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J Indian Med Assoc ; 1998 Aug; 96(8): 247-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-100665


A survey was conducted at an Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme project in North Calcutta among 656 mothers having children less than 3 years of age to assess their perception and practice regarding pulse polio immunisation (PPI). It was revealed that 91.8% of under 3-year children received PPI on 9-12-1995 and 94.4% on 20-1-1996. Major reasons for not accepting the services on those two days included 'mothers unaware' (22%), 'child too small' (30.5%), etc. Major source of first information was television (TV)/radio (57.2%) followed by anganwadi workers (AWWs) (33.8%). However, majority of the mothers were finally motivated for PPI by AWWs (58.8%) followed by the role of TV/radio (34.1%). Although 70.7% mothers knew the name of the vaccine correctly, only 3.5% mothers could tell the exact purpose of its administration. Most mothers (73%) opined that 2 drops of oral polio vaccine (OPV) was administered to their children and only 14.6% hoped that such programmes will be conducted by the Government in future. The average waiting time of mothers at immunisation centres was found to be 7.2 minutes.

Age Factors , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Female , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunization Programs , India , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mothers , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage , Radio , Television , Urban Population
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22314


The glycogen content, and its structure and the enzymes involved in glycogenolysis in human foetal organs were studied at different periods of gestation. Of all the tissues studied glycogen content was found to be the highest in cardiac muscle. Very little glycogen was present in the foetal liver at 9-12 wk of gestation, this increased progressively to nearly 2 per cent at 24 wk. Glycogen content of placenta was lower than that of skeletal muscle and liver. The level of glycogen in adipose tissue, placenta and cerebrum was not high enough to play any role in glucose homeostasis of the foetus. Human foetal liver and skeletal muscle glycogen showed the normal branched structure while the liver glycogen was found to be unusually stable. Glycogen phosphorylase activity in the foetal liver and muscle was found to be low, i.e., about a fifth and a fourth of adult liver and muscle activity respectively. The stability of foetal liver glycogen and phosphorolytic activity in the liver and muscle indicate negligible glycogenolysis during foetal development. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in foetal liver was undetectable below 12 wk of gestation, the activity increasing progressively up to 24 wk.

Fetus/enzymology , Gestational Age , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/metabolism , Glycogen/analysis , Humans , Phosphorylases/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16154


Anthropometric measurements were carried out on 772 normal human foetuses in Medical Termination of Pregnancy Clinics in Calcutta. Foetal brain constituted 14 per cent of body weights from 9 to 24 wk of gestation. The protein content/g of the foetal livers increased during 9-24 wk of gestation whereas that of the brain decreased slightly during this period. The rate of incorporation of 14C-leucine into 16,000 x g supernatant fractions of human foetal liver increased with progress of gestation. In foetal cerebrum and midbrain, the incorporation rate increased from 13 to 20 wk of gestation and then decreased. 16,000 x g pellet fractions of human foetal liver showed an increase of leucine incorporation with progress of gestation. However, the rate of incorporation in the foetal cerebrum was nearly the same at different periods of gestation.

Brain/metabolism , Fetus/metabolism , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis
J Biosci ; 1987 Mar; 11(1-4): 409-422
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-160538


The acidic mucopolysaccharides secreted into the extracellular space are thought to play many important functions amongst which are binding of water and electrolytes on the polyanionic glycosaminoglycans. Characteristically these components undergo continuous changes during growth and development of the fetuses. Relationships of the concentrations of glycosaminoglycans to the water and principal electrolytes at different periods of gestation were studied in human fetuses. It was found that during growth of the human fetuses there was a progressive decrease in water, thiocyanate space, total sodium content and glycosaminoglycans. However the decrease of glycosaminoglycans was greater than the rate of decrease of the other constituents. Hence mucopolysaccharides were thought to play more important roles than just binding of water and cations.

J Biosci ; 1982 Jun; 4(2): 167-173
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-160135


Activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC, one of the key gluconeogenic enzymes, was measured in human fetal brain and liver during development. Fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase was distributed throughout the different regions of the brain. In contrast to the partially purified enzyme from the brain, the liver enzyme was dependent on Mg2+ for maximal activity, EDTA, citrate, oleate and linoleate were stimulatory, whereas 5'-AMP inhibited the activity of the liver enzyme.