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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 124-132, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919605

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare long-term clinical outcomes according to the use of emergency medical services (EMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who arrived at the hospital within 12 hr of symptom onset. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 13104 patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry–National Institutes of Health from October 2011 to December 2015. Of them, 2416 patients with STEMI who arrived at the hospital within 12 hr were divided into two groups: 987 patients in the EMS group and 1429 in the non-EMS group. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce bias from confounding variables. After PSM, 796 patients in the EMS group and 796 patients in the non-EMS group were analyzed. The clinical outcomes during 3 years of clinical follow-up were compared between the two groups according to the use of EMS. @*Results@#The symptom-to-door time was significantly shorter in the EMS group than in the non-EMS group. The EMS group had more patients with high Killip class compared to the non-EMS group. The rates of all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were not significantly different between the two groups. After PSM, the rate of all-cause death and MACE were still not significantly different between the EMS and non-EMS groups. The predictors of mortality were high Killip class, renal dysfunction, old age, long door-to-balloon time, long symptom-to-door time, and heart failure. @*Conclusion@#EMS utilization was more frequent in high-risk patients. The use of EMS shortened the symptom-to-door time, but did not improve the prognosis in this cohort.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917393

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives@#This study aimed to identify the characteristics and clinical outcomes of cancer patients who developed constrictive physiology (CP) after percutaneous pericardiocentesis. @*Methods@#One-hundred thirty-three cancer patients who underwent pericardiocentesis were divided into 2 groups according to follow-up echocardiography (CP vs. non-CP). The clinical history, imaging findings, and laboratory results, and overall survival were compared. @*Results@#CP developed in 49 (36.8%) patients after pericardiocentesis. The CP group had a more frequent history of radiation therapy. Pericardial enhancement and malignant masses abutting the pericardium were more frequently observed in the CP group. Fever and ST segment elevation were more frequent in the CP group, with higher C-reactive protein levels (6.6±4.3mg/dL vs. 3.3±2.5mg/dL, p<0.001). Pericardial fluid leukocytes counts were significantly higher, and positive cytology was more frequent in the CP group. In baseline echocardiography before pericardiocentesis, medial e′ velocity was significantly higher in the CP group (8.6±2.1cm/s vs. 6.5±2.3cm/s, p<0.001), and respirophasic ventricular septal shift, prominent expiratory hepatic venous flow reversal, pericardial adhesion, and loculated pericardial fluid were also more frequent. The risk of all-cause death was significantly high in the CP group (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval,1.10–2.13; p=0.005). @*Conclusions@#CP frequently develops after pericardiocentesis, and it is associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Several clinical signs, imaging, and laboratory findings suggestive of pericardial inflammation and/or direct malignant pericardial invasion are frequently observed and could be used as predictors of CP development.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927033

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Rapid percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the cornerstone of treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there have been conflicting results regarding the differences in clinical outcomes between on-hours and off-hours presentation in STEMI patients. We aimed to examine the difference in long-term outcomes between off-hours and on-hours PCI in patients with STEMI. @*Methods@#The characteristics and clinical outcomes of 5,364 STEMI patients between November 2011 and June 2015 from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health (KAMIR-NIH) registry were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: the off-hours group (weekdays from 6:01 PM to 7:59 AM, weekends, and legal holidays) and the on-hours group (weekdays from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) were defined as a composite of allcause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, any revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, and stent thrombosis. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of MACCEs, and all other clinical outcomes were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 3,119 patients (58.1%) underwent primary PCI due to STEMI during off-hours and 2,245 patients (41.9%) during on-hours. At 36 months, the clinical outcomes of the off-hours group were similar to those of the on-hours group in both the unadjusted and propensity score weighting-adjusted analyses. @*Conclusions@#Our analysis revealed that the long-term outcomes in STEMI patients admitted to hospitals during off-hours were similar to outcomes of those admitted during on-hours.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927015

