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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915079

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Familial cancer appears at a young age and its incidence is increasing. About 12% of familial ovarian cancer cases are associated with BRCA1/2 mutations (BRCAm). In this study, we investigated BRCA1 methylation may predict ovarian cancer in those with a family history of cancer (FHC) but without BRCA1/2 mutations (BRCAwt). @*Methods@#Using peripheral blood DNA from 55 subjects without a history of cancer [cancer(−)] and 52 ovarian cancer patients, we examined BRCA1 promoter methylation through bisulfite sequencing of the promoter and expressed the results as the cumulative methylation index. Then, we evaluated the BRCA1 promoter methylation according to BRCA1/2 germline mutations. @*Results@#BRCA1 methylation was more prevalent in the BRCAm cancer(−) group than in the BRCAwt cancer(−) group and ovarian cancer patients (p=0.031 and p=0.019, respectively). In the BRCAwt cancer(−) group, BRCA1 methylation was more prevalent in those with an FHC than in those without one and in the BRCAm cancer(−) group with an FHC (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Our data suggest a predictive role of BRCA1 methylation profile for ovarian cancer in those without a history of cancer but with an FHC. BRCA1 methylation has important implications for diagnostic and predictive testing of those with BRCAwt cancer(−) status with FHC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914060

ABSTRACT

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency disorder. A 13-month-old boy was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and treated with steroid and cyclosporine. Bone marrow showed diminished erythroid precursors, and positive results for Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. A genetic study of Diamond-Blackfan anemia was negative. Five months later, he was admitted due to fever and lymphadenopathy. PCR showed still positive for the Parvovirus, CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). He was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that was positive for EBV. The patient received chemotherapy with R-CHOP, and achieved complete remission. Immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were within an age-matched normal range until the completion of chemotherapy. Subsequently, he was admitted nine times due to recurrent pneumonia and acute otitis media between two and eight years old. We reanalyzed the Ig levels and lymphocyte subsets: IgG, IgA, and IgM were 30 mg/dL, below 1.0 mg/dL, and 36 mg/dL, respectively. Lymphocyte subsets showed nearly absent CD19 (+) cells, but T- and NK cell counts were within normal ranges. A genetic study showed a hemizygous inframe deletion mutation in exon 4 of the IAP gene without the SH2D1A mutation, consistent with a XIAP deficiency. Therefore, he was diagnosed with XIAP deficiency. Genetic analysis of his mother, aunt and elder sister showed that they were carriers of the same gene mutation. He receives intravenous Ig regularly with follow-up, and still requires a low dose steroid to maintain hemoglobin level. We report XIAP deficiency as initial presentation of PRCA.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874174

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-most-common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and an accurate and non-invasive biomarker for the early detection and monitoring of HCC is required. We assessed pathogenic variants of HCC driver genes in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from HCC patients who had not undergone systemic therapy. @*Methods@#Plasma cfDNA was collected from 20 HCC patients, and deep sequencing was performed using a customized cfDNA next-generation sequencing panel, targeting the major HCC driver genes (TP53, CTNNB1, TERT) that incorporates molecular barcoding. @*Results@#In 13/20 (65%) patients, we identified at least one pathogenic variant of two major HCC driver genes (TP53 and CTNNB1), including 16 variants of TP53 and nine variants of CTNNB1. The TP53 and CTNNB1 variants showed low allele frequencies, with median values of 0.17% (range: 0.06%–6.99%) and 0.07% (range: 0.05%–0.96%), respectively. However, the molecular coverage of variants was sufficient, with median values of 5,543 (range: 2,317–9,088) and 7,568 (range: 2,400–9,633) for TP53 and CTNNB1 variants, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Our targeted DNA sequencing successfully identified low-frequency pathogenic variants in the cfDNA from HCC patients by achieving high coverage of unique molecular families. Our results support the utility of cfDNA analysis to identify somatic gene variants in HCC patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is caused by pathogenic variants in BRCA and other cancer-related genes. We analyzed variants in BRCA gene and other cancer-related genes in HBOC patients to evaluate the clinical validity of next-generation sequencing (NGS) multi-gene panel testing. METHODS: The BRCA1/2 NGS testing was conducted for 262 HBOC patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and direct Sanger sequencing were performed for confirmation. Multi-gene panel testing was conducted for 120 patients who did not possess BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants but met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 were detected in 30 HBOC patients (11.5%). Additionally, four out of the 120 patients possessed pathogenic variants by multi-gene panel testing (3.3%): MSH2 (c.256G>T, p.Glu86*), PMS2 (c.1687C>T, p.Arg563*), CHEK2 (c.546C>A, p.Tyr182*), and PALB2 (c.3351-1G>C). All the four patients had a family history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-gene panel testing could be a significant screening tool for HBOC patients, especially for those with a family history of cancer.


Subject(s)
Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome , Humans , Mass Screening , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Blood Research ; : 159-168, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831005

ABSTRACT

Background@#Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. The genetic spectrum of PCM has been expanded to mutations such as KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF genes in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency of these mutations and their significance, including baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We explored 50 patients who were newly diagnosed with PCM between 2009 and 2012 at a single Korean institute. Clinical and laboratory parameters were gathered through careful review of medical records. Mutation analysis was carried out using DNA from the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis. Pyrosequencing was performed to detect KRAS G12V,KRASG13D, and NRAS G61R. BRAF V600E was analyzed by allele-specific real-time PCR. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters was carried out according to those mutations. @*Results@#We identified 14 patients (28%) with activating mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway (RAS/RAF mutations):KRAS (N=3), KRAS (N=4),BRAF (N=7), and both KRAS and BRAF (N=1). RAS/RAF mutations were more frequently observed in patients with complex karyotypes and showed poorer progression free survival (PFS). Specifically, the BRAF V600E mutation had a significantly negative impact on median PFS. @*Conclusion@#We first showed the frequency of RAS/RAF mutations in Korean patients with PCM.Screening of these mutations could be considered as a routine clinical test at the time of diagnosis and follow-up due to their influence on clinical outcome, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899316

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an infant with a 4q35.1 deletion with 10p duplication. This mutation is rarely reported in the literature and has been found to have variable clinical findings, often including developmental delay. In this case, the condition was detected by chromosomal microarray analysis after initial manifestation of a feeding problem and developmental delay. Minor dysmorphic features with abnormal neurological examination led to further evaluation. The father’s chromosome complement was 46, XY, t(4;10)(q35;p12.2). Parental balanced translocation can go unrecognized, because affected individuals are often phenotypically healthy until they have fertility issues such as recurrent miscarriages or children with severe congenital disorders. Genetic diagnoses help to establish a clear family genetic background that permits the development of clear treatment strategies. Prenatal counseling can also help to understand the possible risks associated with pregnancy or future child planning.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891612

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an infant with a 4q35.1 deletion with 10p duplication. This mutation is rarely reported in the literature and has been found to have variable clinical findings, often including developmental delay. In this case, the condition was detected by chromosomal microarray analysis after initial manifestation of a feeding problem and developmental delay. Minor dysmorphic features with abnormal neurological examination led to further evaluation. The father’s chromosome complement was 46, XY, t(4;10)(q35;p12.2). Parental balanced translocation can go unrecognized, because affected individuals are often phenotypically healthy until they have fertility issues such as recurrent miscarriages or children with severe congenital disorders. Genetic diagnoses help to establish a clear family genetic background that permits the development of clear treatment strategies. Prenatal counseling can also help to understand the possible risks associated with pregnancy or future child planning.

12.
Blood Research ; : 17-26, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: DNMT3A mutations occur in approximately 20% of AML cases and are associated with changes in DNA methylation. CDKN2B plays an important role in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and DNMT3A mutation is associated with CDKN2B promoter methylation. We analyzed the characteristics of DNMT3A mutations including their clinical significance in AML and their influence on promoter methylation and CDKN2B expression.METHODS: A total of 142 adults, recently diagnosed with de novo AML, were enrolled in the study. Mutations in DNMT3A, CEBPA, and NPM1 were analyzed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. We evaluated CDKN2B promoter methylation and expression using pyrosequencing and RT-qPCR.RESULTS: We identified DNMT3A mutations in 19.7% (N=28) of enrolled patients with AML, which increased to 29.5% when analysis was restricted to cytogenetically normal-AML. Mutations were located on exons from 8–23, and the majority, including R882, were found to be present on exon 23. We also identified a novel frameshift mutation, c.1590delC, in AML with biallelic mutation of CEBPA. There was no significant difference in CDKN2B promoter methylation according to the presence or type of DNMT3A mutations. CDKN2B expression inversely correlated with CDKN2B promoter methylation and was significantly higher in AML with R882H mutation in DNMT3A. We demonstrated that DNMT3A mutation was associated with poor AML outcomes, especially in cytogenetically normal-AML. The DNMT3A mutation remained as the independent unfavorable prognostic factor after multivariate analysis.CONCLUSION: We characterized DNMT3A mutations in AML and revealed the association between the DNMT3A mutation and CDKN2B expression and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , DNA Methylation , Exons , Frameshift Mutation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Methylation , Multivariate Analysis
13.
Blood Research ; : 17-22, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739439

ABSTRACT

Genetic hemoglobin disorders are caused by mutations and/or deletions in the α-globin or β-globin genes. Thalassemia is caused by quantitative defects and hemoglobinopathies by structural defect of hemoglobin. The incidence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy is increased in Korea with rapid influx of people from endemic areas. Thus, the awareness of the disease is needed. α-thalassemias are caused by deletions in α-globin gene, while β-thalassemias are associated with decreased synthesis of β-globin due to β-globin gene mutations. Hemoglobinopathies involve structural defects in hemoglobin due to altered amino acid sequence in the α- or β-globin chains. When the patient is suspected with thalassemia/hemoglobinopathy from abnormal complete blood count findings and/or family history, the next step is detecting hemoglobin abnormality using electrophoresis methods including high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The development of novel molecular genetic technologies, such as massively parallel sequencing, facilitates a more precise molecular diagnosis of thalassemia/hemoglobinopathy. Moreover, prenatal diagnosis using genetic testing enables the prevention of thalassemia birth and pregnancy complications. We aimed to review the spectrum and classification of thalassemia/hemoglobinopathy diseases and the diagnostic strategies including screening tests, molecular genetic tests, and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Anemia , Blood Cell Count , Chromatography, Liquid , Classification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis , Electrophoresis , Erythrocytes , Genetic Testing , Hematology , Hemoglobinopathies , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mass Screening , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Biology , Parturition , Pregnancy Complications , Prenatal Diagnosis , Thalassemia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is very important to accurately enumerate CD34-positive (CD34+) cells for successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We evaluated the ability of the newly developed image based-immunofluorescence cell counter ADAMII (NanoEntek, Seoul, Korea) to enumerate CD34+ cells, which was improved through simultaneous CD45 analysis. METHODS: We enumerated CD34+ cells with ADAMII using 19 peripheral blood (PB) and 91 leukapheresis samples from HSCT donors. Analytical performance, including precision and linearity, was analyzed, and sample stability during storage was evaluated. Viable CD34+ cell count (vCD34) and viable CD45+ cell count (vCD45) and the percentage of viable CD34+ cells among viable CD45+ cells (CD34/CD45) as measured by ADAMII were compared with the corresponding values from two flow cytometry assays, using regression analysis. RESULTS: ADAMII demonstrated acceptable precision, as CV values of vCD34 from six samples with different counts were all < 10% (range: 3.49–9.51%). CV values of the vCD45 and CD34/45 ranged from 4.03% to 9.67% and from 2.48% to 10.07%, respectively. The linearity of vCD34 showed an excellent R 2 value (0.99) when analyzed using the intended count and flow cytometry data. The ADAMII and two flow cytometry-based assays generated very similar data for the PB and leukapheresis samples. CONCLUSIONS: ADAMII demonstrated excellent performance for use as a routine clinical assay in terms of CD34+ cell enumeration from PB and leukapheresis samples. Moreover, it could be used as a point-of-care-test for determining mobilization time and predicting an adequate apheresis stem cell product.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal , Cell Count , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescence , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukapheresis , Seoul , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To validate the clinical application of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test and to determine the impact of CMA results on patient clinical management, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in Korean patients diagnosed as having developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). METHODS: We performed both CMA and G-banding cytogenetics as the first-tier tests in 617 patients. To determine whether the CMA results directly influenced treatment recommendations, the referring clinicians were asked to complete a 39-item questionnaire for each patient separately after receiving the CMA results. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients (19.8%) had abnormal CMA results, with either pathogenic variants (N=65) or variants of possible significance (VPS, N=57). Thirty-five well-known diseases were detected: 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome was the most common, followed by Prader-Willi syndrome, 15q11-q13 duplication, Down syndrome, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Variants of unknown significance (VUS) were discovered in 51 patients (8.3%). VUS of genes putatively associated with developmental disorders were found in five patients: IMMP2L deletion, PTCH1 duplication, and ATRNL1 deletion. CMA results influenced clinical management, such as imaging studies, specialist referral, and laboratory testing in 71.4% of patients overall, and in 86.0%, 83.3%, 75.0%, and 67.3% of patients with VPS, pathogenic variants, VUS, and benign variants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical application of CMA as a first-tier test improves diagnostic yields and the quality of clinical management in patients with DD/ID, ASD, and MCA.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Cytogenetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Korea , Microarray Analysis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Prader-Willi Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Specialization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739121

ABSTRACT

We reviewed our leukemia database to reclassify 610 patients previously diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the updated 2016 WHO classification. Nine patients were categorized as having myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition. AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities accounted for 57.4% (345/601) of the patients under the 2016 WHO classification. AML with mutated NPM1 was the most common form (16.5%), with the majority associated with monocytic differentiation (63.6%). AML with double CEBPA mutations accounted for 8.3% of these cases, and the majority were previously diagnosed as AML with/without maturation (78.0%). These newly classified mutations were mutually exclusive without overlapping with other forms of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities. AML with mutated NPM1 and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes comprised the oldest patients, whereas AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 included the youngest patients. The leukocyte count was highest in AML with mutated NPM1, and the percentage of peripheral blood blasts was the highest in AML with double CEBPA mutations. Our results indicate that implementation of the 2016 WHO classification of AML would not pose major difficulties in clinical practice. Hematopathologists should review and prepare genetic tests for the new classification, according to their clinical laboratory conditions.


Subject(s)
Classification , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763515

ABSTRACT

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is characterized by recurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms and an unusual pattern of anti-EBV antibodies. We report a boy with CAEBV who progressed to aggressive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with NK cell neoplasm. A 19-year-old adolescent boy was admitted with fever and a history of recurrent IM-like symptoms following mosquito bites since the age of 6 years. His condition was diagnosed as CAEBV with atypical lymphocytosis and an unusual pattern of anti-EBV antibodies. His symptoms subsided during treatment with steroids and cyclosporine, although the EBV genome load kept increasing for several years. He was re-admitted after follow-up loss for 8 years, and his clinical and laboratory findings confirmed HLH and high titer of the EBV genome. Bone marrow analysis with flow cytometry showed hemophagocytosis with compatible NK cell neoplasm. He rapidly progressed to pulmonary infection and expired soon after. We conclude that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be a potential therapeutic modality for treating CAEBV before serious EBV manifestations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antibodies , Bone Marrow , Culicidae , Cyclosporine , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Fever , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Genome , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infectious Mononucleosis , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Male , Steroids , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of copy number variations (CNV) on developmental aspects of children suspected of having delayed development. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was done for 65 children who underwent array-comparative genomic hybridization after visiting physical medicine & rehabilitation department of outpatient clinic with delayed development as chief complaints. Children were evaluated with Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), or Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES). A Mann-Whitney U test was conducted to determine statistical differences of developmental quotient (DQ), receptive language quotient (RLQ), and expressive language quotient (ELQ) between children with CNV (CNV(+) group, n=16) and children without CNV (CNV(–) group, n=37). RESULTS: Of these subjects, the average age was 35.1 months (mean age, 35.1±24.2 months). Sixteen (30.2%) patients had copy number variations. In the CNV(+) group, 14 children underwent DDST-II. In the CNV(–) group, 29 children underwent DDST-II. Among variables, gross motor scale was significantly (p=0.038) lower in the CNV(+) group compared with the CNV(–) group. In the CNV(+) group, 5 children underwent either SELSI or PRES. In the CNV(–) group, 27 children underwent above language assessment examination. Both RLQ and ELQ were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The gross motor domain in DQ was significantly lower in children with CNV compared to that in children without CNV. This result suggests that additional genetic factors contribute to this variability. Active detection of genomic imbalance could play a vital role when prominent gross motor delay is presented in children with delayed development.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Child , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Developmental Disabilities , DNA Copy Number Variations , Humans , Infant , Mass Screening , Motor Skills , Muscle Hypotonia , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies
20.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 114-118, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715908

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is caused by mutations in the SPTA1, SPTB, ANK1, SLC4A1, and EPB42 genes, all of which encode erythrocyte membrane proteins. Mutations in SLC4A1, which encodes band 3 protein, have rarely been reported as the causative factor among Korean patients with HS. Here, we report two Korean patients with HS carrying mutations in SLC4A1. Patient 1 was a 3-year-old girl with unremarkable past and family histories and was evaluated for anemia that was detected after a complete blood count. She was suspected of having HS considering the spherocytosis of her peripheral blood smear, increased osmotic fragility, hemolytic features in blood chemistry tests, and splenomegaly. Sequence analysis revealed that the patient harbored a single heterozygous missense mutation, c.2278C>T (p.Arg760Trp) in exon 17 of SLC4A1. Patient 2 was a 23-year-old man who had a prior history of intermittent jaundice. Although the patient did not have anemia, a genetic test for HS was performed due to evidence of hemolytic features in the blood chemistry test, splenomegaly, and a family history of HS. The test confirmed a single heterozygous missense mutation, c.2423G>T (p.Arg808Leu) in exon 18 of SLC4A1.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte , Blood Cell Count , Chemistry , Child, Preschool , Erythrocyte Membrane , Exons , Female , Humans , Jaundice , Mutation, Missense , Osmotic Fragility , Sequence Analysis , Splenomegaly , Young Adult
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