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1.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 169-174, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001601

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders in childhood. This study aimed to investigate comorbid psychiatric symptoms and associated factors in elementary school children with symptoms of ODD. @*Methods@#The participants consisted of 205 mother-offspring pairs. Psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Diagnostic Predictive Scales and Korean Child Behavior Checklist. Psychiatric comorbid symptoms were compared between children with ODD symptom and those without ODD symptom. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio of psychiatric symptom on ODD. @*Results@#ODD group had a significant association with internalizing and externalizing problem (p=0.001, p<0.001, respectively). ODD group were more comorbid with anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. Among psychiatric disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=18.620, p<0.001) and conduct disorder (AOR=9.529, p=0.014) were associated with ODD symptom. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that children with ODD symptom had significantly higher rates of comorbid psychiatric symptoms. And GAD and conduct disorder are related to ODD symptom.

2.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 73-81, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938187

ABSTRACT

Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) has symptoms similar to schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations and delusional thoughts of being controlled, there are difficulties in its differential diagnosis. A 16-year-old adolescent male patient who was previously diagnosed with schizophrenia from a different hospital was admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit for the evaluation of auditory hallucinations and suicide attempts. Through psychiatric evaluations, it was determined that the patient suffered from identity alternation, dissociation, and amnesia. As for the diagnostic evaluations, the following measures were implemented: a psychiatric interview regarding the diagnostic criteria, mental status examination, laboratory tests, brain imaging studies, electroencephalography, and full psychological test for adolescents, and the self-reported measure of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. The patient was diagnosed with DID, and the following treatments were administered: pharmacotherapy, ego state therapy, psychoeducation regarding emotions, trauma-focused psychotherapy including stabilization, and family therapy. Following treatment, in the internal dimensions, the patient was able to recognize the nine alternate identities in charge of his emotions, which established a basis for the potential integration of identities. In the external dimensions, he showed improvements in the aspects of family conflicts and issue of school refusal. This is the first reported case of DID in an adolescent in Korea; it emphasizes the consideration of DID in the differential diagnosis of other mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder and expands the treatment opportunities for DID by sharing the procedures of ego state therapy.

3.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 52-58, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968346

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was conducted to examine the effect of adverse childhood experiences on depressive symptoms in university students and to verify whether positive psychological resources act as a protective factor for depression. @*Methods@#Data from 1,317 young adults aged 18-29 years who took part in the university-based cross-sectional survey were analyzed. All participants completed self-report questionnaires that included demographic variables, the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Positive Resources Test. @*Results@#The incidence of depression was 33.3% and was higher in women than in men. Based on the 10 ACE categories, 32.7% of the students reported one or more adverse childhood experiences, and 14.4% reported two or more forms of adverse childhood experiences. Students with depressive symptoms were likely to report more traumatic experiences in childhood and fewer positive psychological resources than those without depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that positive psychological resources moderated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and depression. @*Conclusion@#Based on these results, professionals should consider identifying adverse childhood experiences early and provide active mental health service support, including positive psychological and social resources for individuals who have adverse experiences during childhood.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1050-1057, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918731

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes across the lifespan, but research on intergenerational transmission of maternal ACEs and its impact on the offspring’s mental health problems are limited. The study examines the effects of maternal ACEs on the risk of internalizing or externalizing problems among offspring. @*Methods@#There were 450 mother-child dyads. Mothers completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The child outcomes included internalizing and externalizing problems assessed by the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean Youth Self-Report (K-YSR), depression assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and anxiety assessed by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). @*Results@#36.1% of mothers experienced at least one ACE, and 11.1% experienced three or more ACEs. Cumulative maternal ACEs were associated with internalizing problems, externalizing problems, depression and anxiety in the offspring. Household dysfunction from maternal ACEs was significantly associated with delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints in the offspring. @*Conclusion@#The findings support the hypothesis that maternal ACEs are related to mental health problems in the offspring. Further research is needed to determine the factors mediating intergenerational transmission as well as intervention strategies to prevent ACEs and mental health problems in the offspring.

