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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875516

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials have not consistently supported the use of induction chemotherapy (IC) for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Hypopharynx and base of tongue (BOT) cancer has shown relatively poor survival. We investigated the role of IC in improving outcome over current chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with hypopharynx and BOT cancer. Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with stage III/IV (M0) hypopharynx or BOT cancer were randomly assigned to receive CRT alone (CRT arm: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on D1 3-weekly, two times plus radiotherapy 68.4 Gy/30 fractions on weekdays) versus two 21-day cycles of IC with TPF (docetaxel & cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on D1, and fluorouracil 75 mg/m2 on D1-4) followed by the same CRT regimen (IC arm). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: This study closed early after enrollment of 36 patients (19 in the CRT arm, 17 in the IC arm). After a median follow-up of 47.2 months, there was no significant difference in PFS: the median PFS was 26.8 months for the CRT arm and was not reached for the IC arm (p = 0.13). However, the survival curves were widely separated with a plateau after 3 years, suggesting a potential survival benefit from IC: 3-year PFS rates were 45% and 68%, and 3-year overall survival rates were 56% and 86%, in the CRT and IC arms, respectively. Conclusions: This study failed to demonstrate that induction TPF chemotherapy improves survival in patients with BOT and hypopharynx cancer. However, it suggested a favorable outcome with IC to this population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874818

ABSTRACT

: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are approved for treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the safety and efficacy of combined ICI and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) treatment remain undefined. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed patients treated with ICIs with or without GKS at our institute to manage patients with brain metastases from NSCLC. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with brain metastases from NSCLC treated with ICIs between January 2015 and December 2017. Of 134 patients, 77 were assessable for brain responses and categorized into three groups as follows : group A, ICI alone (n=26); group B, ICI with concurrent GKS within 14 days (n=24); and group C, ICI with non-concurrent GKS (n=27). Results : The median follow-up duration after brain metastasis diagnosis was 19.1 months (range, 1–77). At the last follow-up, 53 patients (68.8%) died, 20 were alive, and four were lost to follow-up. The estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the date of brain metastasis diagnosis was 20.0 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–27.7) (10.0, 22.5, and 42.1 months in groups A, B, and C, respectively). The OS was shorter in group A than in group C (p=0.001). The intracranial disease progression-free survival (p=0.569), local progression-free survival (p=0.457), and complication rates did not significantly differ among the groups. Twelve patients showed leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) during follow-up. The 1-year LMS-free rate in treated with ICI alone group (69.1%) was significantly lower than that in treated with GKS before ICI treatment or within 14 days group (93.2%) (p=0.004). Conclusion : GKS with ICI showed no favorable OS outcome in treating brain metastasis from NSCLC. However, GKS with ICI did not increase the risk of complications. Furthermore, compared with ICI alone, GKS with ICI may be associated with a reduced incidence of LMS. Further understanding of the mechanism, which remains unknown, may help improve the quality of life of patients with brain metastasis.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834647

ABSTRACT

Systemic cancer and ischemic stroke are common conditions and two of the most frequent causes of death among the elderly. The association between cancer and stroke has been reported worldwide. Stroke causes severe disability for cancer patients, while cancer increases the risk of stroke. Moreover, cancer-related stroke is expected to increase due to advances in cancer treatment and an aging population worldwide. Because cancer and stroke share risk factors (such as smoking and obesity) and treatment of cancer can increase the risk of stroke (e.g., accelerated atherosclerosis after radiation therapy), cancer may accelerate conventional stroke mechanisms (i.e., atherosclerosis, small vessel disease, and cardiac thrombus). In addition, active cancer and chemotherapy may enhance thrombin generation causing stroke related to coagulopathy. Patients with stroke due to cancer-related coagulopathy showed the characteristics findings of etiologic work ups, D-dimer levels, and infarct patterns. In this review, we summarized the frequency of cancer-related stroke among patients with ischemic stroke, mechanisms of stroke with in cancer patients, and evaluation and treatment of cancer-related stroke. We discussed the possibility of cancer-related stroke as a stroke subtype, and presented the most recent discoveries in the pathomechanisms and treatment of stroke due to cancer-related coagulopathy.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1112-1119, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advance in the treatment of lung cancer, allowing sustained recovery in a significant proportion of patients. Nivolumab is a monoclonal anti–programmed death cell protein 1 antibody licensed for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy. In this study, we describe the demographic and clinical outcomes of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in the Korean expanded access program. @*Materials and Methods@#Previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous and squamous NSCLC patients received nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks up to 36 months. Efficacy data including investigator-assessed tumor response, progression data, survival, and safety data were collected. @*Results@#Two hundred ninety-nine patients were treated across 36 Korean centers. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 18% and 49%, respectively; the median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 3.45), and the overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months (95% CI, 10.6 to 18.9). Patients with smoking history and patients who experienced immune-related adverse events showed a prolonged OS. Cox regression analysis identified smoking history, presence of immune-related adverse events as positive factors associated with OS, while liver metastasis was a negative factor associated with OS. The safety profile was generally comparable to previously reported data. @*Conclusion@#This real-world analysis supports the use of nivolumab for pretreated NSCLC patients, including those with an older age.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1288-1290, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831136

ABSTRACT

The non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation eventually acquires resistant to either first or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). As the following option, targeting EGFR T790M with third-generation EGFR TKI is now established as a standard treatment option. In this study, we are reporting the first case of resistance mechanism to the novel third-generation EGFR TKI, lazertinib, which showed promising clinical efficacy in phase 1-2 study. The patients showed resistance to the treatment by acquiring the additional EGFR C797S mutation in cis which is also confirmed from the patient-derived cell lines.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831069

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Osimertinib is a third-generation, irreversible, oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that potently and selectively inhibits both EGFR sensitizing mutation and EGFR T790M and has demonstrated efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) central nervous system (CNS) metastases. We present results of a subgroup analysis of Korean patients from the pooled data of two global phase II trials: AURA extension (NCT01802632) and AURA2 (NCT02094261). @*Materials and Methods@#Enrolled patients had EGFR T790M-positive NSCLC and disease progression during or after EGFR-TKI therapy. Patients received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily until disease progression. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#In total, 66 Korean patients received osimertinib treatment with a median treatment duration of 19 months. In the evaluable-for-response population (n=62), ORR was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.5 to 84.5) and median duration of response was 9.8 months (95% CI, 7.1 to 16.8). In the full analysis set (n=66), median progression-free survival was 10.9 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 15.0; data cutoff November 1, 2016), and median overall survival was 29.2 months (95% CI, 24.8 to 35.7; data cutoff May 1, 2018). Eight patients with CNS metastases were evaluable for response, none of whom showed CNS progression. The most common adverse events were rash (53%), cough (33%), paronychia, diarrhea, and decreased appetite (each 32%). @*Conclusion@#Efficacy and safety profiles of osimertinib in this subgroup are consistent with the global phase II pooled population, which supports osimertinib as a recommended treatment for Korean patients with T790M positive NSCLC.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831068

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) alterations are found in approximately 1%-3% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We evaluated the clinical features and outcomes of NSCLC harboring HER2 alteration detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,108 patients who were diagnosed with NSCLC between December 2015 and December 2017 were screened and analyzed by NGS. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes from various treatments. @*Results@#HER2 alterations were identified in 36 NSCLC patients. Of the patients, 22 (61.1%) had an exon 20 in-frame insertion mutation, 15 (41.7%) had HER2 amplification, and one had both. The median patient age was 58 years, 55.6% were male, and 50.0% were never-smokers. Adenocarcinoma was predominant (88.9%). The most common metastatic site was bone (58.3%), and 66.7% of patients were stage IV at initial diagnosis. Six patients (16.7%) had a coexistent sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, and two patients (5.6%) had anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement. With a median 14 months of follow-up, the median progression-free survival of first-line treatment was 6 months (95% confidence interval, 4.172 to 7.828), and median overall survival was not reached. The proportions of adenocarcinoma, never-smokers, and metastasis to the liver were higher in the exon 20 in-frame insertion mutation group, whereas coexistence of EGFR mutation was more frequently found in the HER2 amplification group. @*Conclusion@#HER2-altered NSCLC showed distinct clinical features. Moreover, different characteristics were identified between the HER2 in-frame insertion mutation group and the HER2 amplification group.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Humans , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719415

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‒tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective clinical therapeutics for EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Osimertinib, a thirdgeneration EGFR TKI, has proven effective against T790M mutations. However, the vast majority of patients acquire resistance following successful treatment. A 59-year-old female patient with metastatic NSCLC developed resistance after 43 weeks of osimertinib. CancerSCAN of the metastatic liver lesion revealed a EGFR C797G mutation at an allele frequency of 72%, a preexisting T790M mutation (73%) in cis and an exon 19 deletion (87%). Another 53-year-old female patient developed systemic progression after 10 months of osimertinib. CancerSCAN of the lung biopsy identified an EGFR L718Q mutation at an allele frequency of 7%, concomitant PIK3CA E545K (12.90%) and preexisting EGFR L858R (38%), but loss of the T790M mutation. The heterogeneity of osimertinib resistance mechanisms warrants further investigation into novel or combination agents to overcome the rare acquired resistances.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Exons , Female , Gene Frequency , Humans , Liver , Lung , Middle Aged , Phosphotransferases , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719287

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, including in Korea. Systemic therapy including platinum-based chemotherapy and targeted therapy should be provided to patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Applications of targeted therapy, such as an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors, in patients with NSCLC and an EGFR mutation or ALK gene rearrangement has enabled dramatic improvements in efficacy and tolerability. Despite advances in research and a better understanding of the molecular pathways of NSCLC, few effective therapeutic options are available for most patients with NSCLC without druggable targets, especially for patients with squamous cell NSCLC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 or anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have demonstrated durable response rates across a broad range of solid tumors, including NSCLC, which has revolutionized the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we review the current status and future approaches of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are being investigated for NSCLC with a focus on pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and ipilimumab.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immunotherapy , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Mortality , Phosphotransferases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and clinical outcomes in patients with stage III non-squamous cell lung cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2013, the medical records of 197 patients with stage III non- squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive CCRT were analyzed to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: Among 197 eligible patients, 81 patients were EGFR wild type, 36 patients had an EGFR mutation (exon 19 Del, n=18; L858R, n=9, uncommon [G719X, L868, T790M], n=9), and 80 patients had unknown EGFR status. The median age was 59 years (range, 28 to 80 years) and 136 patients (69.0%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 66.5 months (range, 1.9 to 114.5 months). One hundred sixty-four patients (83.2%) experienced disease progression. Median PFS was 8.9 months for the EGFR mutation group, 11.8 months for EGFR wild type, and 10.5 months for the unknown EGFR group (p=0.013 and p=0.042, respectively). The most common site of metastasis in the EGFR mutant group was the brain. However, there was no significant difference in OS among the three groups (34.6 months for EGFR mutant group vs. 31.9 months for EGFR wild type vs. 22.6 months for EGFR unknown group; p=0.792 and p=0.284). A total of 29 patients (80.6%) with EGFR mutation were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib, n=24; erlotinib, n=3; afatinib, n=2) upon progression. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation is associatedwith short PFS and the brain is the most common site of distant metastasis in patients with stage III non- squamous cell lung cancer treated with CCRT.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763144

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We tried to evaluate whether there are any specific features in treatment outcomes of firstline afatinib in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compared with gefitinib or erlotinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed patients treated with first-line afatinib, gefitinib, or erlotinib for advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC at Samsung Medical Center between 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: In total, 467 patients received first-line afatinib (n=165), gefitinib (n=230), or erlotinib (n=72). Afatinib was used more often in patients with tumors harboring deletion in exon 19 (Del19), whereas the gefitinib group had more elderly, females, and never smokers. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time for afatinib, gefitinib, and erlotinib was 19.1 months, 13.7 months, and 14.0 months, respectively (p=0.001). The superior PFS of afatinib was more remarkable in subgroups of Del19 or uncommon EGFR mutations. Overall toxicity profiles of the three drugs were comparable, though more grade 3 or 4 toxicities were detected in afatinib (7.3%) compared with gefitinib (2.6%) or erlotinib (1.8%). The common grade 3 or 4 toxicities of afatinib included diarrhea (3.0%), paronychia (2.4%), and skin rash (1.8%). Dose modification was more frequently required in patients treated with afatinib (112/165, 68%), compared with gefitinib (5/230, 2%) and erlotinib (4/72, 6%). Interestingly, however, dose reduction in the afatinib group did not impair its efficacy in terms of PFS (dose reduction vs. no reduction group, 23.5 months vs. 12.4 months). CONCLUSION: First-line afatinib showed satisfactory efficacy data and manageable toxicity profiles.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Exanthema , Exons , Female , Humans , Paronychia , ErbB Receptors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations account for approximately 4% of all EGFR mutations. Given the rarity of this mutation, its clinical outcomes are not fully established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who showed an exon 20 insertion were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and outcomes, including responses to chemotherapy (CTx) or targeted therapy. RESULTS: Of 3,539 NSCLC patients who harbored an activating EGFR mutation, 56 (1.6%) had an exon 20 insertion. Of the advanced NSCLC patients, 27 of 1,479 (1.8%) had an exon 20 insertion. The median overall survival was 29.4 months (95% confidence interval 9.3 to 49.6) for 27 advancedNSCLC patients. The 22 patientswho received systemic CTx achieved a 50.0% response rate and a 77.2% disease control rate, with 4.2 months of progression-free survival. Six patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Three of the four patients that had only an exon 20 insertion showed progressive disease, while one showed stable disease. The othertwo patients had an exon 20 insertion and another EGFR mutation and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: The incidence of an exon 20 insertion mutation is rare in Korea and occasionally accompanied by other common EGFR mutations. Although the response to systemic CTx. in these patients is comparable to that of patients with other mutations, the response rate to first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs is quite low. Therefore, the development of a more efficient agent is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exons , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal cytotoxic regimens have not been established for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who develop disease progression on first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center randomized phase II trial to compare the clinical outcomes between pemetrexed plus cisplatin combination therapy followed by maintenance pemetrexed (PC) and pemetrexed monotherapy (P) after failure of first-line EGFR-TKI. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and safety and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 96 patientswere randomized, and 91 patientswere treated at 14 centers in Korea. The ORR was 34.8% (16/46) for the PC arm and 17.8% (8/45) for the P arm (p=0.066). With 23.4 months of follow-up, the median PFS was 5.4 months in the PC arm and 6.4 months in the P arm (p=0.114). The median OS was 17.9 months and 15.7 months in PC and P arms, respectively (p=0.787). Adverse events ≥ grade 3 were reported in 12 patients (26.1%) in the PC arm and nine patients (20.0%) in the P arm (p=0.491). The overall time trends of HRQOL were not significantly different between the two arms. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of pemetrexed therapy in NSCLC patients with disease progression after firstline EGFR-TKI might not be improved by adding cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Pemetrexed , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Quality of Life , ErbB Receptors , Tyrosine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763119

