Chile. A total of 125 individuals caught with mist nets were examined alive; a total of 22 parasites were found dead and were exposed to parasit autopsy. The extracted parasites were preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Ectoparasites were found in 56 black-chinned siskins (38%); 48 of them (33%) had 870 mites – 680 feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea) were identified as Proctophyllodes spini, 167 as Knemidokoptes jamaicensis, 19 as Strelkoviacarus critesi, and one as Analges passerinus. Moreover, three mites were chiggers belonging to the tribe Schoengastiini (Prostigmata: Trombiculidae). In 21 birds (14%), 54 lice were found, 21 of which were identified as Philopterus roehreri, 18 as Myrsidea serini, and 15 as Ricinus carolynae. Endoparasites were not found in the necropsied individuals. All of the parasites that were found represent new records for Chile, and they also serve as new records of host–parasite associations for S. barbatus.


Resumo Spinus barbatus (Molina, 1782), apesar de ser uma ave de distribuição rica e extensa no Chile, não existem estudos relacionados com os seus parasitas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo classificar taxonomicamente os parasitas de S. barbatus no Chile central e do sul. Para isso, foram analisados 125 indivíduos capturados com redes de neblina e 22 que foram submetidos a autópsia parasitária. Os parasitas extraídos foram conservados em álcool 70% para um posterior montagem e identificação. Em 56 indivíduos de S. barbatus (38%) foram encontrados ectoparasitas, 48 deles (33%) tinham 870 ácaros, 680 identificados como Proctophyllodes spini, 167 como Knemidokoptes jamaicensis, 19 como Strelkoviacarus critesi, três ácaros pertencentes à tribo Schoengastiini e um Analges passerinus. Em 21 aves (14%) 54 piolhos foram encontrados, 21 dos quais foram identificados como Philopterus roehreri; 18 como Myrsidea serini e 15 como Ricinus carolynae. Não foram encontradas endoparasitas em indivíduos necropsiados. Todos os parasitas encontrados são novos registros para o Chile e, por sua vez novos recordes parasitológicos para a espécie S. barbatus, por isso são novas associações hospedeiro-parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Passeriformes/parasitology , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Chile , Mite Infestations/parasitology , Mites
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(4): 422-431, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770316

ABSTRACT

Abstract Parasite species are important components of biodiversity, as they provide valuable information about host health, evolutionary relationships, population structures, trophic interactions, the existence of environmental stresses, and climatic conditions. With the aim of describing the parasites associated with parrots of the genus Enicognathus Gray 1840 from central Chile, thirteen austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, and five slender-billed parakeets, E. leptorhynchus, were examined between September 2007 and March 2014. The prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was 88.9% and 22.2%, respectively. On eleven of the E. ferrugineus (84.6%) analyzed, and on all of the E. leptorhynchus analyzed (100%), five feather mite species (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp.) were collected. On ten E. ferrugineus (76.9%) and two E. leptorhynchus (40%), the chewing lice Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, and Paragoniocotes enicognathidis were collected. The nematode Capillaria plagiaticia was collected from three E. ferrugineus (23.1%), and the nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita was found in one E. leptorhynchus (20%). The presence of C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. from the two Enicognathus spp. are new records for Chile and represent new parasite-host associations.


Resumo Os parasitas são componentes importantes da biodiversidade, uma vez que fornecem informação valiosa sobre a saúde do hospedeiro, relações evolutivas, estruturas populacionais, interações tróficas, a existência de pressões ambientais e das condições climáticas. Com o objetivo de descrever parasitas associada com papagaios do gênero Enicognathus (Gray 1840) no Chile central, foram examinados entre setembro de 2007 e março de 2014 treze periquitos austrais Enicognathus ferrugineus e cinco periquitos de bico fino E. leptorhynchus. A prevalência dos ecto e endoparasitas foi de 88,9% e 22,2% respectivamente. Em onze E. ferrugineus (84,6%) e na totalidade dos E. leptorhynchus analisados (100%), coletaram-se cinco espécies de ácaros de pena (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp. e Eurydiscalges sp.); os piolhos Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, e Paragoniocotes enicognathidis foram coletados de dez E. ferrugineus (76,9%) e dois E. leptorhynchus (40%). Por outro lado, os nematódeos Capillaria plagiaticia e Ascaridia hermaphrodita foram isolados de três E. ferrugineus (23,1%) e de um E. leptorhynchus (20%). O achado de C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp. e Eurydiscalges sp. parasitando Enicognathus spp. corresponde ao primeiro relato dessas espécies de parasitas para no Chile e representam novas associações parasita-hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots/parasitology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Enoplida Infections/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Ascaridia , Ascaridiasis/parasitology , Ascaridiasis/veterinary , Capillaria , Chile , Enoplida Infections/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Mites
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 276-282, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761133

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to evaluate the ectoparasites and helminths of the white-crested elaenia, Elaenia albiceps chilensis. Feather mites Anisophyllodes elaeniae, Trouessartia elaeniae, and Analges sp. were detected in 51% of birds (n=106), whereas 24% were infected with lice (Tyranniphilopterus delicatulus, Menacanthus cfr. distinctus, and Ricinus cfr. invadens). Helminths Viguiera sp. and Capillaria sp. were found in five of the birds that were necropsied (n=20). With the exception of A. elaeniae, T. elaeniae, and T. delicatulus, all parasites represented new records found for the white-crested elaenia, and therefore for the Chilean repertoire of biodiversity.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a fauna de ectoparasitas e helmintos do guaracava de crista branca Elaenia albiceps chilensis. Em 51% das aves (n=106), foram detectados os ácaros de pena Anisophyllodes elaeniae, Trouessartia elaeniae e Analges sp. enquanto 24% foram infectadas por piolhos (Tyranniphilopterus delicatulus, Menacanthus cfr. distinctus e Ricinus cfr. invadens. Em contrapartida, em cinco aves necropsiadas foram encontrados os helmintos Viguiera sp. e Capillaria sp. Com exceção de A. elaeniae, T. elaeniae e T. delicatulus, todos os parasitas representam novos registros para a guaracava de crista branca e, portanto, para a diversidade da fauna parasitária do Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Stomach Diseases/veterinary , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Passeriformes , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Parasites/anatomy & histology , Stomach Diseases/parasitology , Stomach Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
18.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 17(3): 3118-3124, set.-dic. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-669282

