Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 278
Filter
1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204855

ABSTRACT

Aims: The present study investigated the effect of lowland rice soils of two regions viz. new alluvial and red-laterite on aggregate characterization and their associated organic carbon (SOC). Study Design: Randomized block design (RBD). Place and Duration of Study: New alluvial soils were collected from Jangipara block of Hooghly, West Bengal and Red-laterite soils were collected from Raghunathpur block of Purulia, West Bengal during 2017-18. Methodology: For each soil types (New alluvial and Red-laterite) five locations were identified and soil samples were collected from three depths i.e. 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The aggregate characteristics i.e. water-stable aggregates (WSAs), mean weight diameter (MWD), aggregate stability and aggregate size fractions along with the distribution of carbon in those aggregate size fractions were critically studied. Results: The aggregate size as well as the stability decreased with increasing soil depth from 0 to 30 cm in both soils. New alluvial soils showed higher aggregate stability than red-laterite soils. Mean weight diameter (MWD) values of new alluvial soils were 34, 29 and 87% more than red-laterite soils at 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth, respectively. Presence of higher amount of clay and organic matter in new alluvial made the difference in structural coefficient. The surface soil (0-10 cm) had more coarse aggregate (Cmac A >2000μ) fraction, however, microaggregates (<250μ) were dominant in lower depths in both soils. Water stable aggregates (WSA) in surface soils of new alluvial and red-laterite were 57 and 36%, respectively and were decreased with depth. Red-laterite produced higher micro aggregates as compared to new alluvial soils. Coarse macro aggregate fractions (>2000μ) retained maximum amount of soil organic carbon in both soils however, coarse micro aggregate associated carbon (Cmic AC<250μ) was captured in lower depths. New alluvial soils yielded aggregates with higher in diameter and stability coefficient that is due to higher amount of carbon stored in aggregates. Conclusion: The abundance of macro aggregate of New alluvial soils indicates better soil physical quality than Red-laterite soil which was dominated in higher micro aggregates leads to poor in structure and susceptible to water erosion.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196466

ABSTRACT

In spite of the advent of many high throughput technologies, tumor tissue biomarkers are still the gold standard for diagnosis and prognosis of different malignancies including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). EOC is a heterogeneous disease comprised of five major subtypes which show distinct clinicopathological features and therapy response. Acquirement of chemoresistance toward therapy is a major challenge for successful treatment outcome in EOC patients. Several markers have been tested by immunohistochemical method to evaluate their prognostic merit to predict clinical outcome. However, a vast majority of such markers have been assessed for high-grade serous and clear cell ovarian cancer, among all subtypes of EOC. The current review elaborates upon those biomarkers that can potentially predict chemoresistance with subtype specificity.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196365

ABSTRACT

Conjoined twins are a very rare complication of monozygotic twinning, most common being thoracopagus. Here we report about two cases of thoracopagus male twins illustrating the autopsy details of one case and the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) details of another case. While the first case was misdiagnosed as separate twins on antenatal USG, only to be later confirmed as thoracopagus twins after birth, the antenatal MRI done in the second case helped in accurate detection of thoracopagus twins. Bilateral peripheral cortical cysts with dysplasia was noted in one of the twins of the first case, which has not been reported earlier in conjoint thoracopagii. Early prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is essential for better counselling of parents regarding post natal surgical management or termination of pregnancy. Importance of prenatal MRI for accurate detection of these cases is thereby highlighted.

5.
Indian J Public Health ; 2019 Mar; 63(1): 86-88
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198101

ABSTRACT

Cyberbullying is a newer phenomenon which is becoming more prevalent among adolescent students with the use of information technology. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of being cyberbullied among late adolescent and to study the behavior and the attitude on cyberbullying. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 254 school students (15� years). Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. About 210 (82.7%) students were using any form of social networking site and out of which 22 (10.5%) students were cyberbullied. Among those who were cyberbullied, the majority (16 [72.7%]) had no opinion and more than half (15 [68.2%]) sought their friends' help. Cyberbullying is emerging as a newer social problem in our country, where students' lack of awareness and understanding of it results in underreporting of cyberbullying incidents.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196291

ABSTRACT

Glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) is an uncommon type of cystic renal disease affecting children. It has both sporadic and familial occurrence and is characterized by cortical microcysts associated with dilatation of Bowman's spaces. In some instances, GCKD is an early manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here, we present three cases of GCKD, two in infants and one in a perinatal postmortem. The first one is a case of GCKD with unilateral involvement, diagnosed on surgical biopsy. GCKD is a morphological expression of several hereditary and nonhereditary disorders that differ vastly in their management and long-term outcome. Hence, accurate morphological diagnosis of this entity is important for prognostication and genetic counseling.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195737