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to report clinical outcomes of salvage concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in treating patients with loco-regional recurrence (LRR) following initial complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and December 2016, 127 patients underwent salvage CCRT for LRR. The median radiation therapy (RT) dose was 66 Gy and clinical target volume was to cover recurrent lesion with margin without elective inclusion of regional lymphatics. Majority of patients (94.5%) received weekly platinum-based doublet chemotherapy during RT course. RESULTS: The median follow-up time from the start of CCRT was 25 months. The median survival duration was 49 months, and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 and 5 years were 72.9% and 43.9%. The 2- and 5-year rates of in-field failure-free survival, distant metastasis free survival, and progression free survival were 82.4% and 73.8%, 50.4% and 39.9%, and 34.6% and 22.3%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 radiation-related esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in 14 (11.0%) and six patients (4.7%), respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, higher biologically equivalent dose (BED₁₀) (≥ 79.2 Gy₁₀ vs. 80 cm³; HR, 0.403), and longer disease-free interval (> 1 year vs. ≤ 1 year; HR, 0.489) were significantly favorable factors for OS. CONCLUSION: The current study has demonstrated that high dose salvage CCRT focused to the involved lesion only was highly effective and safe. In particular, higher BED₁₀, smaller CTV, and longer disease-free interval were favorable factors for improved survival.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia , Recurrence
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal adjuvant therapy modality for treating pN2 non-small cell lung cancer patients has not yet been established. In this study, the authors investigated clinical outcomes following three different adjuvant therapy modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2012, 240 patients with cN0/1 disease were found to have pN2 disease following curative resection and received one of three adjuvant therapy modalities:thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) and concurrent chemotherapy (CTx) (CCRT) (group I), CCRT plus consolidation CTx (group II), and CTx alone (group III). TRT was delivered to 155 patients (groups I/II), and full dose CTx was delivered to 172 patients either as a consolidative or a sole modality (group II/III). RESULTS: During 30 months of median follow-up, 44 patients died and 141 developed recurrence. The 5-year overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of all patients were 76.2%, 80.7%, 36.4%, and 29.6%, respectively. There was no difference in OS among groups. TRT (groups I/II) significantly improved LRC, full dose CTx (groups II/III) did DMFS, and CCRT plus consolidation CTx (group II) did DFS, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current study could support that TRT could improve LRC and full dose CTx could improve DMFS and that CCRT plus consolidation CTx could improve DFS.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 77-87, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with active cancer are at an increased risk for stroke. Hypercoagulability plays an important role in cancer-related stroke. We aimed to test whether 1) hypercoagulability is a predictor of survival, and 2) correction of the hypercoagulable state leads to better survival in patients with stroke and active cancer. METHODS: We recruited consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and active systemic cancer between January 2006 and July 2015. Hypercoagulability was assessed using plasma D-dimer levels before and after 7 days of anticoagulation treatment. The study outcomes included overall and 1-year survival. Plasma D-dimer levels before and after treatment were tested in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We controlled for systemic metastasis, stroke mechanism, age, stroke severity, primary cancer type, histology, and atrial fibrillation using the forward stepwise method. RESULTS: A total of 268 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with high (3rd–4th quartiles) pre-treatment plasma D-dimer levels showed decreased overall and 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.46–3.31] and 2.70 [1.68–4.35], respectively). After anticoagulation treatment, post-treatment D-dimer level was significantly reduced and independently associated with poor 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01–1.05] per 1 μg/mL increase, P=0.015). The successful correction of hypercoagulability was a protective factor for 1-year survival (adjusted HR 0.26 [CI 0.10–0.68], P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability is associated with poor survival after stroke in patients with active cancer. Effective correction of hypercoagulability may play a protective role for survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Humans , Methods , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Plasma , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Stroke , Thrombophilia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) frequently involve genetic alterations. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic alterations and further explore the relationships between these genetic alterations and clinicopathological characteristics in a high-recurrence risk (node positive, N1) PTC group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue blocks were obtained from 240 surgically resected patients with histologically confirmed stage III/IV (pT3/4 or N1) PTCs. We screened gene fusions using NanoString’s nCounter technology and mutational analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing. Data describing the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical courses were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 240 PTC patients, 207 (86.3%) had at least one genetic alteration, including BRAF mutation in 190 patients (79.2%), PIK3CA mutation in 25 patients (10.4%), NTRK1/3 fusion in six patients (2.5%), and RET fusion in 24 patients (10.0%). Concomitant presence of more than two genetic alterations was seen in 36 patients (15%). PTCs harboring BRAF mutation were associated with RET wild-type expression (p=0.001). RET fusion genes have been found to occur with significantly higher frequency in N1b stage patients (p=0.003) or groups of patients aged 45 years or older (p=0.031); however, no significant correlation was found between other genetic alterations. There was no trend toward favorable recurrence-free survival or overall survival among patients lacking genetic alterations. CONCLUSION: In the selected high-recurrence risk PTC group, most patients had more than one genetic alteration. However, these known alterations could not entirely account for clinicopathological features of high-recurrence risk PTC.


Subject(s)
Gene Fusion , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The phase 3 randomized SQUIRE study revealed significantly longer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin (neci+GC) than for gemcitabine and cisplatin alone (GC) in 1,093 patients with previously untreated advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This post hoc subgroup analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of neci+GC among East Asian (EA) patients enrolled in the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients received up to six 3-week cycles of gemcitabine (days 1 and 8, 1,250 mg/m²) and cisplatin (day 1, 75 mg/m²). Patients in the neci+GC arm also received necitumumab (days 1 and 8, 800 mg) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from stratified Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In EA patients, there were improvements for neci+GC (n=43) versus GC (n=41) in OS (HR, 0.805; 95% CI, 0.484 to 1.341) and PFS (HR, 0.720; 95% CI, 0.439 to 1.180), consistent with the results for non-EA patients observed in the present study. The overall safety data were consistent between EA and non-EA patients. A numerically higher proportion of patients experienced serious adverse events (AEs), grade ≥ 3 AEs, and AEs with an outcome of death for neci+GC versus GC in EA patients and EA patients versus non-EA patients for neci+GC. CONCLUSION: Although limited by the small sample size and post hoc nature of the analysis, these findings are consistent with those of the overall study and suggest that neci+GC offers a survival advantage and favorable benefit/risk for EA patients with advanced squamous NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Arm , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , ErbB Receptors , Sample Size
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