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Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 129-133, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280064


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze cardiac autonomic modulation response and functional capacity in physically active older women. Methods: Seventy-five older women (60-70 years) from the community were divided into the following groups: sedentary (n=19), hydro-gymnastics (n=18), pilates (n=19), and dance (n=19). Blood pressure, body composition, heart rate variability, and functional capacity were assessed for the characterization of the groups at rest and 48 hours after the last physical exercise session. Results: The sedentary group presented higher waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate compared to the other groups (p<0.05). It was also observed that the dance group presented better functional capacity and VO2peak scores (all p<0.05). Regarding cardiac autonomic modulation, both dance and pilates groups demonstrated better RMSSD (26.71 ± 9.07 and 29.82 ± 7.16, respectively; p<0.05), LF (45.79 ± 14.81 and 45.95 ± 15.16 n.u., respectively; p<0.05), and LF/HF (0.92 ± 0.56 and 0.58 ± 0.26, respectively; p<0.05) scores. In the symbolic analysis, the dance group had a greater predominance of parasympathetic autonomic modulation than the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results conclude that physically active elderly women, practicing hydro-gymnastics, pilates or dance, presented physiological benefits, such as better functional capacity and improvements in hemodynamic variables and autonomic cardiac modulation. In addition, the group that practiced dance presented greater parasympathetic modulation, as well as greater functional capacity, when compared to the other modalities. Level of evidence: I; STARD: studies of diagnostic accuracy.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la respuesta de la modulación autonómica cardíaca y la capacidad funcional en mujeres mayores físicamente activas. Métodos: Setenta y cinco mujeres mayores (60 a 70 años) de la comunidad fueron divididas en los siguientes grupos: sedentaria (n = 19), hidrogimnasia (n = 18), pilates (n = 19) y danza (n = 19). La presión arterial, la composición corporal, la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca y la capacidad funcional fueron evaluadas para la caracterización de los grupos en reposo y 48 horas después de la última sesión de ejercicio físico. Resultados: El grupo sedentario presentó mayor relación cintura-cadera, presión arterial diastólica y frecuencia cardíaca en reposo cuando comparado a los otros grupos (p <0,05). Se observó que el grupo de danza presentó mejores puntajes de capacidad funcional y VO2Pico (todos p <0,05). Con relación a la modulación autonómica cardíaca, los grupos de danza y pilates demostraron mejores puntajes para RMSSD (26,71 ± 9,07 y 29,82 ± 7,16, respectivamente; p <0,05), LF (45,79 ± 14,81 y 45,95 ± 15,16 nu, respectivamente; p <0,05), y LF/HF (0,92 ± 0,56 y 0,58 ± 0,26, respectivamente; p <0,05). En el análisis simbólico, el grupo de danza presentó mayor predominancia de la modulación autonómica parasimpática que los demás grupos (p <0,05). Conclusión: Esos resultados concluyen que las mujeres mayores físicamente activas, practicantes de hidrogimnasia, pilates o danza, tienen beneficios fisiológicos, como mejor capacidad funcional y mejora de las variables hemodinámicas y de la modulación cardíaca autonómica. Además, el grupo que practicaba danza tuvo mayor modulación parasimpática y mayor capacidad funcional cuando comparado con las otras modalidades. Nivel de evidencia: I; STARD: estudios de precisión diagnóstica.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a resposta da modulação autonômica cardíaca e a capacidade funcional em idosas fisicamente ativas. Métodos: Setenta e cinco mulheres idosas (60 a 70 anos) da comunidade foram divididas nos seguintes grupos: sedentária (n = 19), hidroginástica (n = 18), pilates (n = 19) e dança (n = 19). A pressão arterial, a composição corporal, a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e a capacidade funcional foram avaliadas para a caracterização dos grupos em repouso e 48 horas depois da última sessão de exercício físico. Resultados: O grupo sedentário apresentou maior relação cintura-quadril, pressão arterial diastólica e frequência cardíaca em repouso quando comparado aos outros grupos (p <0,05). Observou-se também que o grupo da dança apresentou melhores escores de capacidade funcional e VO2pico (todos p < 0,05). Com relação à modulação autonômica cardíaca, os grupos de dança e pilates demonstraram melhores escores para RMSSD (26,71 ± 9,07 e 29,82 ± 7,16, respectivamente; p < 0,05), LF (45,79 ± 14,81 e 45,95 ± 15,16 nu, respectivamente; p<0,05) e LF/HF (0,92 ± 0,56 e 0,58 ± 0,26, respectivamente; p < 0,05). Na análise simbólica, o grupo da dança apresentou maior predominância da modulação autonômica parassimpática do que os demais grupos (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Esses resultados concluem que idosas fisicamente ativas praticantes de hidroginástica, pilates ou dança, têm benefícios fisiológicos, como melhor capacidade funcional e melhora das variáveis hemodinâmicas e da modulação cardíaca autonômica. Além disso, o grupo que praticava dança teve maior modulação parassimpática e maior capacidade funcional quando comparado com outras modalidades. Nível de evidência: I; STARD: estudos de precisão diagnóstica.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Functional Residual Capacity/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Movement Techniques , Dancing/physiology , Sedentary Behavior
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e1021000921, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287367


Abstract Aim: This study aimed to explore the effects of a training program during the pre-season on aerobic and anaerobic performance, hemodynamics, autonomic variables, and sleep quality in youth soccer players. Methods: Nineteen athletes, with an average age of 17 ± 1 years, participated in the study. The multicomponent training protocol was divided into technical, tactical, and physical practice for four weeks. The cardiac autonomic modulation was obtained through an electrocardiogram and blood pressure values were measured by a sphygmomanometer. The athletes answered the Pittsburgh questionnaire that assessed sleep patterns and issues. The VO2max was analyzed using the Intermittent Recovery Test Yo-Yo level 1. The RAST test was used to assess anaerobic power. Results: There was improvement in Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicated by the increase in indexes, mean square root of the differences between normal cycles (RMSSD), low frequency increase (LF) (p = 0.04; d = 0.70), high frequency decrease (HF) (p = 0.01; d = 1.02) and the LF / HF sympathovagal index (p = 0.03; d = 0.70), variables related to faster recovery. An improvement in the components of sleep duration (p = 0.03) and quality (p = 0.02) of baseline and post-intervention sleep was also observed. Conclusion: The four-week multicomponent protocol contributed to improving VO2max, improving fatigue rates, quality of sleep, and maximum power. Additionally, we observe that youth soccer athletes had physiological and hemodynamic adaptations that resulted in an improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation and sleep patterns after four weeks of training.

Clinics ; 76: e1826, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153945


OBJECTIVES: We compared the autonomic modulation and sleep behavior of eutrophic and overweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: COPD participants were divided into the overweight and eutrophic groups. Pulmonary function, blood pressure, body composition, autonomic modulation, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score were assessed. Participants performed the six-minute walk test for functional assessment. RESULTS: Spirometric variables obtained in eutrophic and overweight individuals with COPD showed no statistically different results. We observed that the SDNN index indicated lower overall variability (p=0.003), and root mean square of successive differences between normal heart beats (RMSSD) (p=0.04) indicated lower parasympathetic modulation in the overweight group than observed in the eutrophic group. The indexes of the frequency domain presented lower values of total variability (p<0.01), low frequency bands (p<0.01), and high frequency (p=0.02), suggesting a higher sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation of the overweight group compared to eutrophic group. The overweight group also showed reduced sleep quality than the eutrophic group. CONCLUSION: Overweight COPD patients showed lower autonomic modulation and impaired sleep quality, latency, and efficiency as compared eutrophic subjects. These results reinforce the importance of weight control and the acquisition of healthy habits in this population.

Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Sleep , Case-Control Studies , Heart Rate , Obesity/complications
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(4): 360-367, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134390


Abstract Background To evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation of adolescents with a family history of diabetic parents. Objective This study aims to evaluate the influence of a family history of diabetes on cardiac autonomic modulation. Methods This is an analytical and cross-sectional study on adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age, of both genders, who were divided into group with a family history of diabetes and a control group without a family history of diabetes. The study protocol consisted of the analysis of heart rate variability, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and body composition. Also, by using questionnaires, level of physical activity, sexual maturation, and sleep quality were evaluated. Normality of data distribution was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Then, statistical significance was evaluated using the Student's t-test, and the Cohen's teste was used for calculation of the effect size. The level of significance adopted in the statistical analysis was 5%. Results When the group of individuals with a family history of diabetes was compared with the control group, statistically significant differences were observed in the variables the standard deviation of the NN time series interval (SDNN) (43.9 ± 2.2 vs. 53.5 ± 2.6 ms), the square root of the quadratic differences (RMSSD) (41.9 ± 3.3 vs. 52.4 ± 3.2 ms), standard deviation of beat-to-beat instantaneous variability (SD1) (29.7 ± 2.3 vs. 37.1 ± 2.3 ms), long-term standard deviation of continuous RR intervals (SD2) (. 54.1 ± 2.6 vs. 66.66 ± 3.5 ms), and in low frequency (LF) (496.0 ± 49.5 vs. 728 ± 71.6 ms2) and high frequency (HF) (1050.0 ± 120.4 vs. 737.4 ± 98.5 ms2) in the frequency domain. Conclusions Global autonomic modulation is decreased in adolescents with a family history of diabetes. We also observed a decrease in vagal activity in this group. So, sympathetic autonomic modulation is predominant in this population. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 25(5): 413-417, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042344


ABSTRACT Introduction Aging is a natural process and marked by changes and adaptations of both a biological and physiological nature. As regards adaptations, there are numerous works that address these responses following various types of training programs. Resistance training (RT) can be assessed by biochemical parameters such as creatine kinase (CK), which is a major marker of stress in the skeletal muscles. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biochemical marker used to assess damage to the cardiac muscles. Objective To evaluate the influence of CK on CRP in elderly female subjects undergoing RT. Methods An experimental study was carried out with 10 elderly women (61 ± 1.8 years). Peripheral venous blood was collected for the CK and CRP analysis both before and 24 hours after 8 weeks of RT. Anthropometric measurements involved BMI (Body Mass Index), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio) and body composition. The RT involved combined series - Bi-Set. For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was conducted first and presented p >0.05, confirming the use of parametric tests. Group variables were presented as mean and standard deviation. To compare the load-dependent samples, the repeated measures one-way ANOVA was performed first, followed by Tukey's post hoc test. For CK and CRP variables, we conducted the paired Student's t-test for the timepoints pre- and post-eight weeks of RT along with the one-way ANOVA test, also conducting Tukey's post-test when necessary. The level of significance was set at p ≤0.05. Results There was a statistically significant decrease in both serum CK and CRP, which indicated a reduction of 73.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion Long-term RT promoted influences among biomarkers assessed through skeletal muscle (CK) and cardiac muscle (CRP) damage, determining adaptation and muscle remodeling in any age group. Level of evidence II, Investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução O envelhecimento é um processo natural e marcado por mudanças e adaptações, tanto biológicas quanto fisiológicas. Com relação às adaptações, existem inúmeros trabalhos que abordam essas respostas decorrente a vários tipos de treinamento. O treinamento resistido (TR) pode ser avaliado por parâmetros bioquímicos, como a creatina quinase (CK), que é um grande marcador de estresse da musculatura esquelética. A proteína C-reativa (PCR) é um marcador bioquímico utilizado para avaliar o dano no sistema muscular cardíaco. Objetivo Avaliar a influência da CK sob a PCR em idosas em TR. Métodos Estudo do tipo experimental com dez idosas (61 ± 1,8 anos). As análises de CK e PCR foram coletadas em sangue venoso periférico antes e 24 horas após as 8 semanas de TR. Medidas antropométricas foram realizadas: índice de massa corporal (IMC), relação da cintura e o quadril (RCQ) e composição corporal. O TR foi realizado por série combinada (Bi-Set). Para análise estatística, primeiramente foi realizado o teste de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk, apresentando p > 0,05) e comprovando a utilização de testes paramétricos. As variáveis do grupo foram apresentadas como média e desvio padrão. Para comparação das amostras dependentes de evolução das cargas foi realizado a ANOVA one-way pareada para medidas repetidas, seguida de pós-teste de Tukey. Para variáveis de CK e PCR, foi realizado teste t de Student pareado para os momentos pré e pós-8 semanas de TR, assim como o ANOVA one-way e, quando necessário, o pós-teste de Tukey. O nível de significância adotado foi de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Houve diminuição estatisticamente significativa, tanto para as concentrações séricas de CK, quanto para PCR, o que indicou redução de 73,14% e 75%, respectivamente. Conclusão O TR de longa duração promoveu influências entre biomarcadores avaliados por meio do dano do músculo esquelético (CK) e dano do músculo cardíaco (PCR), determinando adaptação e remodelamento muscular em qualquer faixa etária. Nível de evidência II; Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción El envejecimiento es un proceso natural y marcado por cambios y adaptaciones, tanto biológicas como fisiológicas. Con respecto a las adaptaciones, existen innumerables trabajos que abordan esas respuestas derivadas de varios tipos de entrenamiento. El Entrenamiento Resistido (ER) puede ser evaluado por parámetros bioquímicos, como la creatina quinasa (CK) que es un gran marcador de estrés de la musculatura esquelética. La proteína C-reactiva (PCR) es un marcador bioquímico utilizado para evaluar el daño en el sistema muscular cardíaco. Objetivo Evaluar la influencia de la CK bajo la PCR en ancianas en ER. Métodos Estudio de tipo experimental con 10 ancianas (61 ± 1,8 años). Los análisis de CK y PCR fueron recolectados en sangre venosa periférica antes y 24 horas después de las 8 semanas de ER. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas: IMC (Índice de Masa Corporal), RCC (Relación Cintura / Cadera) y Composición Corporal. El ER fue realizado por Serie Combinada (Bi-Set). Para análisis estadístico, primero se realizó la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk presentando p> 0,05 y comprobando el uso de pruebas paramétricas. Las variables del grupo se mostraron como promedio y desviación estándar. Para comparación de las muestras dependientes de evolución de las cargas se realizó el Test one-way ANOVA pareado para medidas repetidas, seguido de post-test de Tukey. Para variables de CK y PCR se realizó el Test t de Student pareado para los momentos pre y post ocho semanas de ER, así como el ANOVA one-way y cuando necesario, el post-test de Tukey. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Hubo disminución estadísticamente significativa, tanto para las concentraciones séricas de CK, como para PCR, lo que indicó reducción del 73,14% y el 75%, respectivamente. Conclusión El ER de larga duración promovió influencias entre biomarcadores evaluados a través del daño del músculo esquelético (CK) y daño del músculo cardíaco (PCR) determinando adaptación y remodelación muscular en cualquier grupo de edad. Nivel de evidencia II; Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 41(3): 298-307, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042069


Resumo Foram avaliados os efeitos do destreinamento sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares em idosas. Idosas foram submetidas a oito semanas de treinamento resistido seguidas de oito semanas de destreinamento. Foram avaliadas nove mulheres idosas (idade 62 ± 2,30). Foram feitas coletas de sangue venoso periférico e avaliação da composição corporal antes do início de treinamento, após o treinamento e após a fase de destreinamento. Não houve aumento significativo da PCR na fase de destreino, porém observamos alterações negativas para colesterol total e composição corporal, representada pelo peso gordo. Os resultados sugerem que oito semanas de destreinamento não aumentaram significativamente a PCR, porém influenciaram negativamente em outros parâmetros relacionados aos riscos cardiovasculares, como valores antropométricos e bioquímicos representados pelo colesterol total e massa gorda, respectivamente. De fato, a continuidade do treinamento físico é essencial para adquirir e manter uma boa saúde, caso contrário os benefícios alcançados regridem aos valores iniciais.

Abstract The detraining effects on cardiovascular parameters in the elderly women (EW) were evaluated. EW underwent 8 weeks of resistance training, followed by eight weeks of detraining. 9 EW were evaluated (age 62 ± 2.30). Peripheral venous blood collections and body composition evaluation were performed before training, after training and after the detraining phase. There was no significant increase in CRP in detraining phase, but we observed negative changes for total cholesterol and body composition, represented by fat weight. The results suggest that 8 weeks of detraining did not significantly increase CRP, but had a negative influence on other parameters related to cardiovascular risks, as anthropometric and biochemical values represented by total cholesterol and fat mass, respectively. In fact, continuity of physical training is essential to acquiring and maintaining good health, otherwise the beneficial adaptations achieved will return to initial values.

Resumen Se evaluaron los efectos de la falta de entrenamiento sobre los parámetros cardiovasculares de mujeres mayores. Estas siguieron un entrenamiento resistido durante 8 semanas, seguidas de 8 semanas de falta de entrenamiento. Se evaluó a 9 mujeres de edad avanzada (edad de 62 ± 2,30). Se realizaron extracciones de sangre venosa periférica y evaluación de la composición corporal antes del inicio del entrenamiento, después del entrenamiento y después de la fase de falta de entrenamiento. No hubo un aumento considerable de la PCR en la fase de falta de entrenamiento, pero observamos alteraciones negativas del colesterol total y composición corporal, representada por la grasa. Los resultados sugieren que 8 semanas de falta de entrenamiento no aumentaron considerablemente la PCR, pero influyeron negativamente en otros parámetros relacionados con los riesgos cardiovasculares, como valores antropométricos y bioquímicos representados por el colesterol total y la masa grasa, respectivamente. De hecho, la continuidad del entrenamiento físico es esencial para adquirir y mantener una buena salud; de lo contrario, las adaptaciones beneficiosas alcanzadas vuelven a los valores iniciales.

Motriz (Online) ; 25(2): e101904, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020086


Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise session prescribed by the Sworkit® Personal Trainer application on hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 11 men classified as sedentary according to IPAQ. The exercises were randomly selected by the app Sworkit® Personal Trainer, using the pre-built program "Light Warm-Up Cardio" (see supplementary material). Heart rate and perceived exertion data were collected every minute during an exercise session. Blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured Pre, Post, 30 min, 12h, 24 h, and 48h after exercise. Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were collected during the 30 minutes exercise. Results: Hemodynamic responses showed differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure: Post, 12 h and 24 h compared to Pre. We also found significant statistical differences in the heart rate variability indexes when comparing Post, 30min to 48h versus Pre, indicating modifications in the autonomic modulation post-exercise. The perceived exertions scale remained between 13-14 during the exercise. Heart rate was 149 ± 5.26 (80 ± 5% of HRmax) during the 30min exercise, indicating a moderate to vigorous intensity. Conclusion: We concluded that a single exercise session guided by the Sworkit® Personal Trainer application could generate autonomic changes in up to 12 hours, presenting a moderate to vigorous intensity in 30 minutes of exercise for sedentary men.(AU)

Motriz (Online) ; 24(1): e1018132, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895056


Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of low and vigorous levels of physical activity in body composition, hemodynamics and autonomic modulation in subjects with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: We evaluated 13 healthy subjects without DS (control group), 15 sedentary subjects with DS, (SED DS group), nine with DS with low intensity levels of physical activity (LIDS) and 12 with DS with vigorous levels of physical activity (VIDS). The physical activity level was measured using the IPAQ questionnaire. Body composition, hemodynamics and autonomic modulation were also evaluated. RESULTS The VIDS showed lower BMI than the control and SED DS group. Body fat (%) was lower in LIDS and VIDS than in the control and SED DS group. The systolic and diastolic arterial pressure values were similar among the groups. When normalized, the frequency domain showed higher LF/HF, higher LF (nu) and lower HF (nu) component of heart rate variability in sedentary DS than in the control group. However, LIDS and VIDS groups showed similar values in LF (nu), HF (nu) and LF/HF than the control group. The symbolic analysis showed greater 0V and lower values in 2LV in sedentary DS group when compared to the control group. However, the LIDS and VIDS did not show difference in 0V when compared to the control group. The 2LV was lower in LIDS and VIDS than in the control group, but 2UV was higher in VIDS than in the control group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that, regardless of the intensity, exercise can promote positive adaptations in the autonomic modulation of DS patients.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Down Syndrome , Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics/physiology
Clinics ; 73: e246, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952795


OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in diabetic mice that were genetically engineered to harbor two or three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. METHODS: Diabetic and non-diabetic mice harboring 2 or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene were used in the present study. Animals were divided into 4 groups: diabetic groups with two and three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (2CD and 3CD) and the respective age-matched non-diabetic groups (2C and 3C). Hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and autonomic parameters as well as renal Ang II expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Heart rate was lower in diabetic animals than in non-diabetic animals. Autonomic modulation analysis indicated that the 3CD group showed increased sympathetic modulation and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate variability, eliciting increased cardiac sympathovagal balance, compared with all the other groups. Concurrent diabetes and either angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism resulted in a significant increase in Ang II expression in the renal cortex. CONCLUSION: Data indicates that a small increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in diabetic animals leads to greater impairment of autonomic function, as demonstrated by increased sympathetic modulation and reduced cardiac vagal modulation along with increased renal expression of Ang II.

Animals , Male , Mice , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Angiotensin II/analysis , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Gene Dosage/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Kidney/enzymology , Vagus Nerve/physiopathology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart Rate/physiology
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(2): 73-80, 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847904


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isolated vitamin B6 (VB6 ) supplementation on experimental hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhe) induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT). Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to their treatment. Animals received water and food ad libitum and an intragastric probe was used to administer water for 60 days (groups: CB6, HcyT, and HB6 ). On the 30th day of treatment, two groups were supplemented with VB6 in the drinking water (groups: CB6 and HB6 ). After 60 days of treatment, homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) immunocontent, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and GST activities were measured. Results: The HcyT group showed an increase in Hcy concentration (62%) in relation to the CB6 group. Additionally, GST immunocontent was enhanced (51%) in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. Also, SOD activity was lower (17%) in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group, and CAT activity was higher in the HcyT group (53%) compared to the CB6 group. Ejection fraction (EF) was improved in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. E/A ratio was enhanced in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group. Correlations were found between CAT activity with myocardial performance index (MPI) (r = 0.71; P = 0.06) and E/A ratio (r = 0.6; P = 0.01), and between EF and GST activity (r = 0.62; P = 0.02). Conclusions: These findings indicate that isolated VB6 supplementation may lead to the reduction of Hcy concentration and promotes additional benefits to oxidative stress and heart function parameters (AU)

Animals , Rats , Heart/drug effects , Hyperhomocysteinemia/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Vitamin B 6/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 29(6): 765-773, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830661


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa) on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes) were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g) group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g) group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito agudo de uma única dose de chocolate amargo (70% cacau) sobre a pressão arterial e a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Métodos: Trinta e um indivíduos saudáveis (com idade entre 18-25 anos; ambos os sexos) foram divididos em dois grupos: 10 indivíduos no grupo chocolate branco (7,4 g) e 21 no grupo chocolate amargo (10,0 g); as avaliações foram realizadas no laboratório de fisiologia da Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre. Resultados: O eletrocardiograma foi realizado para analisar o balanço simpatovagal através da análise espectral e simbólica. Uma única dose de chocolate amargo reduziu significativamente a pressão arterial sistólica e a frequência cardíaca. Depois de consumir 10 g de chocolate amargo, observou-se aumento significativo na variabilidade da frequência cardíaca, o desvio padrão dos intervalos, a raiz quadrada da média do quadrado das diferenças entre os intervalos RR normais adjacentes a raiz quadrada da média da soma dos quadrados das diferenças entre os intervalos NN normais adjacentes e um aumento na componente de alta frequência em valores absolutos, o que representa a modulação parassimpática. Conclusão: Em conclusão, a importância dos resultados aqui apresentados reside na magnitude da resposta provocada por uma dose única de cacau (10 g). Esta provocou um aumento significativo da modulação parassimpática e da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca no coração. Esses efeitos, quando combinados, podem, potencialmente, aumentar a esperança de vida, porque a redução da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca está associada a doenças cardiovasculares e maior mortalidade.

Humans , Male , Female , Autonomic Nervous System , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Arterial Pressure , Chocolate , Heart Rate
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 338-345, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783802


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion with sevoflurane anesthetic preconditioning (APC) would present beneficial effects on autonomic and cardiac function indexes after the acute phase of a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were allocated in three groups: control (CON, n=10), myocardial infarction with sevoflurane (SEV, n=5) and infarcted without sevoflurane (INF, n=5). Myocardial ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion were performed by temporary coronary occlusion. Twenty-one days later, the systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by echocardiography; spectral analysis of the systolic arterial pressure (SAPV) and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed. After the recording period, the infarct size (IS) was evaluated. RESULTS: The INF group presented greater cardiac dysfunction and increased sympathetic modulation of the SAPV, as well as decreased alpha index and worse vagal modulation of the HRV. The SEV group exhibited attenuation of the systolic and diastolic dysfunction and preserved vagal modulation (square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals and high frequency) of HRV, as well as a smaller IS. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane preconditioning better preserved the cardiac function and autonomic modulation of the heart in post-acute myocardial infarction period.

Animals , Male , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pulse , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Models, Animal , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 26(1): 22380, jan-mar 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-836861


OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos de uma corrida de 15 km ao ar livre em ambiente de alta temperatura na modulação da leucocitose em homens saudáveis treinados em corrida. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 14 homens que participavam de um grupo de corrida recreativo. Foram incluídos voluntários que declarassem ser capazes de percorrer a distância mínima de 15 km, não estivessem tomando nenhum medicamento imunossupressor e não tivessem nenhuma doença infecciosa. Os critérios de exclusão foram hipertensão arterial em repouso antes da corrida, histórico de doenças osteomioarticulares, metabólicas e/ou cardiovasculares, e não completar o percurso da corrida. Amostras de sangue venoso antes e após a corrida foram coletadas para determinação do hematócrito e contagem de células imunes por imunocitoquímica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento no número de leucócitos totais e neutrófilos no momento pós corrida (9,31±2,4×10³ células/µL e 7,64±3,4×10³ células/µL respectivamente) em comparação ao momento pré corrida (5,52±0.2×10³ células/µL e 2,90±0,6×10³ células/µL respectivamente) (p<0,05). Houve diminuição no número de linfócitos e eosinófilos no momento pós corrida (1,34±0,3×10³ e 0,36±0,2×10³ células/µL respectivamente) comparado ao pré corrida (1,67±0,3×10³ e 0,22±0,1×10³ células/µL respectivamente) (p<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no número de monócitos e basófilos no momento pós corrida (0,45±0,1×10³ e 0,9±0,3×10³ células/µL respectivamente) comparado ao pré corrida (0,40±0,08×10³ e 0,8±0,3×10³ células/µL respectivamente) (p>0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A corrida de 15 km ao ar livre, em ambiente de alta temperatura, induziu a uma cinética leucocitária típica, com leucocitose às custas do aumento no número de neutrófilos, assim como queda no número de linfócitos e eosinófilos, em homens saudáveis com prévio treinamento em corrida. Estes resultados ajudam a compreender melhor a leucocitose induzida pelo exercício e podem indicar a intensidade do estresse promovido pelo exercício em condições ambientais extremas.

AIMS: To assess the effects of an outdoor race of 15 km in a hot environment on leukocyte kinetics in healthy trained men. METHODS: The sample consisted of 14 men who participated in a recreational race group. Volunteers who said they were able to run a minimum distance of 15 km, were not taking any immunosuppressants, and had no infectious disease were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were the following: hypertension at rest before the race, history of musculoskeletal, metabolic and/or cardiovascular diseases, and failure to finish the race. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the race for determination of hematocrit levels and immune cell count by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: An increase in total leukocyte and neutrophil count was observed after the race (9.31±2.4×10³ cells/µL and 7.64±3.4×10³ cells/µL, respectively) compared to the pre-race period (5.52±0.2×10³ cells/µL and 2.90±0.6×103 cells/µL, respectively), (p<0.05). There was a decrease in lymphocyte and eosinophil count after the race (1.34±0.3×10³ and 0.36±0.2×10³ cells/µL, respectively) compared to the pre-race period (1.67±0.3×10³ and 0.22±0.1×10³ cells/µL, respectively) (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in monocyte and basophil count after the race (0.45±0.1×10³ and 0.9±0.3×10³ cells/µL, respectively) compared to the pre-race period (0.40±0.08×10³ and 0.8±0.3×10³cells/µL, respectively) (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 15-km outdoor race in a hot environment led to a typical leukocyte kinetics, resulting in leukocytosis owing to the increase in neutrophil count as well as to a decrease in lymphocyte and eosinophil count in healthy trained men. These findings shed some further light upon exercise-induced leukocytosis and may indicate the level of stress produced by exercise under extreme environmental conditions.

Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 703-710, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728647


PURPOSE: To verify the effects of different catecholamines on volemic expansion and on the autonomic nervous system in rabbits that were subjected to hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty four rabbits subjected to hemorrhage (with a 25% loss of blood volume) and were randomly divided into four experimental groups: 1) HEMO Group underwent replacement with their own blood in an equal volume; 2) SS Group underwent replacement with saline solution (SS) in a volume that corresponded to three times the removed blood volume; 3) ISP Group underwent replacement with SS and isoprenaline; 4) FNL Group underwent replacement with SS and phenylephrine. Spectral Analysis of the heart rate and heart rate variability were performed from the recorded data. Hematocrit was measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Replacement with SS and an α- or β-agonist did not produce differences in the intravascular retention compared to replacement with SS alone. An analysis of HRV showed that the FNL group maintained the LF/HF ratio better than ISP and SS. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in vascular retention when α- or β- agonists were added to SS during post-hemorrhagic recovery. The animals in the FNL group maintained the integrity of the autonomic response within normal physiological standards during hemorrhagic stress. .

Animals , Rabbits , Blood Volume/drug effects , Catecholamines/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Fourier Analysis , Hematocrit , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrum Analysis , Time Factors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(1): 60-68, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718099


Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. .

Fundamento: Embora o treinamento físico resistido esteja inserido nos programas de reabilitação cardiovascular, pouco se sabe sobre seu papel isolado na função cardíaca e autonômica após o infarto do miocárdio. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido iniciado precocemente após o infarto do miocárdio na função cardíaca, no perfil hemodinâmico e na modulação autonômica de ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em Grupos Controle Sedentário, Controle Treinado, Infartado Sedentário e Infartado Treinado. Cada grupo foi composto por 9 ratos. Os animais realizaram o teste de carga máxima e a ecocardiografia ao início e ao final do treinamento físico resistido (em escada adaptada, 40 a 60% do teste de carga máxima, 3 meses, 5 dias/semana). Ao final, foram realizadas avaliações hemodinâmicas, de sensibilidade barorreflexa e da modulação autonômica. Resultados: O teste de carga máxima aumentou nos Grupos Controle Treinado (+32%) e Infartado Treinado (+46%) em relação aos Grupos Controle Sedentário e Infartado Sedentário. Embora a área de infarto do miocárdio e a função sistólica não tenham sido alteradas, a relação E/A (-23%), o índice de desempenho miocárdico (-39%) e a pressão arterial sistólica (+6%) foram melhorados pelo treinamento físico resistido no Grupo Infartado Treinado. Paralelamente, o treinamento induziu os grupos a benefícios adicionais nas bandas de alta frequência do intervalo de pulso (+45%), bem como a banda de baixa frequência da pressão arterial sistólica (-46%) nos ratos do Grupo Infartado Treinado em relação aos do Infartado Sedentário. Conclusão: O treinamento físico resistido dinâmico ...

Animals , Male , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Ventricular Function/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Baroreflex/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics/physiology , Myocardial Infarction , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 20(2): 125-130, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-711763


OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar as respostas agudas cardiorrespiratórias e autonômicas induzidas por uma sessão de exercício físico resistido em adolescentes com sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 17 adolescentes do sexo masculino divididos em grupo controle (GC, n=9) e grupo sobrepeso (GSO, n=7). Todos foram submetidos a uma sessão exercícios resistidos para diferentes grupos musculares, realizados com sobrecarga de 60% da força máxima, com um intervalo de 45 segundos entre as séries e 90 segundos entre cada exercício. Antes, durante e após a sessão de exercícios os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) e variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC). RESULTADOS: Foi observado comportamento semelhante em ambos os grupos da PAS e PAD. A PAS aumentou durante o exercício e a PAD diminuiu. Ambas retornaram aos valores basais durante a recuperação. A FC aumentou durante a sessão de exercício nos dois grupos, porém, apenas no GSO houve retorno aos valores de repouso. Os índices da VFC no domínio do tempo (VAR RR e RMSSD) se comportaram de maneira semelhante frente ao exercício nos dois grupos, porém, no índice SDNN apenas o GSO retornou aos valores de repouso. A VFC no domínio da frequência apresentou comportamento semelhante em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: sugere-se que o aumento do nível de atividade física em indivíduos com sobrepeso pode prevenir as alterações autonômicas que estão associadas ao aumento do peso corporal e conferir efeito protetor ao sistema cardiovascular. .

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and autonomic responses induced by a resistive exercise session in overweight adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated 17 male adolescents divided into control group (CG, n = 9) and overweight group (OWG, n = 7). All patients underwent one session of resistance exercises for different muscle groups, performed with overload of 60% of maximum strength, with an interval of 45 seconds between sets and 90 seconds between each exercise. Before, during and after the exercise session the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate variability (HRV). RESULTS: We observed similar behavior in both groups of SBP and DBP. The SBP increased during exercise while the DBP decreased. Both returned to baseline during recovery. HR increased during the workout in the two groups, but return to resting values only occurred in the OWG. The HRV indices in the time domain (VAR RR and RMSSD) behaved similarly to the exercise in both groups, but the SDNN index only returned to resting values in the OWG. HRV in the frequency domain exhibited similar behavior in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the increased level of physical activity in overweight individuals can prevent autonomic changes that are associated with increased body weight and confer a protective effect on the cardiovascular system .