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The frequency and predictors of pancreatitis in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are not well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of pancreatitis in patients with PHPT and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters of the disease. Methods: In this retrospective study all consecutive patients with PHPT registered in the PHPT registry (www.indianphptregistry.com) from the year 2004 to 2013 were included. The clinical, biochemical and radiological parameters related to pancreatitis were evaluated in histologically proven PHPT patients. Results: A total of 218 patients (63 men; mean age: 40.6±14.4 yr) underwent surgery for PHPT during the study. Pancreatitis occurred in 35 [16%, 18 acute and 17 chronic pancreatitis (CP)] patients and male:female ratio was 1:0.94. Skeletal manifestations were seen less frequently in PHPT with pancreatitis as compared to that of PHPT without pancreatitis. PHPT with pancreatitis had significantly higher serum calcium (12.4±2.0 vs. 11.7±1.5 mg/dl, P <0.05) in comparison to PHPT without pancreatitis. PHPT with acute pancreatitis (AP) had higher serum calcium (P <0.05) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P <0.05) levels than PHPT with CP. Curative parathyroidectomy improved the symptoms associated with pancreatitis as there was no recurrence in AP group, whereas recurrence was observed only in about 10 per cent patients of the CP group. Interpretation & conclusions: Pancreatitis was observed in 16 per cent of PHPT patients with male predominance in the study population. No recurrence of AP was observed after curative surgery. It may be proposed that serum amylase with calcium and PTH should be measured in all patients of PHPT with pain abdomen to rule out pancreatitis.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196238

ABSTRACT

Context: Neonatal period is the single most hazardous period of life. The major causes of neonatal death are prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome. We report a series of neonatal autopsies in our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with special emphasis on pulmonary pathology. The spectrum of pathological changes in the lungs and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression was studied in detail with reference to its spatial distribution. Aims: This study aims to analyze the causes of neonatal death with special attention to pulmonary pathology along with associated histopathological changes in lungs. We also evaluated the expression of TTF-1 at different levels of the airway. Materials and Methods: After taking consent and anthropometric measurements, autopsy was performed. Weights of all organs were taken, and histological sections were examined under hematoxylin and eosin stain. TTF-1 immunostaining was done on lung sections. Localization of TTF-1 was evaluated at the intrapulmonary level of terminal bronchioles (TBs), distal bronchioles, and alveoli. Results: We performed a series of 25 autopsies in neonates. In our series, most of the neonates were preterm (64%), had low birth weight (44%), and died within the first 7 days of life (80%). Majority (60%) of the neonates died due to pulmonary causes, followed by septicemia (24%), congenital anomalies (12%), and birth injury (4%). Among the respiratory causes, hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was diagnosed in maximum number of cases (32%), followed by pneumonia (12%) and pulmonary hemorrhage (12%). The TTF-1 expression in TBs, distal airways, and alveoli was significantly reduced or absent in cases of HMD compared to the control group. Conclusions: In this study, we observed that HMD is the most common cause of perinatal death among respiratory disorders, and in this disease, the expression of TTF-1 is significantly reduced in TBs, distal airways, and alveoli compared to the control group.

9.
Indian J Public Health ; 2018 Mar; 62(1): 15-20
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198034

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness has a serious impact on the disease outcome and lives of people with mental illness as well as other family members. Objectives: The objectives of this study were (i) To determine the level of self-perceived stigma toward mental illness, (ii) To measure perception to it among caregivers of people with mental illness, and (iii) To identify the factors associated with self-perceived stigma of caregivers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a structured interview was conducted among 200 caregivers of people with mental illness in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India. Stigma and perception regarding mental illness were assessed with a validated 12-item Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue and 20-item perception scale, respectively. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics was also collected. Results: Average stigma score (53.3 � 13.2) was higher than 50% of maximum attainable score. Caregivers of higher age, female gender, low income, higher education, manual job, rural residence, and those who are single or widowed scored higher in stigma scale. Caregivers with female gender (P = 0.007) and rural residence (P = 0.01) were more likely to have stigma while the perception score was negatively associated (P < 0.001) with stigma score. Conclusion: The study highlighted that health-care providers can play a pivotal role to address caregivers� stigma in order to alleviate its effect on the course of illness and improve family life.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195473

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is rarely diagnosed in patients with HIV infection, in spite of autopsy studies showing very high rates of adrenal involvement. This study was aimed to determine the presence, patterns and predictors of AI in patients with HIV infection. Methods: Consecutive HIV patients, 18-70 yr age, without any severe co-morbid state, having at least one-year follow up at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results: From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients having good immune function were analyzed. Basal morning cortisol <6 ?g/dl (<165 nmol/l; Group 1), 6-11 ?g/dl (165-300 nmol/l; Group 2), 11-18 ?g/dl (300-500 nmol/l; Group 3) and ?18 ?g/dl (500 nmol/l; Group 4) were observed in 13, 71, 199 and 76 patients, respectively. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test revealed 87 patients (24.23%) to have AI. AI in groups 1-4 was 100, 56.34, 17.09 and 0 per cent, respectively. AI patients were more likely to be females (P<0.05), having longer disease duration (P<0.05), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, hyperkalaemia (P<0.01), lower fasting glucose (P<0.01), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and vitamin D. Regression analysis revealed morning cortisol and DHEAS to be best predictors of AI (P=0.004 and 0.028, respectively). Interpretation & conclusions: AI is a significant problem in HIV-infected individuals, observed in nearly a quarter of patients. Diagnosis warrants high index of suspicion and low threshold for screening, especially in those having low DHEAS and hyperkalaemia. Morning cortisol is a reasonable screening test, with ACTH stimulation warranted to confirm diagnosis, especially in patients with morning cortisol <11 ?g/dl (300 nmol/l).

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-186397

ABSTRACT

Background: Tobacco is mostly regarded as one of the primary etiologic factor in causing oral cancer. Literature quotes studies have depicted the alteration of nuclear (NA) and cytoplasmic area (CA) induced by tobacco smoking and chewing. Also some authors have stressed on quantifying the role of cytomorphometric analysis in analysing these cellular alterations. Therefore, we evaluated the cytological and cytomorphometric changes in the oral squames using brush biopsy from buccal mucosa of tobacco users. Materials and methods: 200 patients of age group of 40-65 years attending the hospital OPD with history of smoking were included in the study. The patients were broadly divided into two groups; Shetty R, Mukherjee S, Dutta N, Bhagat DK, Sushma K N, Pandey V. Cytomorphometric analysis of oral squames Tobacco Smoker’s using oral brush biopsy: An exfoliative cytological study. IAIM, 2016; 3(5): 14-19. Page 15 smokers (n=150) and Non-smokers (n=50). The cytological samples were taken from clinically normal appearing oral mucosa, stained and analysed using Image analysing software. IndependentSamples T Test and One-Way ANOVA were used to assess the level of significance. Results: significant increase in Mean NA was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Also, Mean CA decreased in smoker’s group as compared to non-smokers. Likewise, N/C ratio was found to be significantly elevated in smokers group. Cytomorphometric parameter changes showed significant alteration with increasing duration of smoking. Conclusion: Cytomorhometric analysis can be used to analyse the alterations occurring in cellular and nuclear level.

12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Feb ; 33 (5_Suppl):s53-58
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157044

ABSTRACT

Purpose: For antibiotic susceptibility results, conventional culture and sensitivity methods takes 48 hours after a blood culture is fl agged positive by automated systems. Early initiation of targeted antibiotic therapy is essential for effective management of sepsis to reduce morbidity, mortality, cost of treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance. Objective of this study was to evaluate Direct Sensitivity Test (DST) as a potential tool to get reliable antibiotic susceptibility results 24 hours earlier. Materials and Methods: Blood cultures fl agged positive between May 2011 to December 2012 by BacT/ALERT were Gram stained. All uni-microbial gram-negative blood cultures were simultaneously cultured and processed for DST from broth using disk diffusion method using British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) guidelines. DST results available next day were compared with conventional antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) performed by Vitek-2 on isolated colonies. Results of DST (test method) and AST (reference method) were compared for agreements or errors. Results: Of the 840 antibiotic gram-negative organism combinations tested, Categorical and essential agreements were 83.7% and 96.2% respectively. Minor, major and very major errors were 12.5%, 3.33% and 0.47%, respectively. Conclusions: DST using disk diffusion from positive blood culture broths helps to initiate early targeted antibiotic therapy. There is high concordance between DST and AST.

13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Jan-Mar ; 33 (1): 132-135
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157004

ABSTRACT

Rabies remains an important public health problem in the world due to uncontrolled enzootic rabies. Although rabies associated fatalities may be prevented with timely immunoprophylaxis, but till date a therapeutic molecule has remained elusive. We investigated the role of rhuIFN α-2a in murine model challenged with rabies virus. Titre of 104.25 LD50/0.03 ml of 10% w/v RV CVS stock suspension were obtained. Based on 1LD50 titre, challenge dose of 50 LD50 was administered along with rhuIFN α-2a with pre-exposure (primed) and post-exposure with the rabies virus. Both showed increased survival time as compared with the virus controls. These fi ndings suggest that the rhuIFN α-2a might have some anti-viral activity, which can be used for the treatment of rabies infection. Further research on the effi cacy of interferon along with anti-viral drugs for the treatment will be helpful in designing combination therapy against the disease.

14.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 620-621
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172671
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154454

ABSTRACT

A 33-year-old male presented with repeated episodes of blood-streaked sputum for last one-and half-year. Chest radiograph showed consolidation in the right lower zone. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed an endoluminal growth in the right lower lobe bronchus. Histopathological examination of bronchoscopic biopsy specimen confirmed adenoid cystic carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bronchoscopy , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/pathology , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Male
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-177099

ABSTRACT

Infertility is a major clinical problem, affecting people medically and psychosocially. Male factor plays a significant role in about 50% of infertile couples. Recent reports indicate that increasing male infertility could be due to genomic abnormalities. The etiology of sperm DNA damage is multi-factorial but compromised due to nuclear defects, protamine deficiency and oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate sperm DNA integrity and oxidative stress in infertile men. The study is prospective, comprises 96 infertile patients and 30 fertile controls. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed by flowcytometry. MDA and TAC were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The percentage of DNA Fragmentation Index and MDA were found to be significantly increased while TAC was significantly decreased in infertile men as compared to control. DFI and MDA were negatively correlated with TAC levels. Present study indicates significant increases in seminal MDA and sperm DNA damage in infertile men. Seminal MDA was significantly correlated with sperm DNA damage, TAC and standard sperm parameters. The elevated levels of seminal OS observed in these infertile patients could be responsible for poor sperm quality and sperm DNA fragmentation. Hence evaluation of DFI, MDA and TAC can be used for diagnosis, prognosis of male infertility in addition to routine semen parameters to decide the treatment strategies.

17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-152480

ABSTRACT

Background: It is felt that medical training should largely be made in close proximity of public health & social environment compared to a tertiary care hospital. The package of training could include an exposure to the rural community because a fresh graduate doctor does not have concept of broad community healthcare needs. Aims & Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a program designed to expose medical student to the rural community and support system in health. Methods: The study was conducted in December 2008 among 96 medical student of 7th semester. This was a quasi- experimental design with before and after intervention assessment. Assessment was made based on presentations on comparisons of mock village scenario Vs real village experience. A structured questionnaire was used to assess change in knowledge. Results: The mean of the test scores in communication skill and knowledge (based on presentations) in average mock village scenario were 45.94 and improved to 53.56 after real village stay. There was an improvement of 7.62(16.6 %, p<0.001).The mean pre and post village stay score in knowledge based on questionnaire was 56.02 and 67.12 respectively with an improvement of 11.1 (19.81%, p<0.001). The programme was also found to be interesting to the students and villagers. Conclusions: A village stay programme to teach undergraduate student in a field setting to expose them to various parameters of practice of primary health care can help them understand the contextual needs of the society.

18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2014 Jan- Mar ; 32 (1): 64-67
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156852

ABSTRACT

A total of 100 blood and 18 urine samples of rodents and suspected dogs were collected from Mumbai, India during 2006-2008. In order to determine the role of animals in transmission of the disease to humans, all the samples were screened retrospectively by real-time polymerase chain reaction for leptospiral DNA and antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination test. Leptopsiral DNA was detected from two blood and fi ve urine samples from rodents. Of a total of 71 rodent and dog samples investigated for anti-Leptospira antibodies, 14 (19.7%) were positive. Pyrogenes was the predominant serovar found in 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7) from suspected canine cases and rodents, respectively; followed by Icterohemorrhagiae, which was found in one rodent sample 14.28% (1/7). The study proves that there is high prevalence of leptospirosis in rodents and dogs in this region, which proves possible role of these animals in transmission of leptospires to humans. Hence it is imperative to necessary control measures to prevent human leptospirosis.

19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167570

ABSTRACT

We report rare phenomena of ossification in benign colon polyp. An adult woman presented with occasional bleeding per rectum for which she was investigated. A polypoid rectal swelling was detected and histolopathology revealed an inflammatory polyp with osteoid formation. The case is presented for its rarity and available literature is reviewed.

20.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 155-158
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143937

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Influenza has a major impact on public heath, annually affecting 15-20% of the global population. Information on the activity of influenza virus in Mumbai is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of influenza viruses causing acute respiratory infections in children by molecular methods. Objective: To study the prevalence of influenza viruses among the paediatric population in Mumbai by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Materials and Methods: From July 2007 to July 2009, 100 respiratory samples (nasal and throat swabs) were collected from paediatric patients with acute respiratory symptoms. attending out patients department, and admitted to the paediatric wards of B. J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai. The samples were collected and processed as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Viral RNA was extracted and one-step rRT-PCR was performed to detect influenza type A (H1 and H3) and influenza type B virus. Results: Out of 100 samples processed by rRT-PCR, a total of 11 samples (11%) were positive for influenza virus. The typing for influenza A subtypes showed 1% (1) positivity for H1 and 5% (5) positivity for H3 subtypes and 5% (5) samples tested positive for influenza type B virus. Conclusion: It was observed that both influenza type A and B viruses were prevalent in Mumbai during the study period. Such surveillance data are important in the early detection of any antigenic variants that may be helpful in global influenza vaccine preparation and for any pandemic preparedness activity.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virology/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL