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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899973

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of breast milk-acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in preterm infants born to CMVseropositive mothers. @*Methods@#PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the terms: (“breast feeding” or “breast milk” or “human milk” or “breast”) and (“HCMV” or “cytomegalovirus”) and (“infant, extremely premature” or “premature birth” or “newborn” or “neonate” or “low birth weight” or “very low birth weight” or “premature” or “preterm infant”). Studies that had information on CMV status and breast feeding were included in the meta-analysis. @*Results@#A total of 2,502 newborns from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The rate of postnatally acquired CMV infection among breastfed infants with CMV-seropositive mothers was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10–0.26; P < 0.001). The infection rate was 26% with fresh breast milk, 8% with a combined diet of fresh and freeze–thawed breast milk, and 11% with freeze–thawed breast milk. Among cases where the CMV status of breast milk was determined, CMV shedding into breast milk occurred in 80.5% (95% CI, 0.71–0.87; P < 0.001) of CMV seropositive mothers. The breast milk-acquired CMV infection rate among infants fed CMV-positive breast milk was 20.7% (95% CI, 0.14–0.30; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#This meta-analysis examined the rate of breast milk-acquired CMV infections in preterm infants with CMV-seropositive mothers; the CMV infection rate was higher in preterm infants fed fresh breast milk. Until further data are available, we cautiously suggest the use of freeze–thawed breast milk, rather than fresh breast milk, for preterm infants or very low birth weight infants.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892269

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of breast milk-acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in preterm infants born to CMVseropositive mothers. @*Methods@#PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the terms: (“breast feeding” or “breast milk” or “human milk” or “breast”) and (“HCMV” or “cytomegalovirus”) and (“infant, extremely premature” or “premature birth” or “newborn” or “neonate” or “low birth weight” or “very low birth weight” or “premature” or “preterm infant”). Studies that had information on CMV status and breast feeding were included in the meta-analysis. @*Results@#A total of 2,502 newborns from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The rate of postnatally acquired CMV infection among breastfed infants with CMV-seropositive mothers was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10–0.26; P < 0.001). The infection rate was 26% with fresh breast milk, 8% with a combined diet of fresh and freeze–thawed breast milk, and 11% with freeze–thawed breast milk. Among cases where the CMV status of breast milk was determined, CMV shedding into breast milk occurred in 80.5% (95% CI, 0.71–0.87; P < 0.001) of CMV seropositive mothers. The breast milk-acquired CMV infection rate among infants fed CMV-positive breast milk was 20.7% (95% CI, 0.14–0.30; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#This meta-analysis examined the rate of breast milk-acquired CMV infections in preterm infants with CMV-seropositive mothers; the CMV infection rate was higher in preterm infants fed fresh breast milk. Until further data are available, we cautiously suggest the use of freeze–thawed breast milk, rather than fresh breast milk, for preterm infants or very low birth weight infants.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831540

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a rare fatal disorder in which there is poor development of proximal tubules, leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequences. RTD occurs secondary to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade during the early stages of fetal development or due to autosomal recessive mutation of genes in the RAS pathway. A boy born at 33+1 weeks due to cord prolapse was found to be anuric and hypotensive. Pregnancy was complicated by severe oligohydramnios from gestational age 28+4 weeks. Abdominal sonography revealed diffuse globular enlargement of both kidneys with increased cortical parenchymal echogenicity. Infantogram showed a narrow thoracic cage and skull X-ray showed large fontanelles and wide sutures suggestive of ossification delay. Basal plasma renin activity was markedly elevated and angiotensin-converting enzyme was undetectable. Despite adequate use of medications, peritoneal dialysis, and respiratory support, he did not recover and expired on the 23rd day of life. At first, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was suspected, but severe oligohydramnios along with refractory hypotension, anuria, skull ossification delay and high renin levels made RTD suspicious. ACE gene analysis revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variations of c.1454.dupC in exon 9 and c.2141dupA in exon 14, confirming RTD. Based on our findings, we propose that, although rare, RTD should be suspected in patients with severe oligohydramnios and refractory hypotension.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831202