OBJETIVO: El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar las respuestas agudas cardiorrespiratorias y autonómicas inducidas por una sesión de ejercicio físico resistido en adolescentes con sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados 17 adolescentes del sexo masculino divididos en grupo control (GC, n=9) y grupo sobrepeso (GSO, n=7). Todos fueron sometidos a una sesión de ejercicios resistidos para diferentes grupos musculares, realizados con sobrecarga de 60% de la fuerza máxima, con un intervalo de 45 segundos entre las series y 90 segundos entre cada ejercicio. Antes, durante y después de la realización de la sesión de ejercicios los siguientes parámetros fueron evaluados: frecuencia cardíaca (FC), presión arterial sistólica (PAS), presión arterial diastólica (PAD) y variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC). RESULTADOS: Fue observado comportamiento semejante en ambos grupos de la PAS y PAD. La PAS aumentó durante el ejercicio y la PAD disminuyó. Ambas retornaron a los valores basales durante la recuperación. La FC aumentó durante la sesión de ejercicio en los dos grupos, no obstante, solamente en el GSO hubo retorno a los valores de reposo. Los índices de la VFC en el dominio del tiempo (VAR RR y RMSSD) se comportaron de manera semejante frente al ejercicio en los dos grupos, no obstante, en el índice SDNN sólo el GSO retornó a los valores de reposo. La VFC en el dominio de la frecuencia presentó comportamiento semejante en ambos grupos. CONCLUSIONES: Se sugiere que el aumento del nivel de actividad física en individuos con sobrepeso puede prevenir las alteraciones autonómicas que están asociadas al aumento del peso corporal y conferirle efecto protector al sistema cardiovascular. .

Clinics ; 68(12): 1495-1501, dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697708


OBJECTIVES: We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria. The patients were divided into metabolic syndrome with and without high blood pressure criteria (≥130/≥85 mmHg). RESULTS: Compared to the 45 metabolic syndrome patients without high blood pressure, the 30 patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had significantly higher glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and creatinine values; in contrast, these patients had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. Metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure also had significantly higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lower levels of adiponectin. Moreover, patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had increased surrogate markers of sympathetic activity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein, retinol-binding protein 4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure. There is a strong trend for an independent association between metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS: High blood pressure, which may be related to the autonomic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hypertension/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Anthropometry , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Logistic Models , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Overweight/blood , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood
Clinics ; 67(7): 815-820, July 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645456


OBJECTIVE: High fructose consumption contributes to the incidence of metabolic syndrome and, consequently, to cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether exercise training prevents high fructose diet-induced metabolic and cardiac morphofunctional alterations. METHODS: Wistar rats receiving fructose overload (F) in drinking water (100 g/l) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT) for 10 weeks or kept sedentary. These rats were compared with a control group (C). Obesity was evaluated by the Lee index, and glycemia and insulin tolerance tests constituted the metabolic evaluation. Blood pressure was measured directly (Windaq, 2 kHz), and echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular morphology and function. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced a metabolic syndrome state, as confirmed by insulin resistance (F: 3.6 ± 0.2 vs. C: 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl/min), hypertension (mean blood pressure, F: 118 ± 3 vs. C: 104 ± 4 mmHg) and obesity (F: 0.31±0.001 vs. C: 0.29 ± 0.001 g/mm). Interestingly, fructose overload rats also exhibited diastolic dysfunction. Exercise training performed during the period of high fructose intake eliminated all of these derangements. The improvements in metabolic parameters were correlated with the maintenance of diastolic function. CONCLUSION: The role of exercise training in the prevention of metabolic and hemodynamic parameter alterations is of great importance in decreasing the cardiac morbidity and mortality related to metabolic syndrome.

Animals , Male , Rats , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Diastole/physiology , Fructose/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(3): 225-233, mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-622520


FUNDAMENTO: Infusão de intralipid e heparina resulta em aumento da pressão arterial e também em anormalidades autonômicas em indivíduos normais e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade a insulina e o impacto da infusão de intralipid e de heparina (ILH) sobre a resposta hemodinâmica, metabólica e autonômica em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e 12 voluntários saudáveis foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial basal e a frequência cardíaca foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de noradrenalina encontravam-se ligeiramente aumentados no grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Após o Teste de Tolerância a Insulina (TTI), houve um declínio significativo na glicose dos dois grupos. A Infusão de ILH resultou em aumento da pressão arterial em ambos os grupos, mas não houve nenhuma mudança significativa na noradrenalina plasmática. O componente de Baixa Frequência (BF) mostrou-se semelhante e aumentou de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos. O componente de Alta Frequência (AF) apresentou-se menor no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas apresentaram aumento da atividade simpática no momento basal e uma resposta inadequada à insulina. Eles também tiveram um menor componente de alta frequência e sensibilidade barorreflexa prejudicada no momento basal e durante a infusão de intralipid e heparina.

BACKGROUND: Intralipid and heparin infusion results in increased blood pressure and autonomic abnormalities in normal and hypertensive individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin sensitivity and the impact of Intralipid and heparin (ILH) infusion on hemodynamic, metabolic, and autonomic response in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and 12 healthy volunteers were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline blood pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Plasma noradrenaline levels were slightly increased in the Chagas' group. After insulin tolerance testing (ITT), a significant decline was noted in glucose in both groups. ILH infusion resulted in increased blood pressure in both groups, but there was no significant change in plasma noradrenaline. The low-frequency component (LF) was similar and similarly increased in both groups. The high-frequency component (HF) was lower in the Chagas' group. CONCLUSION: Patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease had increased sympathetic activity at baseline and impaired response to insulin. They also had a lower high-frequency component and impaired baroreflex sensitivity at baseline and during Intralipid and heparin infusion.

