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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833774

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma mekongi n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described based on adult flukes collected from humans residing along the Mekong River in Cambodia. Total 256 flukes were collected from the diarrheic stool of 6 echinostome egg positive villagers in Kratie and Takeo Province after praziquantel treatment and purging. Adults of the new species were 9.0-13.1 (av. 11.3) mm in length and 1.3-2.5 (1.9) mm in maximum width and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternative rows), including 5 end group spines. The eggs in feces and worm uterus were 98-132 (117) μm long and 62-90 (75) μm wide. These morphological features closely resembled those of Echinostoma revolutum, E. miyagawai, and several other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma species. However, sequencing of the nuclear ITS (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and nad1, revealed unique features distinct from E. revolutum and also from other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma group available in GenBank (E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG). Thus, we assigned our flukes as a new species, E. mekongi. The new species revealed marked variation in the morphology of testes (globular or lobulated), and smaller head collar, collar spines, oral and ventral suckers, and cirrus sac compared to E. revolutum and E. miyagawai. Epidemiological studies regarding the geographical distribution and its life history, including the source of human infections, remain to be performed.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168661

ABSTRACT

The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145–165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6–10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0–8.1×1.6–2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120–135×68–75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cambodia , Cricetinae , Digestion , Eggs , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Intestine, Small , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae , Mice , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovary , Ovum , Rats , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda , Uterus
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99310

ABSTRACT

Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is first reported from Cambodia through recovery of the metacercariae from mullet fish and adult flukes from an experimentally infected hamster. We purchased 7 mullets, Chelon macrolepis, in a local market of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion method on May 2010. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected in all mullets (100%) examined, and their average density was 177 per fish. They were elliptical, 220×168 μm in average size. They were orally infected to an hamster to obtain adult flukes. Adults recovered at day 10 post infection were observed with a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). They were small, 450×237 μm in average size, had a small oral sucker (41×50 μm), subglobular pharynx (29×21 μm), slender esophagus (57 μm), long and thick-walled expulsor (119×32 μm), spherical ovary (58×69 μm), and 2 ovoid testes (right: 117×74 μm; left: 114×63 μm). Eggs were small, yellow, and 23×12 μm in average size. In SEM observations, tegumental spines were densely distributed on the whole tegument, and single small type I sensory papillae were distributed around the lip of oral sucker. The small ventral sucker was dextrally located and had 8 type I sensory papillae on the left margin. It has been first confirmed in the present study that the mullet, C. macrolepis, is playing the role of a second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cambodia , Cricetinae , Digestion , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Humans , Lip , Metacercariae , Methods , Ovary , Ovum , Pharynx , Smegmamorpha , Spine , Testis , Trematoda
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124058

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Topography, Medical , Young Adult
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146174

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Opisthorchiasis/epidemiology , Opisthorchis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Young Adult
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207826

ABSTRACT

Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Male , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Prevalence , Rural Population , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207824

ABSTRACT

We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica based on 706, 629, and 474 bp bands, respectively. All of the Taenia specimens from Kho Kong, Cambodia, were identified as either T. saginata (n=19) or T. solium (n=2) by cox1 sequencing and multiplex PCR.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Cambodia , Child , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminth Proteins/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Taenia saginata/enzymology , Taenia solium/enzymology , Taeniasis/parasitology , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32268

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to study Schistosoma mekongi and other intestinal parasitic infections, and intestinal symptoms and related complaints among school-age children and adolescents living around Tonle Sap Lake. Villages were selected where there were potential signs of schistosomiasis (hepatomegaly), and where subjects complained of intestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 1,616 children and were examined by Kato-Katz, SAF concentration, and Baermann technique; short clinical examinations were also performed. No S. mekongi infection was detected, although a high level of intense human water contacts was reported. Helminth infection such as Ascaris lumbricoides (27.7%) and hookworms (29.7%) were common. Trichuris trichiura 4.4%), Hymenolepis nana (6.2%), Giardia lamblia (4.2%), and Entamoeba spp (14.4%) were also recorded. Strongyloides stercoralis was frequently diagnosed (20.2%). It was concluded that it is unlikely that S. mekongi is transmitted in Tonle Sap Lake. However, other intestinal parasitic infections are widespread. In particular, S. stercoralis should be considered an important etiologic agent in children and adolescents with abdominal complaints.


Subject(s)
Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence , Sanitation , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36178

ABSTRACT

We have been conducting surveys of schistosomiasis mekongi along the Mekong river in Cambodia since 1997. We attempted to detect canine schistosome infection during the survey in 2000 because dogs were reported to be natural reservoirs of the Mekong schistosome in Lao PDR. A total of 28 canine fecal samples were collected in Kbal Chuor village, Kratie Province and examined for schistosome eggs. One specimen had schistosome eggs (positive rate = 3.6%; egg density = 100/gram stool), which showed characteristics of Schistosoma mekongi. During the 2001 survey, one out of 310 canine stool samples was positive for schistosome eggs (positive rate = 0.32%; egg density = 3,456/gram stool). These are the first confirmed cases of canine schistosomiasis mekongi in Cambodia, which suggests that dogs are animal reservoirs of S. mekongi in the survey area. We further tried to detect S. mekongi in cows, water buffalos, pigs,horses, and field rats in five villages in Kratie Province; no schistosome egg was found in the stools of these animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic/parasitology , Cambodia/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs/parasitology , Rats/parasitology , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control
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