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is conventionally recognized as an urgent medical condition requiring timely and effective reperfusion therapy. However, the results of studies on the clinical outcomes in AMI according to hospital visit timings are inconclusive. To explore the difference in long-term outcomes between off- and on-hour percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with AMI of Killip functional classification III–IV (Killip III–IV AMI). @*Methods@#Data on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of 1,751 patients with Killip III–IV AMI between November 2011 and June 2015 from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health registry were analyzed. All participants were allocated into two groups: off-hour (weekdays from 6:00 PM to 8:00 AM, weekends, and legal holidays) and on-hour (weekdays from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM) groups. The incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, any revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, and stent thrombosis, was the primary endpoint. @*Results@#Among the 1,751 patients, 572 (39.1%) underwent PCI during on-hours and 892 (60.9%) during off-hours. At the 3-year follow-up, no significant difference was found in the clinical outcomes between the two groups in both the unadjusted and propensity-score weighing-adjusted analyses. @*Conclusions@#The outcomes of patients with Killip III–IV AMI admitted during off- and on-hours were similar.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926997

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#While switching strategies of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (RIs) have sometimes been used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, the current status of in-hospital P2Y12RI switching remains unknown. @*Methods@#Overall, 8,476 AMI patients who underwent successful revascularization from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) were divided according to in-hospital P2Y12RI strategies, and net adverse cardiovascular events (NACEs), defined as a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding during hospitalization were compared. @*Results@#Patients with in-hospital P2Y12RI switching accounted for 16.5%, of which 867 patients were switched from clopidogrel to potent P2Y12RI (C-P) and 532 patients from potent P2Y12RI to clopidogrel (P-C). There were no differences in NACEs among the unchanged clopidogrel, the unchanged potent P2Y12RIs, and the P2Y12RI switching groups. However, compared to the unchanged clopidogrel group, the C-P group had a higher incidence of non-fatal MI, and the P-C group had a higher incidence of TIMI major bleeding. In clinical events of in-hospital P2Y12RI switching, 90.9% of non-fatal MI occurred during pre-switching clopidogrel administration, 60.7% of TIMI major bleeding was related to pre-switching P2Y12RIs, and 71.4% of TIMI major bleeding was related to potent P2Y12RIs. Only 21.6% of the P2Y12RI switching group switched to P2Y12RIs after a loading dose (LD); however, there were no differences in clinical events between patients with and without LD. @*Conclusions@#In-hospital P2Y12RI switching occurred occasionally, but had relatively similar clinical outcomes compared to unchanged P2Y12RIs in Korean AMI patients. Non-fatal MI and bleeding appeared to be mainly related to pre-switching P2Y12RIs.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 304-319, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926512

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#De-escalation of dual-antiplatelet therapy through dose reduction of prasugrel improved net adverse clinical events (NACEs) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), mainly through the reduction of bleeding without an increase in ischemic outcomes. Whether the benefits of de-escalation are sustained in highly thrombotic conditions such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of de-escalation therapy in patients with STEMI or non-STsegment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). @*Methods@#This is a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the HOST-REDUCE-POLYTECH-ACS trial. ACS patients were randomized to prasugrel de-escalation (5 mg daily) or conventional dose (10 mg daily) at 1-month post-percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary endpoint was a NACE, defined as a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, clinically driven revascularization, stroke, and bleeding events of grade ≥2 Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria at 1 year. @*Results@#Among 2,338 patients included in the randomization, 326 patients were diagnosed with STEMI. In patients with NSTE-ACS, the risk of the primary endpoint was significantly reduced with de-escalation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48– 0.89; p=0.006 for de-escalation vs. conventional), mainly driven by a reduced bleeding. However, in those with STEMI, there was no difference in the occurrence of the primary outcome (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.48–2.26; p=0.915; p for interaction=0.271). @*Conclusions@#Prasugrel dose de-escalation reduced the rate of NACE and bleeding, without increasing the rate of ischemic events in NSTE-ACS patients but not in STEMI patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875518

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recently, distal radial approach (DRA), called as snuffbox approach, has gained the interest of interventional cardiologists, but there is a lack of data about the feasibility of DRA as an alternative route for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#A total of 138 patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in whom primary PCI via the DRA was attempted at three hospitals from October 2017 to September 2019 were analyzed. @*Results@#The success rate of snuffbox puncture in the setting of STEMI was 92.8% (128/138). Successful primary PCI via the DRA was achieved in all 128 patients. The snuffbox puncture time, defined as the time interval from local anesthesia induction to successful sheath cannulation, was 2.7 ± 1.6 minutes, and snuffbox puncture was performed within 5 minutes in 95.3% of patients. Moreover, the percentage of the puncture time in the door-to-balloon time was 3.3%. The left DRA was selected in 103 patients (80.5%), and primary PCI via the DRA was performed using a 6-Fr guiding catheter in 125 patients (97.7%). There was no major bleeding; however, there were four cases (3.1%) of access-site complications, including three cases of local hematoma (≤ 5 cm diameter) and one case of local numbness, which improved 3 months later. @*Conclusions@#In the setting of STEMI, the DRA could be a feasible alternative access route for primary PCI.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875500

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Long-term benefit of vasodilating β-blockers is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the long-term benefit of vasodilating β-blockers over conventional β-blockers in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). @*Methods@#Using nationwide prospective multicenter Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry data, we analyzed 3-year clinical outcomes of 7,269 patients with AMI who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and β-blocker therapy. Patients were classified according to treatment strategy (vasodilating β-blockers vs. conventional β-blockers). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalization for heart failure (HF) at 3 years. Secondary outcomes were each component of the primary outcome. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences of baseline characteristics. @*Results@#In 3,079 pairs (6,158 patients) of propensity score-matched patients, the primary outcome occurred significantly less in the vasodilating β-blockers group compared with the conventional β-blockers group (7.6% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.003). Among the secondary outcomes, cardiac death occurred significantly less in the vasodilating β-blockers group than in the conventional group (3.5% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.015). The incidence rates of MI (2.4% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.160) or hospitalization for HF (2.6% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.192) were not significantly different between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#Vasodilating β-blocker therapy was associated with better clinical outcomes compared with conventional β-blocker therapy in AMI patients undergoing PCI during 3 years follow-up. Vasodilating β-blockers could be recommended preferentially for these patients.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875494

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study compared long-term clinical outcomes between male and female acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#From November 2011 to December 2015, 13,104 patients with AMI were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry National Institutes of Health (KAMIR-NIH) (4,458 diabetic patients and 8,646 non-diabetic patients). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to reduce bias due to confounding variables. Following PSM, 2,046 diabetic patients, 1,023 males (69.8 ± 9.4 years) and 1,023 females (69.9 ± 9.4 years); and 3,412 non-diabetic patients, 1,706 males (70.0 ± 10.4 years) and 1,706 females (70.4 ± 10.8 years) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were compared between male and female patients with and without diabetes over a 3-year clinical follow-up. @*Results@#In diabetic patients, mortality (21.1% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.813) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (30.6% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.698) were not significantly different between males and females. However, mortality (15.8% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.002) and MACE (20.8% vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in male non-diabetic patients than in female non-diabetic patients. The predictors of mortality for both males and females in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups were old age, heart failure, renal dysfunction, anemia, and no percutaneous coronary intervention. @*Conclusions@#The long-term clinical outcomes in AMI patients with DM did not significantly differ by sex. However, the mortality and MACE in non-diabetic male patients were higher than those in females.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875459

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical outcomes of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) in young female patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). @*Methods@#We identified 8,250 patients diagnosed with AMI who underwent coronary angiogram from the Chonnam National University Hospital database, Gwangju, Korea, between November 2005 and September 2017. A total of 148 female patients aged less than 60 years with a history of AMI were retrospectively studied and the characteristics and clinical outcomes were evaluated for all SCAD patients. @*Results@#Among female patients with AMI aged less than 60 years, the prevalence of SCAD was 8.78% (13 of 148). Based on the angiographic classification, type 2 SCAD was most commonly observed on angiograms in 69.2% of the cases (nine of 13), followed by type 3 in 23.1% (three of 13), and type 1 in 7.7% (one of 13). Furthermore, the left anterior descending (LAD) artery was the most commonly affected coronary artery (76.9%, 10 of 13 cases) and the distal segments of the coronary arteries were the most common sites of SCAD (92.3%, 12 of 13). Regarding the clinical outcomes, one of 13 patients experienced repeat revascularization during the following 31 months. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence of SCAD was 8.7%, indicating that SCAD is not rare, among female patients aged less than 60 years with AMI in Korea. Type 2 SCAD was most commonly observed on angiogram. Moreover, the distal portion of the LAD was the segment most commonly affected by SCAD. The long-term clinical outcomes were favorable in patients surviving SCAD.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892345

ABSTRACT

Background@#Titanium dioxide films exhibit good biocompatibility and may be effective as drug-binding matrices for drug-eluting stents. We conducted a mid-term evaluation of a novel polymer-free everolimus-eluting stent using nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide film deposition (TIGEREVOLUTION® ) in comparison with a commercial durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (XIENCE Alpine® ) in a porcine coronary restenosis model. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight coronary arteries from 14 mini-pigs were randomly allocated to TIGEREVOLUTION® stent and XIENCE Alpine® stent groups. The stents were implanted in the coronary artery at a 1.1–1.2:1 stent-to-artery ratio. Eleven stented coronary arteries in each group were finally analyzed using coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography, and histopathologic evaluation 6 months after stenting. @*Results@#Quantitative coronary analysis showed no significant differences in the preprocedural, post-procedural, and 6-month lumen diameters between the groups. In the volumetric analysis of optical coherence tomography at 6 months, no significant differences were observed in stent volume, lumen volume, and percent area stenosis between the groups. There were no significant differences in injury score, inflammation score, or fibrin score between the groups, although the fibrin score was zero in the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent group (0 vs. 0.07 ± 0.11, P = 0.180). @*Conclusion@#Preclinical evaluation, including optical coherence tomographic findings 6 months after stenting, demonstrated that the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent exhibited efficacy and safety comparable with the XIENCE Alpine® stent, supporting the need for further clinical studies on the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 400-408, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904267

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare mortality rates after discharge between the patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and identify each mortality risk factors in these two types of myocardial infarction. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2011 and 2015, 13105 consecutive patients were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction-National Institute of Health registry (KAMIR-NIH); 12271 patients with acute myocardial infarction met the inclusion criteria and were further stratified into the STEMI (n=5828) and NSTEMI (n=6443) groups. The occurrence of mortality and cardiac mortality at 3 years were compared between groups, and the factors associated with mortality for NSTEMI and STEMI were evaluated. @*Results@#The comparison between these two groups and long-term follow-up outcomes showed that the cumulative rates of allcause and cardiac mortality were higher in the NSTEMI group than in the STEMI group [all-cause mortality: 10.9% vs. 5.8%; hazards ratio (HR), 0.464; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.359–0.600, p100 beats/min), no PCI, and low hemoglobin level were identified as the risk factors for 3-year mortality. @*Conclusion@#The NSTEMI group had higher mortality compared to the STEMI group during the 3-year clinical follow-up after discharge. Low LVEF and no PCI were the main risk factors for mortality in the NSTEMI group. In contrast, old age and renal dysfunction were the risk factors for long-term mortality in the STEMI group.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903699

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-TnT) assays detect very low levels of cardiac troponin. This study examined the interval change between initial and subsequent hs-TnT levels and evaluated its ability to predict significant coronary stenosis. @*Methods@#The study analyzed 163 patients who presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and underwent coronary angiography (CAG) between April 2014 and May 2018. The 0 and 3-hour hs-TnT were checked. The patients were subdivided into positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 131) interval change groups. The presence of significant coronary artery stenosis on CAG in the two groups was compared. @*Results@#The positive interval change group was older and had higher 0 and 3-hour hs-TnT and blood glucose levels than the negative interval change group. Significant coronary stenosis was more common in the positive interval change group than in the negative interval change group (68.8% vs. 23.7%, p = 0.001). However, vasospasm was more common in the negative interval change group (6.3% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.003). The positive interval change group had higher rates of bifurcation lesions and received more percutaneous coronary intervention. In multivariate analysis, age, interval change of serial hs-TnT and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of significant coronary artery stenosis. @*Conclusions@#This study identified a relationship between the serial change in cardiac biomarkers and the presence of significant coronary stenosis in patients with ACS. Serial hs-TnT change was associated with real angiographic stenosis in patients with ACS.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 426-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901659

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#There is little data about cardiac geometry in highly trained young athletes, especially female specific changes. We investigated gender difference on exercise induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) in highly trained university athletes. @*Methods@#A total of 1,185 university athletes divided into 2 groups; female (n=497, 22.0±2.3 years) vs. male (n=688, 22.6±2.4 years). Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA), right ventricle (RV), and any cardiac chamber were compared. @*Results@#LV, LA, RV, and any remodeling was found in 156 (13.2%), 206 (17.4%), 82 (6.9%), and 379 athletes (31.9%), respectively. LV, LA, and any remodeling were more common in male than female athletes (n=53, 12.1% vs. n=103, 15.5%, p=0.065), (n=65, 13.1% vs. n=141, 20.5%, p<0.001), (n=144, 30.0% vs. n=235, 34.2%, p=0.058), respectively, whereas RV remodeling was significantly more common in female than male athletes (n=56, 11.3% vs.n=26, 3.8%, p<0.001). Interestingly, the development of LV, LA, and RV remodeling were not overlapped in many of athletes, suggesting different mechanism of EICR according to cardiac chamber. Various predictors including sports type, heart rate, muscle mass, fat mass, body surface area, and training time were differently involved in cardiac remodeling, and there were gender differences of these predictors for cardiac remodeling. @*Conclusions@#EICR was common in both sex and was independently developed among cardiac chambers in highly trained university athletes. LV and LA remodeling were common in males, whereas RV remodeling was significantly more common in females demonstrating gender difference in EICR. The present study also demonstrated gender difference in the predictors of EICR.

15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 533-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901633

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The study sought to investigate the impact of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support before revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by profound cardiogenic shock after resuscitated cardiac arrest. It is difficult to determine optimal timing of ECMO in patients with AMI complicated by profound cardiogenic shock after resuscitated cardiac arrest. @*Methods@#Among 116,374 patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in South Korea, a total of 184 resuscitated patients with AMI complicated by profound cardiogenic shock, and who were treated successfully with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and ECMO, were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of ECMO: pre-PCI ECMO (n=117) and post-PCI ECMO (n=67). We compared 30-day mortality between the 2 groups. @*Results@#In-hospital mortality was 78.8% in the entire study population and significantly lower in the pre-PCI ECMO group (73.5% vs. 88.1%, p=0.020). Thirty-day mortality was also lower in the pre-PCI ECMO group compared to the post-PCI ECMO group (74.4% vs.91.0%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.93; p=0.017). Shockable rhythm at the emergency room (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36–0.91; p=0.019) and successful therapeutic hypothermia (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23–0.69; p=0.001) were also associated with improved 30-day survival. @*Conclusions@#ECMO support before revascularization was associated with an improved short-term survival rate compared to ECMO after revascularization in patients with AMI complicated by profound cardiogenic shock after resuscitated cardiac arrest.

16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 336-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901580

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the “smoker's paradox”. This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization. @*Results@#Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594–0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443–0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009–1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026–1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensityscore matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416–5.338; p=0.003). @*Conclusions@#In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.

17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 289-307, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901572

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a fatal manifestation of ischemic heart disease and remains a major public health concern worldwide despite advances in its diagnosis and management. The characteristics of patients with AMI, as well as its disease patterns,have gradually changed over time in Korea, and the outcomes of revascularization have improved dramatically. Several characteristics associated with the revascularization of Korean patients differ from those of patients in other countries. The sophisticated state of AMI revascularization in Korea has led to the need for a Korean expert consensus. The Task Force on Expert Consensus Document of the Korean Society of Myocardial Infarction has comprehensively reviewed the outcomes of large clinical trials and current practical guidelines, as well as studies on Korean patients with AMI. Based on these comprehensive reviews, the members of the task force summarize the major guidelines and recent publications, and propose an expert consensus for revascularization in patients with AMI.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900049

ABSTRACT

Background@#Titanium dioxide films exhibit good biocompatibility and may be effective as drug-binding matrices for drug-eluting stents. We conducted a mid-term evaluation of a novel polymer-free everolimus-eluting stent using nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide film deposition (TIGEREVOLUTION® ) in comparison with a commercial durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (XIENCE Alpine® ) in a porcine coronary restenosis model. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight coronary arteries from 14 mini-pigs were randomly allocated to TIGEREVOLUTION® stent and XIENCE Alpine® stent groups. The stents were implanted in the coronary artery at a 1.1–1.2:1 stent-to-artery ratio. Eleven stented coronary arteries in each group were finally analyzed using coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography, and histopathologic evaluation 6 months after stenting. @*Results@#Quantitative coronary analysis showed no significant differences in the preprocedural, post-procedural, and 6-month lumen diameters between the groups. In the volumetric analysis of optical coherence tomography at 6 months, no significant differences were observed in stent volume, lumen volume, and percent area stenosis between the groups. There were no significant differences in injury score, inflammation score, or fibrin score between the groups, although the fibrin score was zero in the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent group (0 vs. 0.07 ± 0.11, P = 0.180). @*Conclusion@#Preclinical evaluation, including optical coherence tomographic findings 6 months after stenting, demonstrated that the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent exhibited efficacy and safety comparable with the XIENCE Alpine® stent, supporting the need for further clinical studies on the TIGEREVOLUTION® stent.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 400-408, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896563

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare mortality rates after discharge between the patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and identify each mortality risk factors in these two types of myocardial infarction. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2011 and 2015, 13105 consecutive patients were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction-National Institute of Health registry (KAMIR-NIH); 12271 patients with acute myocardial infarction met the inclusion criteria and were further stratified into the STEMI (n=5828) and NSTEMI (n=6443) groups. The occurrence of mortality and cardiac mortality at 3 years were compared between groups, and the factors associated with mortality for NSTEMI and STEMI were evaluated. @*Results@#The comparison between these two groups and long-term follow-up outcomes showed that the cumulative rates of allcause and cardiac mortality were higher in the NSTEMI group than in the STEMI group [all-cause mortality: 10.9% vs. 5.8%; hazards ratio (HR), 0.464; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.359–0.600, p100 beats/min), no PCI, and low hemoglobin level were identified as the risk factors for 3-year mortality. @*Conclusion@#The NSTEMI group had higher mortality compared to the STEMI group during the 3-year clinical follow-up after discharge. Low LVEF and no PCI were the main risk factors for mortality in the NSTEMI group. In contrast, old age and renal dysfunction were the risk factors for long-term mortality in the STEMI group.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895995

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-TnT) assays detect very low levels of cardiac troponin. This study examined the interval change between initial and subsequent hs-TnT levels and evaluated its ability to predict significant coronary stenosis. @*Methods@#The study analyzed 163 patients who presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and underwent coronary angiography (CAG) between April 2014 and May 2018. The 0 and 3-hour hs-TnT were checked. The patients were subdivided into positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 131) interval change groups. The presence of significant coronary artery stenosis on CAG in the two groups was compared. @*Results@#The positive interval change group was older and had higher 0 and 3-hour hs-TnT and blood glucose levels than the negative interval change group. Significant coronary stenosis was more common in the positive interval change group than in the negative interval change group (68.8% vs. 23.7%, p = 0.001). However, vasospasm was more common in the negative interval change group (6.3% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.003). The positive interval change group had higher rates of bifurcation lesions and received more percutaneous coronary intervention. In multivariate analysis, age, interval change of serial hs-TnT and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of significant coronary artery stenosis. @*Conclusions@#This study identified a relationship between the serial change in cardiac biomarkers and the presence of significant coronary stenosis in patients with ACS. Serial hs-TnT change was associated with real angiographic stenosis in patients with ACS.

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