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1.
Radiol. bras ; 54(4): 246-253, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287749

ABSTRACT

Abstract Active surveillance (AS) is an important strategy to avoid overtreatment of prostate cancer (PCa) and has become the standard of care for low-risk patients. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in AS has expanded due to its ability to risk stratify patients with suspected or known PCa, and MRI has become an integral part of the AS protocols at various institutions. A negative pre-biopsy MRI result is associated with a very high negative predictive value for a Gleason score ≥ 3+4. A positive MRI result in men who are otherwise eligible for AS has been shown to be associated with the presence of high-grade PCa and therefore with ineligibility. In addition, MRI can be used to guide and determine the timing of per-protocol biopsy during AS. However, there are several MRI-related issues that remain unresolved, including the lack of a consensus and guidelines; concerns about gadolinium deposition in various tissues; and increased demand for higher efficiency and productivity. Similarly, the need for the combined use of targeted and systematic sampling is still a matter of debate when lesions are visible on MRI. Here, we review the current AS guidelines, as well as the accepted roles of MRI in patient selection and monitoring, the potential uses of MRI that are still in question, and the limitations of the method.


Resumo A vigilância ativa (VA) é uma estratégia importante para evitar o tratamento excessivo do câncer de próstata (CaP) e tornou-se o padrão de atendimento a pacientes de baixo risco. O papel da ressonância magnética (RM) na VA tem se expandido, devido à sua capacidade de estratificar o risco pacientes com CaP suspeito ou diagnosticado, tornando-se parte integrante dos protocolos de VA em várias instituições. Uma RM pré-biópsia negativa está associada a um valor preditivo negativo muito alto para o diagnóstico de Gleason ≥ 3+4. Um exame positivo em homens que são elegíveis para VA tem se mostrado associado à presença de CaP de alto grau e inelegibilidade para VA. A RM também pode ser usada para orientar e determinar o tempo ideal de uma biópsia, ou por protocolo, durante a VA. Há, no entanto, várias questões relacionadas à RM que permanecem não resolvidas. Estas incluem a falta de consenso ou diretrizes, preocupações com o depósito de gadolínio em vários tecidos e aumento da pressão por maior eficiência e produção. Da mesma forma, a necessidade de biópsia sistemática combinada à dirigida continua a ser uma questão controversa, quando as lesões são visíveis na RM. Revisaremos as atuais diretrizes de VA, os papéis consensualmente aceitos da RM na seleção e monitoramento dos pacientes, potenciais usos, ainda discutíveis, e as limitações do método.

3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 120-130, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the radiotherapy (RT) effect in the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) function in men with prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study included three groups of patients with PC and RT indication: 1) Pre-RT group: evaluated before the beginning of RT; 2) Acute group: evaluated between six months and one year after RT; 3) Late Group: evaluated between two and a half years and four years post-RT. PFM assessment was divided into: a) functional assessment through the digital anal palpation (Modified Oxford Scale) and surface electromyography (sEMG) with anal probe; b) anatomical assessment by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thickness measurements of levator ani muscle and pelvic specific parameters at rest and under Valsalva maneuver. We used Student t test, considering as significant p <0.05. Results: Thirty-three men were assessed: Pre-RT (n=12); Acute (n=10) and Late (n=11) groups. PFM functional assessment showed Late group with lower electromyographic activity, especially in the sustained contractions when compared to the Pre-RT (p=0.003) and Acute groups (p=0.006). There was no significant difference between groups in MRI. Conclusion: PFM functional assessment showed a decrease in sEMG activity in the Late group post-RT. Most of the sample (72.7%) did not know how to actively contract the PFM or had a weak voluntary contraction when assessed by digital anal palpation. Also, these patients presented higher prevalence of pelvic complaints. No changes were observed in the morpho-functional parameters evaluated by MRI, except the measurement of the membranous urethra length when comparing Pre-RT Group and Acute and Late Groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostate/immunology , Pelvic Floor/diagnostic imaging , Palpation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electromyography , Muscle Contraction
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report is of three cases of sicca syndrome, initially suspected to be Sjögren's syndrome, which was ruled out by clinical and laboratory investigations. The patients were a 24-year-old woman, a 32-year-old man, and a 77-year-old woman with chronic symptoms of sicca syndrome, including dry eye syndrome. The first case was associated with the use of isotretinoin, a retinoic acid. The second was associated with the use of anabolic androgenic steroids, and the third was related to a prolactin- secreting pituitary adenoma. All cases manifested sicca, including dry eye syndrome, after those events, and the manifestations persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral atrophy of the lacrimal gland. The medical history, ocular examinations, laboratory exams, and magnetic resonance images confirmed dry eye syndrome; however, the exams were all negative for Sjögren's syndrome. The lacrimal gland was absent on magnetic resonance imaging in all three cases. The clinical history revealed that the signs and symptoms appeared after chronic exposure to retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, respectively. Chronic isotretinoin, anabolic androgenic steroids, and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma or, in this last case, its inhibitory treatment, can cause lacrimal gland atrophy, sicca syndrome, and dry eye syndrome, and a differential diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Further studies on doses, time, and other susceptibilities to the long-lasting adverse effects of retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and the repercussions of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma are necessary to confirm and expand upon these associations.