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill children, and is associated withincreased mortality and long-term renal sequelae. The definition of pediatric AKIwas standardized based on elevation in serum creatinine levels or decrease inurine output; accordingly, epidemiological studies have ensued. Although newbiomarkers appear to detect AKI earlier and predict prognosis more accuratelythan traditional markers, they are not frequently used in clinical setting. There isno validated pharmacological intervention for AKI, so prevention and early detectionare the mainstays of treatment. For high risk or early stage AKI patients,optimization of volume status and blood pressure, avoidance of nephrotoxins,and sufficient nutritional support are necessary, and have been demonstrated tobe effective in preventing the occurrence of AKI and improving prognosis. Nevertheless,renal replacement therapy is needed when conservative care fails.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830450

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To establish age/sex-specific reference intervals for serum uric acid and to examine the associations between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Korean children and adolescents. @*Methods@#We analyzed data for 1,349 subjects aged 10 to 19 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016–2017. @*Results@#The mean uric acid levels were 5.9±1.3 mg/dL (interquartile range, 5.0–6.8 mg/dL) in males and 4.6±0.9 mg/dL (interquartile range, 3.9–5.2 mg/dL) in females. The mean uric acid level increased significantly from 10–13 years of age in males, but not in females. The overall prevalence of MetS was 5.9% (7.3% in males and 4.3% in females; P=0.022). The prevalences of MetS in the lowest, second, third, and highest quartiles of uric acid level were 4.4%, 3.3%, 6.1%, and 15.2%, respectively, in males (P for trend <0.001) and 1.9%, 0.0%, 4.1%, and 10.9%, respectively, in females (P for trend <0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile of uric acid level, the odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) for MetS in the highest quartile was 2.897 (1.140–7.361) in males and 5.173 (1.459–18.342) in females. Subjects in the highest quartile exhibited increased risk for abdominal obesity and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both sexes. @*Conclusion@#Serum uric acid level is positively associated with MetS and its components abdominal obesity and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Menkes disease (MD) is a rare X-linked hereditary multisystemic disorder that is caused by dysfunction of copper metabolism. Patients with MD typically present with progressive neurodegeneration, some connective tissue abnormalities, and characteristic “kinky” hair. In addition, various types of urological complications are frequent in MD because of underlying connective tissue abnormalities. In this study, we studied the clinical features and outcomes of MD, focusing on urological complications. METHODS: A total of 14 unrelated Korean pediatric patients (13 boys and 1 girl) with MD were recruited, and their phenotypes and genotypes were analyzed by retrospective review of their medical records. RESULTS: All the patients had early-onset neurological deficit, including developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia. The girl patient showed normal serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels as well as milder symptoms. Mutational analysis of the ATP7A gene revealed 11 different mutations in 12 patients. Bladder diverticula was the most frequent urological complication: 8 (57.1%) in the 14 patients or 8 (72.7%) in the 11 patients who underwent urological evaluation. Urological imaging studies were performed essentially for the evaluation of accompanying urinary tract infections. Four patients had stage II chronic kidney disease at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Urologic problems occurred frequently in MD, with bladder diverticula being the most common. Therefore, urological imaging studies and appropriate management of urological complications, which may prevent or reduce the development of urinary tract infections and renal parenchymal damage, are required in all patients with MD.


Subject(s)
Ceruloplasmin , Connective Tissue , Copper , Diverticulum , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Hair , Humans , Medical Records , Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome , Metabolism , Muscle Hypotonia , Phenotype , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract Infections
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760192

ABSTRACT

The most common type of refractory hypertension found in children is secondary hypertension, which is a potentially curable disease. Reninoma, a renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cell tumor, is a rare cause of severe hypertension that is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Surgical resection of the tumor completely cures the hypertension of patients with reninoma. The typical clinical presentation of reninoma includes hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and features secondary to the increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system without renal artery stenosis. We report a case of reninoma in a female adolescent with a typical clinical presentation, in which surgical removal of the tumor completely cured hypertension. We discuss here the clinical features, imaging studies, and immunohistochemical examination of the tumor used to establish the diagnosis of reninoma and for the management of the condition.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alkalosis , Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renal , Hypokalemia , Juxtaglomerular Apparatus , Renal Artery Obstruction , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765002

ABSTRACT

D-penicillamine has been reported to cause antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis presenting as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis or pulmonary-renal syndrome mostly in adults. We report a pediatric case of D-penicillamine induced ANCA-associated vasculitis that manifests as a pulmonary-renal syndrome with a mild renal manifestation. A 13-year-old girl who has been taking D-penicillamine for five years under the diagnosis of Wilson disease visited the emergency room because of hemoptysis and dyspnea. She had diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, microscopic hematuria, and proteinuria. Myeloperoxidase ANCA was positive, and a renal biopsy revealed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Under the diagnosis of D-penicillamine-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis, D-penicillamine was switched to trientine, and the patient was treated with plasmapheresis, glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil. Pulmonary hemorrhage improved rapidly followed by the disappearance of the hematuria and proteinuria five months later.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Biopsy , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Glomerulonephritis , Hematuria , Hemoptysis , Hemorrhage , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Humans , Penicillamine , Peroxidase , Plasmapheresis , Proteinuria , Trientine , Vasculitis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764983

ABSTRACT

The authors regret that there was an important error in the results in Table 1; the ATP7A mutations detected in Patients 2 and 14 were incorrectly noted.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is known to cause fever, gastroenteritis, or acute kidney injury (AKI). There have been several Y. pseudotuberculosis infection outbreaks to date associated with ingestion of contaminated food or unsterile water. While this disease was considered to have practically been eradicated with the improvement in public health, we encountered several cases of AKI associated with Yersinia infection. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from medical records of patients with suspected Y. pseudotuberculosis infection who visited Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in 2017. RESULTS: There were nine suspected cases of Yersinia infection (six males and three females; age range 2.99–12.18 years). Among them, five cases occurred in May, and seven patients were residing in the metropolitan Seoul area. Three patients had history of drinking mountain water. Every patient first presented with fever for a median of 13 days, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms and oliguria. Imaging studies revealed mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileum wall thickening, and increased renal parenchymal echogenicity. Creatinine levels increased to 5.72 ± 2.18 mg/dL. Urinalysis revealed sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and glycosuria. Oliguria continued for 4 to 17 days, and two patients required dialysis; however, all of them recovered from AKI. Mucocutaneous manifestations developed later. In the diagnostic work-up, Yersinia was isolated from the stool culture in one patient. Anti-Yersinia immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG were positive in 6 patients. CONCLUSION: Y. pseudotuberculosis infection is an infrequent cause of interstitial nephritis presenting with AKI. When a patient presents with fever, gastroenteritis, and AKI not resolving despite hydration, the clinician should suspect Y. pseudotuberculosis infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Creatinine , Dialysis , Disease Outbreaks , Drinking , Eating , Female , Fever , Gastroenteritis , Glycosuria , Humans , Ileum , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Male , Medical Records , Mesenteric Lymphadenitis , Nephritis, Interstitial , Oliguria , Proteinuria , Public Health , Pyuria , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Urinalysis , Water , Yersinia Infections , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , Yersinia
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH), a rare inborn error of glyoxylate meta bolism causing overproduction of oxalate, is classified into three genetic subgroups: type 1–3 (PH1–PH3) caused by AGXT, GRHPR , and HOGA1 gene mutations, respectively. We performed a retrospective case series study of Korean pediatric patients with PH.METHODS: In total, 11 unrelated pediatric patients were recruited and their phenotypes and genotypes were analyzed by a retrospective review of their medical records.RESULTS: Mutational analyses revealed biallelic AGXT mutations (PH1) in nine patients and a single heterozygous GRHPR and HOGA1 mutation in one patient each. The c.33dupC was the most common AGXT mutation with an allelic frequency of 44%. The median age of onset was 3 months (range, 2 months-3 years), and eight patients with PH1 presented with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with two truncating mutations showed an earlier age of onset and more frequent retinal involvement than patients with one truncating mutation. Among eight PH1 patients presenting with ESRD, five patients were treated with intensive dialysis followed by liver transplantation (n=5) with/without subsequent kidney transplantation (n=3).CONCLUSION: Most patients presented with severe infantile forms of PH. Patients with two truncating mutations displayed more severe phenotypes than those of patients with one truncating mutation. Sequential liver and kidney transplantation was adopted for PH1 patients presenting with ESRD. A larger nation-wide multicenter study is needed to confirm the genotype-phenotype correlations and outcomes of organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Dialysis , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperoxaluria, Primary , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Liver , Liver Transplantation , Medical Records , Organ Transplantation , Phenotype , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerulopathy in children. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of NS, caused by severe intravascular volume depletion, acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, or progression of NS. However, the incidence and risk factors of childhood-onset NS in Korea are unclear. Therefore, we studied the incidence, causes, and risk factors of AKI in hospitalized Korean patients with childhood-onset NS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with childhood-onset NS who were admitted to our center from January 2015 to July 2017. Patients with decreased renal function or hereditary/secondary NS, as well as those admitted for management of other conditions unrelated to NS, were excluded. RESULTS: During the study period, 65 patients with idiopathic, childhood-onset NS were hospitalized 90 times for management of NS or its complications. Of these 90 cases, 29 met the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria for AKI (32.2%). They developed AKI in association with infection (n = 12), NS aggravation (n = 11), dehydration (n = 3), and intravenous methylprednisolone administration (n = 3). Age ≥ 9 years at admission and combined use of cyclosporine and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were risk factors for AKI. CONCLUSION: AKI occurred in one-third of the total hospitalizations related to childhood-onset NS, owing to infection, aggravation of NS, dehydration, and possibly high-dose methylprednisolone treatment. Age at admission and use of nephrotoxic agents were associated with AKI. As the AKI incidence is high, AKI should be considered during management of high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Child , Cyclosporine , Dehydration , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Diseases , Korea , Methylprednisolone , Necrosis , Nephritis, Interstitial , Nephrotic Syndrome , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718238

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by abrupt deterioration of renal function, and its diagnosis relies on creatinine measurements and urine output. AKI is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and is a risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease. There is no proven medication for AKI. Therefore, prevention and early detection are important. Physicians should be aware of the risk factors for AKI and should monitor renal function in high-risk patients. Management of AKI includes optimization of volume status and renal perfusion, avoidance of nephrotoxic agents, and sufficient nutritional support. Continuous renal replacement therapy is widely available for critically ill children, and this review provides basic information regarding this therapy. Long-term follow-up of patients with AKI for renal function, blood pressure, and proteinuria is recommended.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Blood Pressure , Child , Creatinine , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Nutritional Support , Perfusion , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renal Replacement Therapy , Risk Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739193

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis is a rare disease that results from the deposition of extracellular protein in various body tissues, causing progressive organ dysfunction. Secondary renal amyloidosis is a rare but serious complication of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. We report a case of secondary renal amyloidosis in a pediatric patient who reported a 16-year history of “very early onset inflammatory bowel disease”. Intensive treatment including repeated infliximab infusions improved clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease, although renal dysfunction showed progression. Amyloidosis should be considered in patients with IBD, particularly if they suffered disease progression.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Infliximab , Rare Diseases
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX) can be used as a rescue therapy for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, the efficacy and safety of long-term, repeated use of RTX are not established. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of long-term, repeated RTX treatment in children. METHODS: Eighteen consecutive child patients with SDNS who were treated with three or more cycles of RTX for one year or longer were recruited, and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The patients were followed for 4.7 ± 1.9 years and received 5.2 ± 2.3 cycles of RTX over 2.8 ± 1.1 years. Approximately 70% of the additional RTX cycles were administered due to recovery of B-cells without relapse. The relapse rate decreased from 3.4 ± 2.0 per year initially to 0.4 ± 0.8 per year at the third year after RTX treatment. Approximately 10% of the RTX infusions were accompanied by mild infusion reactions. Eight patients showed sustained remission without any oral medication after the last cycle of RTX, while 10 patients had one or more episodes of relapse after the last cycle of RTX. The relapse rate in the latter group decreased from 2.8 ± 1.5 per year before RTX treatment to 1.3 ± 0.8 per year after cessation of RTX treatment. No significant differences in clinical parameters were found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This retrospective study showed that pre-emptive and long-term, repeated RTX treatment is relatively effective and safe in children with SDNS. However, well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Nephrotic Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200235

ABSTRACT

Several clinical studies have proposed a protective role for vitamin E (α-tocopherol) against contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). The aim of study was to assess the effects of vitamin E for the prevention of CIAKI. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of vitamin E on CIAKI development and measurements of renal function were included. Four trials including 623 participants were analyzed in the meta-analysis. All participants received intravenous hydration in addition to vitamin E or placebo. The incidence of the vitamin E group (5.8%) was lower than that of the control group (15.4%). Compared with the control, vitamin E significantly reduced the risk ratio (RR) of CIAKI by 62% (0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22, 0.63; P < 0.010). In addition, vitamin E reduced serum creatinine (SCr) increase after contrast administration (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.27; 95% CI, −0.49, −0.06; P = 0.010). However, changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after contrast administration were not significantly different between vitamin E and the control group (SMD, 0.21; 95% CI, −0.01, 0.43; P = 0.060). Heterogeneity within the available trials was not observed. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that vitamin E plus hydration significantly reduced the risk of CIAKI in patients with renal impairment compared with hydration alone.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Contrast Media , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , Vitamin E , Vitamins
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136749

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Renal ultrasonography has been widely used in children with renal disease. However, the relationship of renal echogenicity with renal pathology and function in children is not well known. METHODS: Ultrasound examination was performed in 75 patients undergoing renal biopsy for suspected renal disease in Konkuk University Medical Center from August 2005 to November 2015. We compared renal echogenicity to pathologic findings and renal function. Renal echogenicity was scored as 0 to 2 by comparing adjacent liver echogenicity. Three histologic characteristics were evaluated: glomerular changes, interstitial infiltration or fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. These were graded as 0 to 3, according to increasing severity. Laboratory results included urine albumin excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: Among pathologic findings, renal echogenicity revealed a positive correlation with interstitial infiltration or fibrosis (r=0.259, P=0.025), and with tubular atrophy (r=0.268, P=0.02). Renal echogenicity and glomerular changes were not correlated. Renal echogenicity showed a positive correlation with microalbuminuria (r=0.283, P=0.014), but a negative correlation with eGFR (r=-0.352, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Increased renal echogenicity suggested severe interstitial infiltration or fibrosis and tubular atrophy among the pathologic findings. Moreover, increased echogenicity is correlated with increased urine albumin excretion and decreased eGFR. Echogenicity on ultrasonography is useful for determining the status of renal pathology and function.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Albuminuria , Atrophy , Biopsy , Child , Fibrosis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Liver , Pathology , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Renal ultrasonography has been widely used in children with renal disease. However, the relationship of renal echogenicity with renal pathology and function in children is not well known. METHODS: Ultrasound examination was performed in 75 patients undergoing renal biopsy for suspected renal disease in Konkuk University Medical Center from August 2005 to November 2015. We compared renal echogenicity to pathologic findings and renal function. Renal echogenicity was scored as 0 to 2 by comparing adjacent liver echogenicity. Three histologic characteristics were evaluated: glomerular changes, interstitial infiltration or fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. These were graded as 0 to 3, according to increasing severity. Laboratory results included urine albumin excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: Among pathologic findings, renal echogenicity revealed a positive correlation with interstitial infiltration or fibrosis (r=0.259, P=0.025), and with tubular atrophy (r=0.268, P=0.02). Renal echogenicity and glomerular changes were not correlated. Renal echogenicity showed a positive correlation with microalbuminuria (r=0.283, P=0.014), but a negative correlation with eGFR (r=-0.352, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Increased renal echogenicity suggested severe interstitial infiltration or fibrosis and tubular atrophy among the pathologic findings. Moreover, increased echogenicity is correlated with increased urine albumin excretion and decreased eGFR. Echogenicity on ultrasonography is useful for determining the status of renal pathology and function.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Albuminuria , Atrophy , Biopsy , Child , Fibrosis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Liver , Pathology , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218767

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We used technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy to identify factors predictive of renal cortical defects in infants <3 months of age with urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data on infants <3 months of age with culture-proven UTIs treated at a single center from March 2010 to February 2016. Blood samples were obtained for laboratory evaluation prior to commencement of antibiotic therapy. The therapeutic delay time (TDT) and therapeutic response time (TRT) were recorded. All patients were divided into two groups depending on features of their DMSA scans. We compared the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 119 infants (94 males and 25 females; mean age, 56.9±21.3 days) were included. Cortical defects were evident in the DMSA scans of 47 cases (39.5%). In infants with such defects, the peak temperatures (38.9±0.57℃ vs. 38.4±0.81℃, P=0.001), the absolute neutrophil counts (8,920±4,460/mm vs. 7,290±4,090/mm, P=0.043), and the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (6.49±4.33 mg/dL vs. 3.21±2.81 mg/dL, P=0.001) were significantly higher than those in infants without cortical defects. The TDT was also longer in those with cortical defects (P=0.037). CONCLUSION: We found that a TDT ≥8.5 hr (odds ratio [OR] 5.81), a peak temperature ≥38.3℃ (OR 6.19), and a CRP level ≥4.96 mg/dL (OR 7.26) predicted abnormal DMSA scan results in infants <3 months of age with UTIs.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Neutrophils , Pyelonephritis , Radionuclide Imaging , Reaction Time , Retrospective Studies , Succimer , Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
20.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 131-135, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish a simple formula to predict renal length in children using a Technesium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan data, and to compare it with the formula derived from ultrasonography, which is widely accepted. METHODS: Children who underwent a DMSA scan and ultrasonography were reviewed retrospectively, and those who had anatomical urinary tract abnormalities or urinary tract infections were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 230 children (84 males and 146 females; age, 1 month to 16 years; mean age, 16.8 +/- 27.4 months). Mean renal length measured by DMSA scan was longer than that by ultrasonography (6.38 +/- 1.16 vs. 6.02 +/- 1.14 cm; P < 0.001). Renal length was correlated with age, weight, height, and body surface area on the DMSA scan and ultrasonography, and showed the strongest positive correlation with height. The following formulae were established to predict renal length: mean renal length (cm) = 5.433 x height (m) + 2.330 (R2, 0.833) using the DMSA scan data, and mean renal length (cm) = 5.367 x height (m) + 2.027 (R2, 0.853) using ultrasonography data. CONCLUSION: We propose a simple height-based formula to predict renal length in children using a DMSA scan data, and validate it by comparing with ultrasonography formula.


Subject(s)
Body Surface Area , Child , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Organ Size , Retrospective Studies , Succimer , Ultrasonography , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections
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