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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1068-1099, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929361


Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), a diverse group of enzymes responsible for the metabolic elimination of drugs and other xenobiotics, have been recognized as the critical determinants to drug safety and efficacy. Deciphering and understanding the key roles of individual DMEs in drug metabolism and toxicity, as well as characterizing the interactions of central DMEs with xenobiotics require reliable, practical and highly specific tools for sensing the activities of these enzymes in biological systems. In the last few decades, the scientists have developed a variety of optical substrates for sensing human DMEs, parts of them have been successfully used for studying target enzyme(s) in tissue preparations and living systems. Herein, molecular design principals and recent advances in the development and applications of optical substrates for human DMEs have been reviewed systematically. Furthermore, the challenges and future perspectives in this field are also highlighted. The presented information offers a group of practical approaches and imaging tools for sensing DMEs activities in complex biological systems, which strongly facilitates high-throughput screening the modulators of target DMEs and studies on drug/herb‒drug interactions, as well as promotes the fundamental researches for exploring the relevance of DMEs to human diseases and drug treatment outcomes.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824004


The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), one of the most essential conjugative enzymes, is responsible for the metabolism and detoxification of bilirubin and other endogenous substances, as well as many different xenobiotic compounds. Deciphering UGT1A1 relevance to human diseases and characterizing the effects of small molecules on the activities of UGT1A1 requires reliable tools for probing the function of this key enzyme in complex biological matrices. Herein, an easy-to-use assay for highly-selective and sensitive monitoring of UGT1A1 activities in various biological matrices, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), has been developed and validated. The newly developed LC-FD based assay has been confirmed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, quanti-tative linear range and stability. One of its main advantages is lowering the limits of detection and quantification by about 100-fold in comparison to the previous assay that used the same probe substrate, enabling reliable quantification of lower amounts of active enzyme than any other method. The precision test demonstrated that both intra- and inter-day variations for this assay were less than 5.5%. Further-more, the newly developed assay has also been successfully used to screen and characterize the regu-latory effects of small molecules on the expression level of UGT1A1 in living cells. Overall, an easy-to-use LC-FD based assay has been developed for ultra-sensitive UGT1A1 activities measurements in various biological systems, providing an inexpensive and practical approach for exploring the role of UGT1A1 in human diseases, interactions with xenobiotics, and characterization modulatory effects of small mole-cules on this conjugative enzyme.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 258-278, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774987


Uridine-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is an important conjugative enzyme in mammals that is responsible for the conjugation and detoxification of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Strong inhibition of UGT1A1 may trigger adverse drug/herb-drug interactions, or result in metabolic disorders of endobiotic metabolism. Therefore, both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have recommended assaying the inhibitory potential of drugs under development on the human UGT1A1 prior to approval. This review focuses on the significance, progress and challenges in discovery and characterization of UGT1A1 inhibitors. Recent advances in the development of UGT1A1 probes and their application for screening UGT1A1 inhibitors are summarized and discussed in this review for the first time. Furthermore, a long list of UGT1A1 inhibitors, including information on their inhibition potency, inhibition mode, and affinity, has been prepared and analyzed. Challenges and future directions in this field are highlighted in the final section. The information and knowledge that are presented in this review provide guidance for rational use of drugs/herbs in order to avoid the occurrence of adverse effects UGT1A1 inhibition, as well as presenting methods for rapid screening and characterization of UGT1A1 inhibitors and for facilitating investigations on UGT1A1-ligand interactions.