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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913783

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumor (48.3%), with a median survival of only about 14.6 months. Although the CNS is an immune-privileged site, activated T cells can cross the blood-brain barrier. The recent successes of several immunotherapies for various cancers have drawn interest in immunotherapy for treatment of malignant glioma. There have been extensive attempts to evaluate the efficiency of immunotherapy against malignant glioma. Passive immunotherapy for malignant glioma includes monoclonal antibody-mediated immunotherapy, cytokine-mediated therapy, and adoptive cell transfer, also known as chimeric antigen receptor T cell treatment. On the other hand, active immunotherapy, which stimulates the patient’s adaptive immune system against specific tumor-associated antigens, includes cancer vaccines that are divided into peptide vaccines and cell-based vaccines. In addition, there is immune checkpoint blockade therapy, which increases the efficiency of immunotherapy by reducing the resistance of malignant glioma to immunotherapy. Despite centuries of efforts, immunotherapeutic successes for malignant glioma remain limited. However, many clinical trials of adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy on malignant glioma are ongoing, and the outcomes are eagerly awaited. In addition, although there are still several obstacles, current clinical trials using personalized neoantigen-based dendritic cell vaccines offer new hope to glioblastoma patients. Furthermore, immune checkpoint targeted therapy is expected to decipher the mechanism of immunotherapy resistance in malignant glioma in the near future. More studies are needed to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy in malignant glioma. We hope that immunotherapy will become a new treatment of malignant glioma.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900132

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) can be occurred after acute cerebral infarction. HT can worse symptoms in severe cases and adversely affect long-term prognosis. As bone and vascular smooth muscle are composed of type 1 collagen, we aimed to identify a potential relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and HT after acute cardioembolic stroke. @*Methods@#: As an indicator of BMD, we used mean frontal skull Hounsfield unit (HU) values on brain computed tomography (CT). Multivariative hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression analysis to identify whether the osteoporotic condition was an independent predictor of HT after acute cardioembolic stroke. @*Results@#: This 11-year analysis enrolled 506 patients who diagnosed as acute cardioembolic infarction. The first tertile of skull HU value was an independent predictor of HT development compared to the third tertile (hazard ratio, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–3.98; p=0.020). We observed no interactions between age and skull HU with respect to HT statistically. @*Conclusion@#: The results of this study revealed an association between osteoporotic conditions and HT development after acute cardioembolic stroke. A convenient method to measure the cancellous bone HU value of the frontal skull using brain CT images may be useful for predicting HT in patients with acute cerebral infarction.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897406

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892428

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) can be occurred after acute cerebral infarction. HT can worse symptoms in severe cases and adversely affect long-term prognosis. As bone and vascular smooth muscle are composed of type 1 collagen, we aimed to identify a potential relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and HT after acute cardioembolic stroke. @*Methods@#: As an indicator of BMD, we used mean frontal skull Hounsfield unit (HU) values on brain computed tomography (CT). Multivariative hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression analysis to identify whether the osteoporotic condition was an independent predictor of HT after acute cardioembolic stroke. @*Results@#: This 11-year analysis enrolled 506 patients who diagnosed as acute cardioembolic infarction. The first tertile of skull HU value was an independent predictor of HT development compared to the third tertile (hazard ratio, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–3.98; p=0.020). We observed no interactions between age and skull HU with respect to HT statistically. @*Conclusion@#: The results of this study revealed an association between osteoporotic conditions and HT development after acute cardioembolic stroke. A convenient method to measure the cancellous bone HU value of the frontal skull using brain CT images may be useful for predicting HT in patients with acute cerebral infarction.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889703

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889702

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

11.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 628-641, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763784