RESUMO O relato descreve três casos de síndrome de sicca, inicialmente suspeitos de serem a síndrome de Sjögren, que fo­ram negados pela investigação clínica e laboratorial. O primeiro associado ao uso de isotretinoína, um ácido retinóico, o segundo ao uso de esteroides androgênicos anabolizantes e o terceiro relacionado ao adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina, todos manifestaram sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco após esses eventos e as manifestações persistem. A ressonância magnética revelou atrofia bilateral da glândula lacrimal. Eles eram uma mulher de 24 anos, um homem de 32 anos e uma mulher de 77 anos com sintomas crônicos da síndrome de sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco. A história médica, o exame ocular, os exames laboratoriais e a ressonância magnética foram confirmados como síndrome do olho seco, no entanto, todos os exames foram negativos para a síndrome de Sjögren. A glândula lacrimal estava ausente na ressonância magnética nos três casos. A história clínica revelou que sinais e sintomas se manifestaram após exposição crônica ao ácido retinóico, esteróides anabolizantes androgênicos e adenoma secretivo da prolactina hipofisária, respectivamente. Isotretinoína crônica, esteroides anabólicos androgênicos e adenoma hipofisário secretor de prolactina ou, neste último caso, seu tratamento inibitório pode ser a causa da atrofia da glândula lacrimal, síndrome da sicca e síndrome do olho seco e diagnóstico diferencial da síndrome de Sjögren. Estudos adicionais sobre doses, duração e outras suscetibilidades aos efeitos adversos duradouros do ácido retinóico, esteroides androgênicos anabólicos e repercussões do adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina são necessários para confirmar e detalhar essas associações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Dry Eye Syndromes , Sjogren's Syndrome , Lacrimal Apparatus , Prolactin , Atrophy , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/chemically induced , Dry Eye Syndromes/pathology , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/chemically induced , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Androgens , Lacrimal Apparatus/pathology , Lacrimal Apparatus/diagnostic imaging
6.
Radiol. bras ; 53(6): 424-429, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136109

ABSTRACT

Abstract Portal vein thrombosis refers to complete or partial obstruction of the portal venous system, in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic venous tract or even in the splenic or superior mesenteric veins. This common and potentially fatal condition can develop in various clinical contexts, especially those of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and other solid tumors. Certain characteristics, such as the time since the onset of the thrombus (acute or chronic), its biology (hematic or tumoral), the presence of collateral vessels, and the magnetic resonance imaging aspects, are important components of a thorough, careful analysis, as well as informing decisions regarding the appropriate therapeutic strategy. Here, we present a brief review of the anatomy of the portal venous system and a systematic approach to analyzing the condition, using a mnemonic (ABCD, for age, biology, collaterals, and diffusion). We discuss the various imaging methods and illustrate our discussion with images selected from the case files archived at our facility.


Resumo Trombose da veia porta refere-se à obstrução completa ou parcial do sistema venoso portal, localizada nos tratos venosos intra-hepáticos ou extra-hepáticos e até mesmo nas veias esplênica ou mesentérica superior. Vários contextos clínicos podem ser responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento desta condição frequente e potencialmente fatal, especialmente a cirrose hepática, o carcinoma hepatocelular e outros tumores sólidos. Algumas características como o tempo de aparecimento do trombo (agudo ou crônico), sua biologia (hemático ou tumoral), a presença de vasos colaterais e o seu comportamento na ressonância magnética são importantes para uma análise completa e criteriosa, assim como para o gerenciamento adequado da estratégia terapêutica. No presente artigo apresentamos breve revisão da anatomia do trato venoso portal, seguida de uma abordagem sistemática usando um mnemônico (ABCD) para análise da trombose da veia porta por diferentes métodos de imagem, utilizando imagens de casos selecionados do arquivo de ensino do nosso serviço.

7.
Radiol. bras ; 53(6): 381-389, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136119

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine whether evaluating the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) together with capsular contact (CC) adds value in the prediction of microscopic extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2016, 383 patients underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. A total of 67 patients were selected for inclusion. Two radiologists (observers 1 and 2), working independently, performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of ECE, macroscopic ECE, and microscopic ECE. A third radiologist assessed the correlation with the clinical data, and two experienced pathologists reviewed all histopathological findings. Results: Among the 67 patients, mpMRI showed lesions that were confined to the capsule in 44 (66.7%), had microscopic ECE in 12 (17.9%), and had macroscopic ECE in 11 (16.4%). There were no significant differences, in terms of the diagnostic accuracy, as measured by determining the area under the curve (AUC), of CC on T2-weighted images (CCT2), CC on diffusion-weighted imaging (CCDWI), and the mean ADC for the prediction of microscopic ECE, between observer 1 (AUC of 0.728, 0.691, and 0.675, respectively) and observer 2 (AUC of 0.782, 0.821, and 0.799, respectively). Combining the mean ADC with the CCT2 or CCDWI did not improve the diagnostic accuracy for either observer. There was substantial interobserver agreement for the qualitative evaluation of ECE, as demonstrated by the kappa statistic, which was 0.77 (0.66-0.87). The diagnostic accuracy (AUC) of the qualitative assessment for predicting microscopic ECE was 0.745 for observer 1 and 0.804 for observer 2, and the difference was less than significant. In a multivariate analysis, none of clinical or imaging parameters were found to be associated with ECE. Conclusion: For the detection of microscopic ECE on mpMRI, CC appears to have good diagnostic accuracy, especially if the observer has considerable experience. Adding the mean ADC to the CCT2 or CCDWI does not seem to provide any significant improvement in that diagnostic accuracy.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar se o coeficiente de difusão aparente (apparent diffusion coefficient - ADC) médio tem valor incremental ao contato capsular (CC) na predição da extensão extracapsular (EEC) do câncer de próstata. Materiais e Métodos: De janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2016, 383 pacientes realizaram ressonância magnética multiparamétrica de próstata. Após os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 67 pacientes foram selecionados para avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa, por dois radiologistas independentes, da EEC, EEC grosseira e EEC microscópica. Um terceiro observador coletou dados clínicos e dois patologistas experientes revisaram os achados histopatológicos. Resultados: Dos 67 pacientes selecionados, 44 apresentaram lesões restritas à cápsula (66,7%), 12 com EEC microscópica (17,9%) e 11 com EEC grosseira (16,4%). Não houve diferença significativa entre a acurácia diagnóstica, medida pela área sob a curva, entre o CC na ponderação T2 (CCT2), CC-difusão e ADC para predição da EEC microscópica para ambos os observadores (0,728, 0,691 e 0,675, respectivamente, para o observador 1, e 0,782, 0,821 e 0,799, respectivamente, para o observador 2). A associação dos valores médios do ADC ao CCT2 e ao CC-difusão não promoveu melhora da acurácia diagnóstica. A concordância interobservador para a avaliação qualitativa da EEC mostrou coeficiente kappa de 0,77 (0,66-0,87), inferindo concordância substancial. A acurácia da avaliação qualitativa para EEC microscópica foi de 0,745 e 0,804 para os observadores 1 e 2, respectivamente, diferença não significativa. Na análise multivariada, nenhum parâmetro clínico ou de imagem foi associado a EEC. Conclusão: O CC mostrou boa acurácia diagnóstica para a detecção de EEC microscópica, especialmente para o observador mais experiente. A inclusão dos valores médios de ADC não melhorou a acurácia do CC para predição de EEC microscópica.

8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 809-818, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142259

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A embolia pulmonar aguda (EPA) tem desfecho clínico variável. A angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-CT) é considerada o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico. Objetivo: Avaliar se o volume vascular pulmonar (VVP) quantificado por software automatizado é um preditor de mortalidade após EPA. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo no qual a imagem da angio-CT de 61 pacientes com EPA foi reanalisada. O VVP e o volume pulmonar (VP) foram estimados automaticamente pelo software Yacta. Calculamos o VVP ajustado pela razão: VVP(cm3)/VP(litros). Parâmetros prognósticos clássicos da angio-CT (carga embólica; razão do diâmetro do ventrículo direito/ventrículo esquerdo; razão do diâmetro da artéria pulmonar/aorta; desvio do septo interventricular; infarto pulmonar e refluxo de contraste na veia hepática) foram avaliados. A mortalidade em 1 mês foi o desfecho analisado. Consideramos um valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Sete mortes (11%) ocorreram entre os 61 pacientes durante 1 mês de seguimento. O VVP ajustado <23cm3/L foi um preditor independente de mortalidade na análise univariada (odds ratio [OR]: 26; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 3-244; p=0,004) e na análise multivariada (OR ajustado: 19 [IC95%: 1,3-270]; p=0,03). Os parâmetros clássicos da angio-CT não foram associados à mortalidade em 1 mês nesta amostra. O VVP ajustado <23cm3/L apresentou sensibilidade de 86%, especificidade de 82%, valor preditivo negativo de 94% e valor preditivo positivo de 64% para identificação dos pacientes que morreram. Conclusão: VVP ajustado <23cm3/L foi um preditor independente de mortalidade após EPA. Esse parâmetro mostrou melhor desempenho prognóstico do que os outros achados clássicos da angio-CT. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):809-818)


Abstract Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has a variable clinical outcome. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the gold standard for this diagnosis. Objective: To evaluate if the pulmonary vascular volume (PVV) quantified by automated software is a mortality predictor after APE. Methods: Retrospective cohort study where the CTPA imaging of 61 patients with APE was reanalyzed. Pulmonary vascular volume (PVV) and pulmonary volume (PV) were automatically estimated using the Yacta software. We calculated the adjusted PVV by the ratio: PVV(cm3)/PV(liters). Classical prognostic CTPA parameters (clot load index, right ventricle/left ventricle diameter ratio, pulmonary artery/aorta diameter ratio, ventricular septal bowing, pulmonary infarction and reflux of contrast into the hepatic vein) were assessed. The outcome assessed was one-month mortality. We considered a p-value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Seven deaths (11%) occurred at one month among these 61 patients. PVV<23cm3/L was an independent predictor of one-month mortality in the univariate [odds ratio (OR): 26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3-244; p=0.004] and multivariate analyses [adjusted OR: 19; 95%CI: 1.3-270; p=0.03]. The classical CTPA parameters were not associated with one-month mortality in this sample. The PVV<23cm3/L showed a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 82%, a negative predictive value of 94% and a positive predictive value of 64% to identify the patients who died. Conclusion: PVV<23cm3/L was an independent predictor of one-month mortality after APE. This parameter showed better prognostic performance than other classical CTPA findings. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):809-818)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Software , Angiography , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies
9.
Radiol. bras ; 53(2): 73-80, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the average productivity of radiologists, as measured by number of reports issued per 6-h shift, evaluating variables that could affect the results. Materials and Methods: This was a study utilizing an online questionnaire sent to radiologists affiliated with the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging. The questions were related to the demographic profile and professional practice characteristics (form of remuneration, primary imaging method employed, and subspecialty) of the radiologists, as well as their individual productivity (average personal productivity) and the productivity considered reasonable in a 6-h shift. The association between productivity and the practice characteristics of the radiologists was determined by using Poisson regression to calculate the prevalence ratio. Results: A total of 510 radiologists completed the questionnaire. The great majority of the respondents (84%) reported that their remuneration is directly related to their productivity. The productivity varied according to the subspecialty, work environment, and remuneration model. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the productivity of radiologists is associated with the characteristics of their employment. We hope that this study will encourage other studies aimed at evaluating the productive capacity of the radiologists in Brazil, addressing the various functions they perform in their daily routine, including activities other than issuing reports.


Resumo Objetivo: Estimar a produtividade média dos radiologistas brasileiros em número de laudos emitidos por período de trabalho de seis horas, analisando variáveis que possam influenciar os resultados. Materiais e Métodos: Pesquisa realizada por meio de questionários online respondidos por radiologistas brasileiros afiliados ao Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem. As questões incluíram dados demográficos e profissionais dos radiologistas (forma de remuneração, método de imagem de atuação e subespecialidade) e a produtividade individual e a considerada razoável em um período de seis horas de trabalho. A associação entre a produtividade e as características de trabalho dos radiologistas foi calculada pela razão de prevalência, por meio da regressão de Poisson. Resultados: Ao todo, 510 radiologistas responderam ao questionário. A grande maioria dos respondedores (84%) relatou que a sua remuneração está diretamente relacionada à produtividade. A produtividade variou em função da subespecialidade de atuação, ambiente de trabalho e modelo de remuneração. Conclusão: Demonstramos a associação entre a produtividade do radiologista e as características relacionadas à forma de trabalho. Esperamos que este estudo impulsione outras pesquisas que avaliem a capacidade produtiva do radiologista brasileiro, considerando as diversas funções exercidas por este profissional em sua rotina de trabalho, contemplando outras atividades, além da emissão de laudos.

12.
Radiol. bras ; 50(3): 141-147, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-896074

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.


Resumo Objetivo: Testar a precisão e a reprodutibilidade da ultrassonografia (US) e da tomografia computadorizada (TC) para a quantificação da gordura abdominal, em correlação com as avaliações antropométricas e clinicolaboratoriais. Materiais e Métodos: Foram determinadas, por meio da US e da TC, as espessuras subcutâneas e intra-abdominais em 101 indivíduos, sendo 39 homens (38,6%) e 62 mulheres (61,4%), com idade média de 66,3 anos (60-80 anos). Os dados obtidos pela US foram correlacionados com os parâmetros antropométricos, clinicolaboratoriais e com as áreas abdominais medidas pela TC. Resultados: A espessura da gordura intra-abdominal foi a variável que obteve maior coeficiente de correlação com as áreas adiposas abdominais. A TC mostrou maior reprodutibilidade nas mensurações da gordura abdominal, apresentando maior taxa de concordância intraexaminador e interexaminador em comparação com a US. Observou-se índice de correlação de 71% entre a US e a TC. Conclusão: Houve maior concordância intraexaminador e interexaminador na avaliação da gordura abdominal por TC, comparativamente à US, porém ambos os métodos mostraram alta precisão e boa reprodutibilidade.

14.
Radiol. bras ; 50(1): 32-37, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-842437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results: Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion: The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.


Resumo Objetivo: Mapear os diferentes métodos para o ensino de diagnóstico por imagem nas escolas médicas brasileiras. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado por meio de envio de questionários para os coordenadores de 178 escolas médicas brasileiras. As seguintes características foram questionadas: modelo de ensino; carga horária; infraestrutura; número de alunos e profissionais envolvidos; temas expostos; modalidades e políticas de ensino em diagnóstico por imagem. Resultados: Dos 178 questionários encaminhados, 45 (25,3%) foram respondidos, sendo 17 (37,8%) de escolas públicas e 28 (62,2%) de escolas privadas. O método de ensino de diagnóstico por imagem foi o modular em 21 (46,7%) escolas, o clássico (disciplina independente) em 13 (28,9%), o híbrido (clássico e modular) em 9 (20,0%) e outro método em 3 (6,7%). A disciplina diagnóstico por imagem é parte do currículo formal em 36 (80,0%) das escolas, curso eletivo em 3 (6,7%) e outra modalidade em 6 (13,3%). Os docentes envolvidos no ensino de diagnóstico por imagem são radiologistas em 43 (95,5%) das escolas. Conclusão: O levantamento mostrou que os cursos de medicina no Brasil tendem a oferecer o conteúdo de diagnóstico por imagem em unidades curriculares que associam outros conteúdos e em diferentes momentos do curso. Há um grande envolvimento de radiologistas no ensino de graduação, independentemente do método de ensino disponível na instituição.

15.
Radiol. bras ; 50(1): 7-12, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-842433

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the reproducibility and interobserver agreement for R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scoring system. Materials and Methods: Two independent radiologists retrospectively analyzed 46 consecutive patients with renal masses, between 2008 and 2012, using the R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RENAL-NS), which is based on the evaluation of five anatomical features of the tumor, as evaluated with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging: Radius, Exophytic/endophytic properties, Nearness to the collecting system, Anterior or posterior descriptor, and Location relative to the polar line. Tumor complexity was graded as low, intermediate, or high. The interobserver agreement was calculated for the total score and for the score for each parameter. Surgical excision of the tumors was used as the standard of reference. Results: The interobserver agreement for each of the RENAL-NS parameters, respectively, a hilar location, and the total score was 98%, 80%, 100%, 89%, 85%, 89%, and 93% of patients, corresponding to kappa values of 0.96, 0.65, 1.00, 0.75, 0.72, 0.78, and 0.88, respectively. The Nearness, Radius, and total score showed the best agreement. For the cases that were discordant in terms of the final score, no major implications in surgical planning were observed. Conclusion: The RENAL-NS is a structured, useful system to assess the anatomical features of renal tumors. It is easily applicable and reproducible, even for less experienced radiologists.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a concordância interobservador e a reprodutibilidade do sistema de pontuação nefrométrico R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RENAL-NS) usando imagens de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. Materiais e Métodos: Dois observadores independentes analisaram, retrospectivamente, 46 pacientes com massas renais, consecutivos, de 2008 a 2012. Cinco características anatômicas foram avaliadas: raio (R); localização exofítico/endofítico (E); proximidade do tumor ao sistema coletor (N, nearness); posição anterior (A) ou posterior e de localização em relação à linha polar (L). Os tumores foram classificados em baixo, intermediário ou alto grau de complexidade. A concordância foi calculada para cada parâmetro do escore e para o valor global. A excisão cirúrgica das lesões foi utilizada como padrão de referência. Resultados: A concordância para cada um dos parâmetros renais, para a característica de "h", e para a pontuação final foi 98%, 80%, 100%, 89%, 85%, 89% e 93% dos pacientes, o que corresponde a valores de kappa de 0,96, 0,65, 1,00, 0,75, 0,72, 0,78 e 0,88, respectivamente. Os parâmetros "N", "R" e o escore global mostraram as melhores concordâncias. Entre os casos discordantes na pontuação final, não foram observadas grandes mudanças no planejamento cirúrgico. Conclusão: O RENAL-NS é um sistema estruturado, útil para avaliar características anatômicas do tumor renal. É de fácil aplicação, reprodutível, mesmo entre os radiologistas menos experientes.

16.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 30(supl.1): 197-208, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892058

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Despite the technical and scientific progress that improved therapeutic resources available in Oncology, adverse effects of treatment can be prominent, impacting the quality of life (QoL). Objective: This research aims to determine the prevalence of post-radiotherapy pelvic symptoms in prostate cancer (PC) and its impact on QoL. Methods: We assessed three groups of patients at different stages during radiotherapy (RT): Pre-RT, evaluated before of RT; Post-RT#1, evaluated between six months and one year post-RT; Post-RT#2, evaluated between two and a half and four years post-RT. The presence of urinary incontinence (UI), its characteristics and impact on daily living activities (DLA) were evaluated by ICIQ-SF questionnaire. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess QoL. Student t test was used, considering significant p < 0.05. Results: Thirty-three men were assessed (pre-RT, n = 12; Post-RT#1, n = 10; Post-RT#2, n = 11). The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was highest in Post-RT#1 group. Post-RT#2 group had the highest prevalence of post-RT UI. In QoL, Pre-RT and Post-RT#2 groups experiencing the greatest impact on physical, environmental and overall QoL. Conclusion: Acute effect of RT is characterized by a high prevalence of LUTS. Post-RT#2 group experienced the most adverse effects on DLA due to a higher prevalence of post-RT UI.


Resumo Introdução: Apesar do progresso técnico e científico que melhorou recursos terapêuticos disponíveis na Oncologia, efeitos adversos do tratamento podem ser proeminentes, impactando a qualidade de vida (QoL). Objetivo: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência de sintomas pélvicos pós-radioterapia no câncer de próstata (CaP) e seu impacto na QoL. Métodos: Avaliou-se três grupos de pacientes com CaP em diferentes estágios da radioterapia (RT): (1) Pré-RT, avaliados antes da RT; (2) Pós-RT #1, avaliados entre seis meses e um ano pós-RT; (3) Pós-RT #2, avaliados entre dois anos e meio e quatro anos pós-RT. A presença de incontinência urinária (IU), suas características e o impacto sobre as atividades da vida diária (AVD) foram avaliados através do questionário ICIQ-SF. O questionário WHOQOL-BREF foi utilizado para avaliar a QoL. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para análise estatística, considerando significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Trinta e três homens foram avaliados (pré-RT, n = 12; Pós-RT #1, n = 10; Pós-RT #2, n = 11). A prevalência de sintomas do trato urinário inferior (STUI) foi maior no grupo Pós-RT #1. O grupo Pós-RT #2 teve a maior prevalência de IU pós RT. Na avaliação da QoL, os grupos Pré-RT e Pós-RT #2 apresentaram maior impacto negativo sobre os índices relacionados aos quesitos físico, ambiental e global. Conclusão: O efeito agudo da RT foi caracterizado por uma elevada prevalência de STUI. O grupo Pós-RT #2 experimentaram maior impacto negativo as AVD, devido a uma maior prevalência de IU pós RT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Medical Oncology , Urinary Incontinence , Public Health , Prevalence , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
17.
Radiol. bras ; 49(6): 363-368, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-842415