5.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 17-23, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918518

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is growing interest in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because many ADHD children have symptoms that last through adulthood, and adult ADHD has a high risk of comorbid mental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and comorbidities of adult ADHD, with a focus on depression and pathological internet use among Korean college students. @*Methods@#This study included 1358 college students, who were asked to complete self-reporting questionnaires on their characteristics, ADHD symptoms, and related clinical factors. The study analyzed associations between ADHD and depression, anxiety, pathological internet use, and problematic alcohol use. @*Results@#The prevalence rate of ADHD among college students was 5.7%. A significant association was determined between ADHD symptoms and school satisfaction, depression, anxiety, and pathological internet use. Multivariate analysis showed that ADHD symptoms in college students were significantly associated with depression and pathological internet use. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of ADHD among college students was similar to that of children and adolescents. Moreover, the risk of depression and pathological internet use was high in the ADHD group. Early screening and intervention for ADHD and comorbidities will be required to prevent the negative consequences of the condition and help students adapt in the future.

6.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892982

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of mothers may negatively affect the mental health of their offspring. Little is known about the intergenerational effect of maternal ACE on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the offspring. This study investigated the impact of maternal ACEs on PTSD in the offspring. @*Methods@#A total of 156 mothers with children aged 13–18 years completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) Predictive Scales to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The subjects completed the ACE questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between maternal ACEs and PTSD in the offspring. @*Results@#Of the mothers, 23.7% had at least one ACE, and PTSD was reported in 21.8% of the offspring. The offspring of the mothers in the ACE group had a significantly higher rates of traumatic experiences and PTSD than the offspring of the mothers in the no ACE group. Maternal household dysfunction independently predicted offspring PTSD [odds ratio (OR)=3.008, p=0.05), and three or more maternal ACEs were significantly related to PTSD in the offspring (OR=10.613, p=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs have a significant impact on the risk of traumatic experiences and PTSD in the offspring. These findings suggest the presence of intergenerational transmissions by which maternal ACEs affect the mental health of the offspring.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e138-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

8.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900686

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of mothers may negatively affect the mental health of their offspring. Little is known about the intergenerational effect of maternal ACE on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the offspring. This study investigated the impact of maternal ACEs on PTSD in the offspring. @*Methods@#A total of 156 mothers with children aged 13–18 years completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) Predictive Scales to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The subjects completed the ACE questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between maternal ACEs and PTSD in the offspring. @*Results@#Of the mothers, 23.7% had at least one ACE, and PTSD was reported in 21.8% of the offspring. The offspring of the mothers in the ACE group had a significantly higher rates of traumatic experiences and PTSD than the offspring of the mothers in the no ACE group. Maternal household dysfunction independently predicted offspring PTSD [odds ratio (OR)=3.008, p=0.05), and three or more maternal ACEs were significantly related to PTSD in the offspring (OR=10.613, p=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs have a significant impact on the risk of traumatic experiences and PTSD in the offspring. These findings suggest the presence of intergenerational transmissions by which maternal ACEs affect the mental health of the offspring.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e138-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

10.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 28-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874962

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to examine the effect of maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the offspring and to examine the mediating role of antepartum health risk on the intergenerational transmission of maternal ACEs. @*Methods@#The participants consisted of 461 mother-child dyads. Mothers completed the ACEs questionnaire and Diagnostic Predictive Scales. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of ADHD symptoms in the offspring of mothers with ACEs and the mediating effect of antepartum health risks by path analysis. @*Results@#In all, 35.4% (n=163) had at least one maternal ACE, and 11.1% (n=51) had three or more. Compared to the non-ADHD symptom group, the group of offspring with ADHD symptoms showed a significant association with maternal ACE score (p<0.001) and antepartum health risks (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis further showed a significant association between the sum of maternal ACEs [odds ratio (OR)=1.264, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.060–1.516, p=0.009], antepartum health risks (OR=1.236, 95% CI=1.036–1.475, p= 0.019), and ADHD symptoms in the offspring. In the mediation model in which the mother’s ACE score affected the offspring’s ADHD symptoms, partial mediation through antepartum health risks was found to be significant (B=0.041, 95% CI=0.011–0.124). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs are significantly related to the incidence of ADHD symptoms in the offspring and antepartum health risks exert an indirect effect. These findings suggest that maternal ACEs have a negative impact on the offspring’s brain development through intergenerational transmission, resulting in neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD.

11.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 161-164, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836311

ABSTRACT

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts, including the oral cavity. For the conventional treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, steroids are usually used as induction therapy, and azathioprine is used as maintenance therapy. Steroids are associated with various side effects. Under rare circumstances, they can even cause psychotic symptoms, and reports on steroid-induced psychosis in the pediatric population are few. Here, we report the first case of steroid-induced psychosis in a 16-year-old female with Crohn’s disease administered with steroids as induction therapy in South Korea. She showed psychotic symptoms, including auditory hallucination, loosening of association, and idea of reference, after 2 weeks of administering prednisolone 60 mg/day. One week after steroid discontinuation, the patient gradually recovered and was treated with quetiapine. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of serious psychiatric adverse effects when administering corticosteroids for various indications.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e271-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831552

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases of immigrant populations have recently become important issues for the health of both Korean nationals and foreigners living in Korea. This case report of general paresis is intended to raise awareness about re-emerging neurosyphilis in Korea as a possible etiology of psychotic disorders. A 68-year-old male Chinese resident came to Korea in 2019 with disorientation, auditory hallucination, persecutory delusion, and aggressive behavior, and was admitted to a psychiatric ward for further evaluation and treatment via the emergency department. He was confirmed to have neurosyphilis by serum test, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. After treatment with antibiotics, including intravenous penicillin, in combination with atypical antipsychotics for 6 weeks, his disorientation, auditory hallucination, delusion, and aggressive behavior had attenuated.Neurosyphilis should still be included as a possible etiology of psychotic disorders in Korea.At the initial evaluation, syphilis screening serum tests are recommended for psychotic patients, especially those with pleomorphic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction.

14.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 178-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the effect of a group-based parent education program on parenting stress and attitude and comparing the same according to adult attachment styles.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Education , Maternal Behavior , Mothers , Parenting , Parents
15.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 17-25, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766276

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the differences in parenting stress, parenting attitudes, and parents' mental health between different adult attachment styles. METHODS: Forty-four parents who completed a parental education program were enrolled in our study. They completed the Korean version of the Experience of Close Relationship Revised, Korean-Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Maternal Behavior Research Instrument, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. RESULTS: The avoidant attachment score positively correlated with parenting stress. The anxious attachment score showed a positive relationship with parenting stress, hostile parenting attitude, and psychopathology, but a negative association with an affectionate parenting attitude. The secure attachment group exhibited a more autonomous, affectionate parenting style and a less hostile parenting attitude and less parenting stress than the insecure attachment group. Dismissing-avoidant attachment parents reported significantly higher parenting stress scores than secure attachment parents. Preoccupied and fearful-avoidant attachment parents displayed a more hostile parenting style than secure attachment parents. Dismissing-avoidant and preoccupied parents reported a less affectionate parenting attitude than secure attachment parents. CONCLUSION: There were differences in parenting stress, parenting attitudes, and parents' mental health depending on the adult attachment style. More specific education and interventions based on parental attachment type are necessary for parents.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Education , Maternal Behavior , Mental Health , Parenting , Parents , Psychopathology
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 206-212, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify temperament and character profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Children with ADHD (n=114, 8.51±1.87 years) were selected from the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Jeju National University Hospital. They were diagnosed by Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version and evaluated using the Advanced Test of Attention and Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition. Their parents completed the ADHD Rating Scale, Korean-Child Behavioral Checklist, and Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. RESULTS: The participants with both internalizing and externalizing problem had more severe ADHD symptoms and significantly higher novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, as well as lower self-directedness and cooperativeness than those who had not comorbid problems. Harm avoidance was correlated with their level of internalizing problems regardless of severity of ADHD symptoms. In addition, novelty seeking and sex (male) were being associated with the level of externalizing problems. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed in the temperament and character profiles of children with ADHD according to their comorbid psychopathology. Results suggested that temperament and character profiles may affect the comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD regardless of ADHD symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Adolescent Psychiatry , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Checklist , Intelligence , Mood Disorders , Parents , Psychopathology , Temperament
17.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 99-105, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social anxiety and suicide are serious common problems in college students. However, there are few studies on the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and suicidal risk. Therefore, we evaluated the associationbetween social anxiety symptoms and suicidal risk in college students.METHODS: A total of 579 college students were recruited for a college-based cross-sectional survey in the Jeju area. The participants completed a questionnaire gathering sociodemographic information; they also completed the Korean Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess social anxiety symptoms and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms. To obtain information regarding suicidal risk, we administered the Korean version of the Suicide module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.).RESULTS: The prevalence of higher levels of social anxiety symptoms among college students was 28.0% (n=162). A higher level of social anxiety symptoms resulted in a 2.10-times higher suicidal risk after adjusting for depression in college students (95% confidence interval, 1.05-4.23; p=0.037).CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, social anxiety symptoms should be managed and controlled to prevent suicidality in Korean college students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Epidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Suicide
18.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 150-160, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of social skills training (SST) on facial emotion recognition and discrimination in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Twenty-three children aged 7 to 10 years participated in our SST. They included 15 children diagnosed with ADHD and 8 with ASD. The participants' parents completed the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), the ADHD Rating Scale, and Conner's Scale at baseline and post-treatment. The participants completed the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (K-WISC-IV) and the Advanced Test of Attention at baseline and the Penn Emotion Recognition and Discrimination Task at baseline and post-treatment. RESULTS: No significant changes in facial emotion recognition and discrimination occurred in either group before and after SST. However, when controlling for the processing speed of K-WISC and the social subscale of K-CBCL, the ADHD group showed more improvement in total (p=0.049), female (p=0.039), sad (p=0.002), mild (p=0.015), female extreme (p=0.005), male mild (p=0.038), and Caucasian (p=0.004) facial expressions than did the ASD group. CONCLUSION: SST improved facial expression recognition for children with ADHD more effectively than it did for children with ASD, in whom additional training to help emotion recognition and discrimination is needed.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Checklist , Child Behavior , Discrimination, Psychological , Facial Expression , Facial Recognition , Intelligence , Parents , Social Skills
19.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 54-61, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a class-based school violence prevention program for elementary school student. METHODS: 29 students were assigned to the school violence prevention program of 8 sessions, 28 students have been assigned to the control group. We assessed participants at baseline and post-intervention, through their self-report questionnaires such as Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and school violence experience, awareness about school violence, and coping ability to school violence. We compared the baseline and post-intervention result of each group and compared the post-test scores between the intervention group and the control group. RESULTS: Comparing the intervention group and the control group, the post-intervention CDI total score and the awareness about school violence showed significant improvement in the intervention group. When compared according to gender, male students' perception of school violence was improved, and female students showed significant differences in CDI scores. CONCLUSION: The CDI total scores and the perception of school violence were improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. And there are differential pattern of intervention effects according to gender. These findings have important implications to develop effective violence prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Depression , Violence
20.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 21-30, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725228

ABSTRACT

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder. Recently, it has been suggested that brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) may play a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Our aim of this review is to understand the physiological functions of BDNF and its potential relationship with ADHD and therapeutic approaches of ADHD. Searches were conducted in Pubmed and Research Information Service System (RISS). In this review, we summarized important literatures for the physiological functions of BDNF in neurodevelopment, change of serum BDNF level in ADHD, association of BDNF polymorphism and ADHD and potential association of treatment of ADHD with serum BDNF level. Further studies are required to more clearly understand the source and the role of BDNF in ADHD and to develop BDNF based-ADHD treatement.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Information Services
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