ABSTRACT

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) has been reported to play critical roles in the proliferation of various cancer cells. However, the roles of LGR5 in brain tumors and the specific intracellular signaling proteins directly associated with it remain unknown. Expression of LGR5 was first measured in normal brain tissue, meningioma, and pituitary adenoma of humans. To identify the downstream signaling pathways of LGR5, siRNA-mediated knockdown of LGR5 was performed in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells followed by proteomics analysis with 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). In addition, the expression of LGR5-associated proteins was evaluated in LGR5-inhibited neuroblastoma cells and in human normal brain, meningioma, and pituitary adenoma tissue. Proteomics analysis showed 12 protein spots were significantly different in expression level (more than two-fold change) and subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. A protein association network was constructed from the 12 identified proteins altered by LGR5 knockdown. Direct and indirect interactions were identified among the 12 proteins. HSP 90-beta was one of the proteins whose expression was altered by LGR5 knockdown. Likewise, we observed decreased expression of proteins in the hnRNP subfamily following LGR5 knockdown. In addition, we have for the first time identified significantly higher hnRNP family expression in meningioma and pituitary adenoma compared to normal brain tissue. Taken together, LGR5 and its downstream signaling play critical roles in neuroblastoma and brain tumors such as meningioma and pituitary adenoma.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Proliferation , Dermatoglyphics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , GTP-Binding Proteins , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Meningioma , Neuroblastoma , Pituitary Neoplasms , Proteomics
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is known to involve the cervical spine up to 86%. It often causes cervical instability like atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), subaxial subluxation, and vertical subluxation (VS). In order to find the relation between RA and cord compression, we will evaluate the characteristics and risk factors of basilar invagination (BI) and cervicomedullary junction (CMJ) compression.METHODS: From January 2007 to May 2015, 12667 patients administrated to Hanyang University Medical Center. Four thousand three hundred eighty-six patients took cervical X-ray and 250 patients took cervical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologic parameters, medication records were obtained from 242 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with correlation of CMJ compression, basin-dental interval (BDI), basin-posterior axial line interval (BAI), pannus formation, BI, and AAS.RESULTS: In the point of CMJ compression, atlantodental interval (ADI), posterior-atlantodental interval, BAI, AAS, and BI are relatively highly correlated. Patients with BI have 82 times strong possibility of radiologic confirmed CMJ compression, while AAS has 6-fold and pannus formation has the 3-fold possibility. Compared to the low incidence of BI, AAS and pannus formation have more proportion in CMJ compression. Furthermore, wrist joint erosion was correlated with VS and AAS.CONCLUSION: BI has a very strong possibility of CMJ compression, while AAS and pannus formation have a high proportion in CMJ compression. Hence bilateral wrist joint erosion can be used as an indicator for the timing of screening test for cervical involvement. We suggest the early recommendation of cervical spine examination for the diagnosis of cervical involvement in order to prevent morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mass Screening , Mortality , Risk Factors , Spine , Wrist Joint
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is known to involve the cervical spine up to 86%. It often causes cervical instability like atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), subaxial subluxation, and vertical subluxation (VS). In order to find the relation between RA and cord compression, we will evaluate the characteristics and risk factors of basilar invagination (BI) and cervicomedullary junction (CMJ) compression. METHODS: From January 2007 to May 2015, 12667 patients administrated to Hanyang University Medical Center. Four thousand three hundred eighty-six patients took cervical X-ray and 250 patients took cervical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologic parameters, medication records were obtained from 242 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with correlation of CMJ compression, basin-dental interval (BDI), basin-posterior axial line interval (BAI), pannus formation, BI, and AAS. RESULTS: In the point of CMJ compression, atlantodental interval (ADI), posterior-atlantodental interval, BAI, AAS, and BI are relatively highly correlated. Patients with BI have 82 times strong possibility of radiologic confirmed CMJ compression, while AAS has 6-fold and pannus formation has the 3-fold possibility. Compared to the low incidence of BI, AAS and pannus formation have more proportion in CMJ compression. Furthermore, wrist joint erosion was correlated with VS and AAS. CONCLUSION: BI has a very strong possibility of CMJ compression, while AAS and pannus formation have a high proportion in CMJ compression. Hence bilateral wrist joint erosion can be used as an indicator for the timing of screening test for cervical involvement. We suggest the early recommendation of cervical spine examination for the diagnosis of cervical involvement in order to prevent morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mass Screening , Mortality , Risk Factors , Spine , Wrist Joint
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717709