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results: Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar se a medida do coeficiente de difusão aparente (CDA) das glândulas suprarrenais é factível e reprodutível. Materiais e métodos: Neste estudo foram incluídos, retrospectivamente, 32 indivíduos saudáveis divididos em dois grupos: pré-púbere (PreP) (n = 12; 2 meses a 12,5 anos; 4 masculinos e 8 femininos) e pós-púbere (PostP) (n = 20; 11,9-61 anos; 5 masculinos e 15 femininos). Imagens de difusão por ressonância magnética (DWI) das glândulas suprarrenais foram realizadas em aparelho de 1,5 T utilizando-se b valores de 0, 20, 500 e 1000 s/mm2. As medidas do CDA das glândulas suprarrenais foram obtidas pixel-a-pixel por dois radiologistas após co-registro automático do mapa de CDA com DWI. Resultados: A média dos valores do CDA da glândula suprarrenal direita foi 1,44 × 10-3 mm2/s no grupo PreP e 1,23 × 10-3 mm2/s no grupo PostP, e da glândula esquerda foi 1,58 × 10-3 mm2/s e 1,32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectivamente. Os valores de CDA foram mais altos no grupo PreP comparados aos do PostP (p < 0,05). A concordância interobservador foi quase perfeita (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse: 0,84-0,94; p < 0,05). Conclusão: Estes resultados mostram que medir o CDA das glândulas suprarrenais é factível e reprodutível. Esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para medir o CDA de estruturas pequenas.

18.
Clinics ; 71(12): 703-708, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. RESULTS: We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. CONCLUSION: Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pelvic Pain/therapy , Uterine Artery Embolization/methods , Uterine Diseases/therapy , Uterus/blood supply , Varicose Veins/therapy , Brazil , Chronic Pain/therapy , Ovary/blood supply , Ovary/diagnostic imaging , Pain Measurement , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Pelvis/blood supply , Phlebography , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Varicose Veins/diagnostic imaging
19.
Radiol. bras ; 49(4): 251-256, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-794787

ABSTRACT

Abstract Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations.


Resumo As vias colaterais ou shunts portossistêmicos são trajetos vasculares calibrosos de comunicação patológica entre a circulação esplâncnica e a sistêmica. Suas causas são multifatoriais, compartilhando um mecanismo de elevação da pressão venosa portal, a qual promove o desvio do fluxo sanguíneo do trato gastrintestinal para a circulação sistêmica. Múltiplas vias de colaterais estão descritas na literatura, sendo congênitas ou adquiridas. Ambas as causas, congênitas e adquiridas, resultam na redistribuição de volume vascular do trato gastrintestinal de veias sistêmicas e um aumento concomitante na pressão venosa portal. Os objetivos deste ensaio são: 1) discutir as características anatômicas e de imagem dos shunts portossistêmicos; 2) fornecer uma revisão robusta (com ilustrações e desenhos esquemáticos) para detectar e reconhecer os shunts portossistêmicos adquiridos. A importância do seu reconhecimento recai sobre o fato que, em alguns casos, eles são os únicos sinais que predizem a presença de hipertensão portal, sendo a avaliação do radiologista de grande valia na escolha de tratamentos endovasculares e na detecção de suas complicações.

20.
Clinics ; 70(12): 781-789, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Transarterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there are no clear data supporting transarterial chemoembolization vs . transarterial embolization or regarding the best chemotherapeutic agent, which may suggest a preponderant role of ischemia over chemotherapeutic action. This study sought to evaluate the radiological response and outcome of transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition compared to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review identified forty-seven patients who underwent modified chemoembolization and thirty-three who underwent conventional chemoembolization between June 2006 and December 2011. The radiological response was reassessed using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The sustained complete response, time to progression and overall survival rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates were significantly higher in patients who had undergone modified chemoembolization compared to those who had undergone conventional treatment (61.7% and 24.3%, respectively; p <0.001). The rate of sustained complete response was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 236 and 37 days, respectively; p <0.001). Time to progression was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 424 and 201 days, respectively; p =0.042). Overall survival rates revealed no difference between patients who received modified chemoembolization and conventional chemoembolization (median of 483 and 399 days, respectively; p =0.316). CONCLUSION: Transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition was superior to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in terms of the radiological response in the first imaging control. Although the sustained complete response and time to progression rates were higher for the modified chemoembolization group, no differences in overall survival rates were observed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/methods , Enbucrilate/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Disease Progression , Epidemiologic Methods , Hepatic Artery , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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