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC) e Influenza aviar (IA), para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA) para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus ENC e inmunodifusión en gel agar (IDGA) y ELISA para IA. Resultados. Se detectaron 14 aves positivas (22.2%) para anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC. En cambio, no se registraron anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos para el virus de la IA. Conclusiones. La presencia de aves rapaces positivas en los centros de rescate a los anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC puede ser explicada por el consumo de carne de pollos que han sido vacunados contra ENC o consumo de aves que han adquirido directamente el virus vacunal a través de los distintos procedimientos de administración (aerosoles, bebederos) de la vacuna o por el ingreso a los centros de rescate de aves rapaces migratorias, las que podrían facilitar la diseminación de la infección desde los países de origen, hecho que debe ser investigado.


Objective. To detect the presence of blood serum antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian influenza (AI) viruses, to understand the contribution of wild birds in transmission of these viruses in Chile. Materials and methods. Sixty-three birds belonging to orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes were analyzed from bird rehabilitation centers in central and south-central Chile. Hemagglutination inhibition (HIA) was used to detect antibodies against the ND virus and further AI virus typing was done by agar gel immune-diffusion (AGID) and ELISA. Results. 14 birds we found (22.2%) with serum antibodies against ND virus; however, there were no blood serum antibodies to AI virus. Conclusions. Birds of prey from rescue centers have been detected positive for serum antibodies against ND virus. Birds of prey could have become positive via direct consumption of chickens vaccinated against ND or from chickens indirectly exposed to the vaccine through different administrative procedures (aerosols, water troughs) or after the admission of migratory birds to rescue centers, which could facilitate the spread of ND from their countries of origin, and should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Newcastle Disease , Chile , Influenza in Birds , Raptors , Virus Diseases
19.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Vet ; 52(2): 77-82, dic. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-631500

ABSTRACT

El piojo masticador Werneckiella equi es un ectoparásito comúnmente encontrado en equinos; puede causar irritación, llevando a hiperqueratosis, prurito intenso y alopecia. Existen diversos productos en el mercado utilizados para el tratamiento de ectoparásitos; sin embargo, la información disponible sobre su efectividad es escasa. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la abundancia y distribución de W. equi y la eficacia de triclorfón en el control de los phthirapteras en caballos mestizos, utilizando una dosis única, aplicada mediante aspersión. Se utilizaron 34 caballos mestizos naturalmente infestados con piojos, que se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos: Control (sin tratamiento; n=17) y Tratado con triclorfón diluido al 0,15% (n=17). La distribución y abundancia de los piojos fue estimada por medio de recuento directo de los phthirapteras en diferentes zonas del cuerpo del caballo, observándose solo diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en la región de la mano con respecto a zona del abdomen y dorso lateral del tronco. La efectividad fue evaluada a los 28 días posttratamiento, observándose diferencias significativas entre el grupo Control y Tratado, resultando en un porcentaje de eficacia del 93,5% y demostrándose que triclorfón aplicado al 0,15% muestra un efectivo tratamiento para piojos en equinos.


The chewing louse, Werneckiella equi, is an ectoparasite commonly found in equine. This parasite may cause irritation, leading to hyperkeratosis, intense pruritus, and alopecia. There are several products in the market used in the treatment of ectoparasites; however, available information regarding their effectiveness is scarce. A study was undertaken to determine both the abundance and distribution of W. equi and the efficacy of trichlorfon (an organophosphate) in controlling the horse lice, using a single dose, employing the spray method. A total of 34 crossbred horses, naturally infested with lice were used. The animals were randomly distributed into two groups: Control group (without treatment; n=17); and Treatment group (n=17): animals treated with 0.15% w/v trichlorfon. The distribution and abundance of lice were determined by direct counting of phthiraptera in different areas of the horse body. The results show only minor significant differences (P≤0.05) in the hand region, when compared to the abdomen and the dorso-lateral trunk. The efficacy was evaluated 28 d posttreatment, showing significant differences between the two groups, being the treatment efficacy of 93.5%. It is concluded that trichlorfon, when applied as a 0.15% w/v spray, results in an effective treatment for equine lice.

20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(5): 633-641, Aug. 2010. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557222

ABSTRACT

Triatoma infestans is one of the main domestic vectors of Chagas disease. Reports of wild habitat occurrences have recently increased. In Chile, after a successful elimination campaign of T. infestans domestic infestation, a sylvatic focus was reported in bromeliads in the metropolitan region. Here, we report a new focus of sylvatic T. infestans inhabiting rock piles in the Valparaíso region in central Chile. All T. infestans captured were nymphal instars living among the stones, which were inhabited by several mammal species, along with the sylvatic triatomine vector Mepraia spinolai. We found a prevalence of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of 36.54 percent in T. infestans, similar to the previous report for sylvatic specimens from bromeliads. Sylvatic populations of T. infestans should be studied at different geographic scales to elucidate their role in the maintenance of the sylvatic transmission cycle of T. cruzi and their possible role in threatening the domestic elimination of this vector. This information should be used to re-design the control programs in Chile to avoid the re-establishment of the domestic cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Disease , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chile , Chagas Disease , Chagas Disease/transmission , Seasons
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