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, as CVST is potentially fatal. Pregnancy and puerperium are known risk factors for CVST. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis after a normal vaginal delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with a headache and seizures two days after a normal vaginal delivery. Initially, brain computed tomography (CT) showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe and sylvian fissure, together with mild cerebral edema. CT angiography revealed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Multiple micro-infarctions were seen on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. An intravenous infusion of heparin and mannitol was administered immediately. Two days after treatment initiation, the patient showed sudden neurological deterioration, with left-sided hemiplegia. Brain CT showed moderate brain edema and hemorrhagic densities. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed, and heparin was re-administered on post-operative day (POD) 1. On POD 9, the patient's mental state improved from stupor to drowsy, but the left-sided hemiplegia persisted. CT angiography showed that the superior sinus thrombosis had decreased. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an uncommon complication, with an unfavorable outcome, after delivery. Timely diagnosis and treatment are important for preventing neurological deterioration.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Headache , Hemiplegia , Heparin , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Mannitol , Parietal Lobe , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Rare Diseases , Risk Factors , Seizures , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stupor , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Thrombosis , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the associations between 30-day mortality and various radiological and clinical factors in patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (SDH). During the 11-year study period, young patients who underwent surgery for SDH were followed for 30 days. Patients who died due to other medical comorbidities or other organ problems were not included in the study population. METHODS: From January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014, 318 consecutive surgically-treated traumatic acute SDH patients were registered for the study. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze 30-day survival rates. We also estimated the hazard ratios of various variables in order to identify the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We observed a negative correlation between 30-day mortality and Glasgow coma scale score (per 1-point score increase) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52–0.70; p<0.001). In addition, use of antithrombotics (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.27–4.33; p=0.008), history of diabetes mellitus (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.20–4.32; p=0.015), and accompanying traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.27–3.58; p=0.005) were positively associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: We found significant associations between short-term mortality after surgery for traumatic acute SDH and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores, use of antithrombotics, history of diabetes mellitus, and accompanying traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage at admission. We expect these findings to be helpful for selecting patients for surgical treatment of traumatic acute SDH, and for making accurate prognoses.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Humans , Methods , Mortality , Prognosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Survival Rate
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease that can affect the cervical spine, especially the atlantoaxial region. The present study evaluated the risk factors for atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) development and progression in patients who have undergone surgical treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 62 patients with RA and surgically treated AAS between 2002 and 2015. Additionally, we identified 62 patients as controls using propensity score matching of sex and age among 12667 RA patients from a rheumatology registry between 2007 and 2015. We extracted patient data, including sex, age at diagnosis, age at surgery, disease duration, radiographic hand joint changes, and history of methotrexate use, and laboratory data, including presence of rheumatoid factor and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level. RESULTS: The mean patient age at diagnosis was 38.0 years. The mean time interval between RA diagnosis and AAS surgery was 13.6±7.0 years. The risk factors for surgically treated AAS development were the serum CRP level (p=0.005) and radiographic hand joint erosion (p=0.009). The risk factors for AAS progression were a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion (p<0.001) and young age at RA diagnosis (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The CRP level at RA diagnosis and a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion might be risk factors for surgically treated AAS development in RA patients. Additionally, a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion and young age at RA diagnosis might be risk factors for AAS progression.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , C-Reactive Protein , Diagnosis , Hand , Humans , Joints , Methotrexate , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatoid Factor , Rheumatology , Risk Factors , Spine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148119

ABSTRACT

Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells. There have been many limitations in the clinical application of both endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis for neurological disorders. However, many studies have investigated novel mechanisms in neurogenesis and have shown that these limitations can potentially be overcome with appropriate stimulation and various approaches. We will review concepts related to possible therapeutic strategies focused on the perspective of neurogenesis for the treatment of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and ischemic stroke based on current reports.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alzheimer Disease , Humans , Nervous System Diseases , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Stroke
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Terson's syndrome, a complication of visual function, has occasionally been reported in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however the factors responsible for Terson's syndrome in aneurysmal SAH patients have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we report on potential risk factors for prediction and diagnosis of Terson's syndrome in the earlier stage of the disease course in patients with aneurysmal SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed the data of 322 consecutive patients who suffered from aneurysmal SAH in a single institution between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2013. Medical records including demographics, neurologic examination, and radiologic images were collected to clarify the risk factors of Terson's syndrome. Patients with visual problem were consulted to the Department of Ophthalmology. RESULTS: Among 332 patients with aneurysmal SAH, 34 patients were diagnosed as Terson's syndrome. Four individual factors, including World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade at admission, aneurysm size, method of operation, and Glasgow outcome scale showed statistically significant association with occurrence of Terson's syndrome. Of these, WFNS grade at admission, aneurysm size, and method of operation showed strong association with Terson's syndrome in multivariate analysis. Terson's syndrome accompanied by papilledema due to increased intracranial pressure led to permanent visual complication. CONCLUSION: In patients with aneurysmal SAH, the patients' WFNS grade at admission, the size of the aneurysms, particularly the diameter of the aneurysm dome, and the method of operation might influence development of Terson's syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Demography , Diagnosis , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Pressure , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neurologic Examination , Ophthalmology , Papilledema , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vitreous Hemorrhage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Terson's syndrome, a complication of visual function, has occasionally been reported in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however the factors responsible for Terson's syndrome in aneurysmal SAH patients have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we report on potential risk factors for prediction and diagnosis of Terson's syndrome in the earlier stage of the disease course in patients with aneurysmal SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed the data of 322 consecutive patients who suffered from aneurysmal SAH in a single institution between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2013. Medical records including demographics, neurologic examination, and radiologic images were collected to clarify the risk factors of Terson's syndrome. Patients with visual problem were consulted to the Department of Ophthalmology. RESULTS: Among 332 patients with aneurysmal SAH, 34 patients were diagnosed as Terson's syndrome. Four individual factors, including World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade at admission, aneurysm size, method of operation, and Glasgow outcome scale showed statistically significant association with occurrence of Terson's syndrome. Of these, WFNS grade at admission, aneurysm size, and method of operation showed strong association with Terson's syndrome in multivariate analysis. Terson's syndrome accompanied by papilledema due to increased intracranial pressure led to permanent visual complication. CONCLUSION: In patients with aneurysmal SAH, the patients' WFNS grade at admission, the size of the aneurysms, particularly the diameter of the aneurysm dome, and the method of operation might influence development of Terson's syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Demography , Diagnosis , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Pressure , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neurologic Examination , Ophthalmology , Papilledema , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vitreous Hemorrhage
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