FUNDAMENTO: La Infusión de intralipid® y de heparina trae como resultado un aumento de la presión arterial y también de las anormalidades autonómicas en los individuos normales e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la sensibilidad a la insulina y el impacto de la infusión de intralipid® y de heparina (ILH) sobre la respuesta hemodinámica, metabólica y autonómica en pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados doce pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas y 12 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial basal y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron similares en los dos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de noradrenalina estaban ligeramente más elevados en el grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Después del Test de Tolerancia a la Insulina (TTI), se produjo una ostensible disminución en la glucosa de los dos grupos. La Infusión de ILH trajo como consecuencia el aumento de la presión arterial en ambos grupos, pero no hubo ningún cambio significativo en la noradrenalina plasmática. El componente de Baja Frecuencia (BF), fue similar y aumentó de forma parecida en ambos grupos. El componente de Alta Frecuencia (AF) se presentó con un menor nivel en el grupo chagásico. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con una forma indeterminada de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presentaron un aumento en la actividad simpática al momento basal y una respuesta inadecuada a la insulina. También tuvieron un menor componente de alta frecuencia y de sensibilidad barorrefleja, que fue perjudicado en el momento basal y durante la infusión de intralipid® y heparina.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Baroreflex/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/adverse effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Insulin/adverse effects , Norepinephrine/blood , Sympathetic Nervous System/metabolism , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology
Rev. bras. educ. fís. esp ; 24(4): 535-544, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604590


A prática de exercícios aeróbicos e resistidos provoca ajustes agudos e crônicos distintos. Já foram documentadas diferenças hemodinâmicas e musculares entre os exercícios; todavia, quanto aos ajustes autonômicos, os estudos são escassos e controversos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as adaptações hemodinâmicas e autonômicas após uma sessão de exercício aeróbico (30 minutos, bicicleta ergométrica) e resistido (três séries de 12 repetições para os principais grupamentos musculares), em indivíduos jovens e saudáveis. Para tanto, utilizamos medidas da pressão arterial (PA), frequência cardíaca (FC), cálculo do duplo produto e análise da variabilidade da FC (VFC) nos domínios do tempo e da frequência e a Plotagem de Poincaré. Neste protocolo, a FC durante o exercício aeróbico foi maior do que no resistido (153,32 ± 2,76 vs. 143,10 ± 3,38 bpm, respectivamente). O exercício aeróbico gerou aumento da PA sistólica durante o exercício (7,25 ± 1,97 mmHg). Já o exercício resistido provocou aumento tanto da PA sistólica quanto da diastólica durante sua execução (14,83 ± 1,53; 11,92 ± 1,69 mmHg, respectivamente). Não foi observada hipotensão pós-exercício para nenhuma das sessões. Ao comparar o exercício aeróbico com o resistido na fase de recuperação, verificamos diminuição na VFC no resistido nas variáveis: RMSSD (37,74 ± 5,30 vs. 19,50 ± 2,32), NN50 (94,13 ± 23,65 vs. 27,63 ± 6,68), PNN50 (16,10 ± 4,72 vs. 3,53 ± 0,89), SD1 (26,65 ± 3,85 vs. 13,73 ± 1,66), SD2 (88,98 ± 10,71 vs. 61,88 ± 5,49) e HF (257,25 ± 45,08 vs. 102,75 ± 18,75 ms²). Concluiu-se que, para os protocolos investigados, o trabalho cardiovascular durante o exercício foi semelhante, resultando principalmente do aumento da FC no exercício aeróbico e do aumento da PAS no resistido. No período de recuperação, o exercício resistido promoveu maior alteração autonômica, compatível com manutenção do balanço simpatovagal aumentado.

The practice of aerobic and resistance exercises provokes distinct acute and chronic adjustments. Hemodynamic and muscular differences between both exercises have been already documented; nevertheless, regarding the autonomic adjustments, there are few and controversial studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the hemodynamic and autonomic adaptations after one bout of aerobic exercise (30 minutes, ergometric bicycle) and resistance exercise (three series of 12 repetitions to the main muscle groups), in young and healthy individuals. For this purpose, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured, as well as the calculation of the double product and analysis of heart rate variability in time and frequency domains and by Poincaré's Plot. In this protocol, HR during the aerobic exercise was higher than in the resistance exercise (153.32 ± 2.76 vs. 143.10 ± 3.38 bpm, respectively). Aerobic exercise caused an increase in systolic BP during the exercise (7.25 ± 1.52 mmHg) whereas resistance exercise provoked an increase in both, systolic and diastolic BP during its execution (14.83 ± 1.53; 11.92 ± 1.69 mmHg, respectively). Post-exercise hypotension was not observed after none of the exercise sessions. When comparing aerobic exercise with resistance exercise in the recovery phase, it was verified a decrease in HR variability in the resistance session for the following variables: RMMSD (37.74 ± 5.30 vs. 19.50 ± 2.32), NN50 (94.13 ± 23.65 vs. 27.63 ± 6.68), PNN50 (16.10 ± 4.72 vs. 3.53±0.89), SD1 (26.65 ± 3.85 vs. 13.73 ± 1.66), SD2 (88.98 ± 10.71 vs. 61.88 ± 5.49) e HF (257.25 ± 45.08 vs. 102.75 ± 18.75 ms²). In conclusion, in the investigated protocol, the cardiovascular work during the exercise sessions was similar, due to HR increase in the aerobic exercise and of systolic BP increase in the resistance exercise. In the recovery phase, resistance exercise promoted enhanced autonomic alteration, compatible with the maintenance if an increased sympatho-vagal balance.

Humans , Male , Adult , Arterial Pressure , Cardiovascular System , Exercise , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics