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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

2.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 34-41, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966270

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) among children and adolescents with osteoporosis secondary to treatment for underlying clinical conditions. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged 10–18 years and evaluated them for lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD) after treatment for underlying diseases, including hemato-oncologic, rheumatologic system, and inflammator y bowel diseases. LSBMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed from March 2019 to March 2021 was evaluated. We analyzed 117 patients who underwent initial DXA after treatment for underlying diseases. @*Results@#Subjects in this study had multiple underlying diseases: hemato-oncologic (78.6%), rheumatologic (11.1%), and inflammatory bowel diseases (10.3%). There was no significant association between the z-score and bone metabolic markers (P>0.05). However, higher cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose significantly reduced LSBMD z-score (P=0.029). Moreover, the association between cumulative dose of GC and initial z-score of LSBMD was significant in logarithmic regression analysis (P=0.003, R2=0.149). GC accumulation was a significant risk factor for vertebral fracture when the initial BMD was evaluated after treatment (P=0.043). Bone metabolic markers did not significantly influence the risk of vertebral fracture. @*Conclusion@#Initial bone mass density of the lumbar spine evaluated after long-term GC use for underlying diseases is a predictor of further vertebral fractures.

3.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 224-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002683

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a rare adverse event of dasatinib, which is known to be caused by dasatinib-induced colitis, severe thrombocytopenia, and platelet dysfunction.We present two cases of pediatric patients who developed hematochezia during treatment with dasatinib after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A colonic tissue biopsy was performed to differentiate the cause of GI bleeding. Both patients were diagnosed with proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, but only one was treated with ganciclovir. The patient who did not receive antiviral therapy experienced recurrent GI bleeding during dasatinib administration, leading to multiple treatment interruptions. During dasatinib therapy after HSCT, patients with GI bleeding and confirmed CMV colitis may benefit from antiviral therapy to reduce interruptions in dasatinib therapy.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e230-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001112

ABSTRACT

Background@#Data on the status of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care for childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) in Korea is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the current status of LTFU care for CCSs and relevant physicians’ perspectives. @*Methods@#A nationwide online survey of pediatric hematologists/oncologists in the Republic of Korea was undertaken. @*Results@#Overall, 47 of the 74 board-certified Korean pediatric hematologists/oncologists currently providing pediatric hematology/oncology care participated in the survey (response rate = 63.5%). Forty-five of the 47 respondents provided LTFU care for CCSs five years after the completion of primary cancer treatment. However, some of the 45 respondents provided LTFU care only for CCS with late complications or CCSs who requested LTFU care. Twenty of the 45 respondents oversaw LTFU care for adult CCSs, although pediatric hematologists/ oncologists experienced more difficulties managing adult CCSs. Many pediatric hematologists/oncologists did not perform the necessary screening test, although CCSs had risk factors for late complications, mostly because of insurance coverage issues and the lack of Korean LTFU guidelines. Regarding a desirable LTFU care system for CCSs in Korea, 27 of the 46 respondents (58.7%) answered that it is desirable to establish a multidisciplinary CCSs care system in which pediatric hematologists/oncologists and adult physicians cooperate. @*Conclusion@#The LTFU care system for CCS is underdeveloped in the Republic of Korea. It is urgent to establish an LTFU care system to meet the growing needs of Korean CCSs, which should include Korean CCSs care guidelines, provider education plans, the establishment of multidisciplinary care systems, and a supportive national healthcare policy.

5.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 116-123, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999356

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Survivors of childhood leukemia are at risk of growth impairment due to intensive chemotherapy and radiation treatments. This study investigated the auxological and biochemical characteristics of childhood leukemia survivors diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and the changes in these parameters after 1 year of growth hormone (GH) treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 24 children diagnosed with GHD after leukemia treatment was analyzed. Clinical and biochemical data were collected retrospectively at leukemia diagnosis, GHD diagnosis, and 1 year after GH treatment. Standard deviation score (SDS) was calculated based on the age- and gender-adjusted population. @*Results@#Of the 24 children included in this study, 19 received GH treatment. The median age at GHD diagnosis was 12.3 years, and the median delay in bone age was 1.46 years. Height SDS decreased from -0.69 at leukemia diagnosis to -2.58 at GHD diagnosis (P<0.001). The change in height SDS with and without GH for 1 year was 0.35 and -0.21, respectively (P=0.044). In regression analyses, higher height SDS at GHD diagnosis and a smaller decrease of the height SDS between leukemia and GHD diagnoses were positively correlated with height SDS after GH treatment. @*Conclusion@#GH treatment could be beneficial and safe for improving height in childhood leukemia survivors with GHD. Height SDS at GHD diagnosis and reduction of height SDS between leukemia and GHD diagnosis could be potential factors in predicting the therapeutic effects. Close auxological monitoring is recommended for any childhood leukemia survivors who experience posttreatment height decline.

6.
Blood Research ; : 256-263, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966425

ABSTRACT

Background@#Allogeneic HSCT may improve survival in pediatric ALL patients who relapse. In this study, we analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors of 62 ALL patients (35 male, 56.5%) who received allogeneic HSCT in second complete remission (CR) at our institution between April 1st 2009 and December 31st 2019. @*Methods@#The median time from diagnosis to relapse was 35.1 months (range, 6.0‒113.6 mo).Fifty-three patients (85.5%) experienced bone marrow relapse only. The number of patients who received transplant according to each donor type was as follows: HLA matched family donor 17 (27.4%), matched unrelated donor (UD) 22 (35.5%), mismatched donor 23 (37.1%). All patients received HSCT with a myeloablative conditioning, 58 patients (93.5%) with the incorporation of TBI [31 patients 12 Gray (Gy), 24 patients 13.2 Gy, 3 patients 8 Gy]. @*Results@#The 5-year event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival of the study group was 41.3±6.3% (26/62), and 42.3±6.6% (27/62), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse and transplant-related mortality was 57.1±6.4% and 1.6±1.6%, respectively.Infant ALL, shorter time from diagnosis to relapse, and TBI dose of 12 Gy, rather than 13.2 Gy, resulted in significantly worse EFS. In multivariate analysis, infant ALL and TBI dose of 12 Gy during conditioning predicted significantly lower EFS. @*Conclusion@#In our study group, treatment with a higher dose of TBI during conditioning resulted in better EFS for ALL patients who underwent HSCT in second CR. Further study is needed to determine potential long-term complications associated with a higher TBI dose.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 269-276, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 567-575, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897438

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent cooperative trials in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) report long-term event-free survival (EFS) of greater than 80%. In this study, we analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with precursor B cell ALL (n=405) diagnosed during a 10-year period (2005-2015) at our institution. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients were treated with a uniform institutional regimen based on four risk groups, except for steroid type; patients diagnosed up till 2008 receiving dexamethasone, while subsequent patients received prednisolone. None of the patients received cranial irradiation in first complete remission. @*Results@#The 10-year EFS and overall survival was 76.3%±2.3% and 85.1%±1.9%. Ten-year cumulative incidence of relapse, any central nervous system (CNS) relapse and isolated CNS relapse was 20.8%±2.2%, 3.7%±1.1% and 2.5%±0.9% respectively. A comparison of established, good prognosis genetic abnormalities showed that patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better EFS than those with ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement (10-year EFS of 91.2%±3.0% vs. 79.5%±4.4%, p=0.033). For the overall cohort, male sex, infant ALL, initial CNS involvement, and Philadelphia chromosome (+) ALL were significant factors for lower EFS in multivariate study, while high hyperdiploidy conferred favorable outcome. For high and very high risk patients (n=231), high hyperdiploidy was the only significant factor for EFS in multivariate study. @*Conclusion@#Regarding good prognosis genetic abnormalities, patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better outcome than ETV6-RUNX1 (+) patients. High hyperdiploidy was a major, favorable prognostic factor in the overall patient group, as well as the subgroup of patients with higher risk.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 567-575, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889734

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent cooperative trials in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) report long-term event-free survival (EFS) of greater than 80%. In this study, we analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with precursor B cell ALL (n=405) diagnosed during a 10-year period (2005-2015) at our institution. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients were treated with a uniform institutional regimen based on four risk groups, except for steroid type; patients diagnosed up till 2008 receiving dexamethasone, while subsequent patients received prednisolone. None of the patients received cranial irradiation in first complete remission. @*Results@#The 10-year EFS and overall survival was 76.3%±2.3% and 85.1%±1.9%. Ten-year cumulative incidence of relapse, any central nervous system (CNS) relapse and isolated CNS relapse was 20.8%±2.2%, 3.7%±1.1% and 2.5%±0.9% respectively. A comparison of established, good prognosis genetic abnormalities showed that patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better EFS than those with ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement (10-year EFS of 91.2%±3.0% vs. 79.5%±4.4%, p=0.033). For the overall cohort, male sex, infant ALL, initial CNS involvement, and Philadelphia chromosome (+) ALL were significant factors for lower EFS in multivariate study, while high hyperdiploidy conferred favorable outcome. For high and very high risk patients (n=231), high hyperdiploidy was the only significant factor for EFS in multivariate study. @*Conclusion@#Regarding good prognosis genetic abnormalities, patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better outcome than ETV6-RUNX1 (+) patients. High hyperdiploidy was a major, favorable prognostic factor in the overall patient group, as well as the subgroup of patients with higher risk.

10.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 84-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914060

ABSTRACT

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency disorder. A 13-month-old boy was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and treated with steroid and cyclosporine. Bone marrow showed diminished erythroid precursors, and positive results for Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. A genetic study of Diamond-Blackfan anemia was negative. Five months later, he was admitted due to fever and lymphadenopathy. PCR showed still positive for the Parvovirus, CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). He was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that was positive for EBV. The patient received chemotherapy with R-CHOP, and achieved complete remission. Immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were within an age-matched normal range until the completion of chemotherapy. Subsequently, he was admitted nine times due to recurrent pneumonia and acute otitis media between two and eight years old. We reanalyzed the Ig levels and lymphocyte subsets: IgG, IgA, and IgM were 30 mg/dL, below 1.0 mg/dL, and 36 mg/dL, respectively. Lymphocyte subsets showed nearly absent CD19 (+) cells, but T- and NK cell counts were within normal ranges. A genetic study showed a hemizygous inframe deletion mutation in exon 4 of the IAP gene without the SH2D1A mutation, consistent with a XIAP deficiency. Therefore, he was diagnosed with XIAP deficiency. Genetic analysis of his mother, aunt and elder sister showed that they were carriers of the same gene mutation. He receives intravenous Ig regularly with follow-up, and still requires a low dose steroid to maintain hemoglobin level. We report XIAP deficiency as initial presentation of PRCA.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e393-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 183-187, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914574

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in children and adolescents with hematologic malignancies after the completion of chemotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Of 97 enrolled patients, 60 (61.9%) were seropositive for HAV. The seroprevalences in patients undergoing chemotherapy and HCT were 60.3% (41/68) and 65.5% (19/29), respectively (P = 0.628). No significant factors associated with seropositivity for HAV after chemotherapy and HCT were identified. Anti-HAV tests and HAV re-vaccinations can be considered in children and adolescents with underlying hematologic malignancies after chemotherapy and HCT based on the anti-HAV results.

14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 357-367, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
15.
Blood Research ; : 45-51, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is a subset of ALL with poor prognosis. Here, we analyzed the outcomes and prognostic factors of children with Ph+ ALL who received imatinib and chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission (CR). METHODS: Thirty-one Ph+ ALL patients (female 10) diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2016 were included in the study. All patients were treated with imatinib and chemotherapy before HCT. Bone marrow (BM) evaluations included real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) study of the BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript. All patients received HCT with total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning at a median of 6.4 (range, 4.2–47.1) months from diagnosis. RESULTS: Compared to values at diagnosis, the median decrement of RQ-PCR value post-consolidation, and prior to HCT was −3.7 Log and −4.8 Log, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival of the patients were 64.5±9.4% (20/31) and 75.0±8.3% (23/31) respectively. Events included relapse (N=5) and death in CR post-HCT (N=6). The 5-year incidence of molecular relapse was 30.9±9.1% (9/31). An RQ-PCR decrement of at least −4 Log post-consolidation significantly predicted lower incidence of molecular relapse: 7.7±7.7% for ≥−4 Log decrement, 50.0±13.8% for <−4 Log decrement (P=0.027). CONCLUSION: Decrement in RQ-PCR for the BCR-ABL1 transcript that was determined after consolidation was the only significant prognostic factor for incidence of molecular relapse. In the post-induction TKI initiation setting, steadfast imatinib treatment during consolidation may allow for optimum post-HCT outcomes.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Bone Marrow , Cell Transplantation , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Imatinib Mesylate , Incidence , Philadelphia Chromosome , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Transplants , Whole-Body Irradiation
16.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 311-316, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739121

ABSTRACT

We reviewed our leukemia database to reclassify 610 patients previously diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the updated 2016 WHO classification. Nine patients were categorized as having myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition. AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities accounted for 57.4% (345/601) of the patients under the 2016 WHO classification. AML with mutated NPM1 was the most common form (16.5%), with the majority associated with monocytic differentiation (63.6%). AML with double CEBPA mutations accounted for 8.3% of these cases, and the majority were previously diagnosed as AML with/without maturation (78.0%). These newly classified mutations were mutually exclusive without overlapping with other forms of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities. AML with mutated NPM1 and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes comprised the oldest patients, whereas AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 included the youngest patients. The leukocyte count was highest in AML with mutated NPM1, and the percentage of peripheral blood blasts was the highest in AML with double CEBPA mutations. Our results indicate that implementation of the 2016 WHO classification of AML would not pose major difficulties in clinical practice. Hematopathologists should review and prepare genetic tests for the new classification, according to their clinical laboratory conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Classification , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
17.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 95-98, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763515

ABSTRACT

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is characterized by recurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms and an unusual pattern of anti-EBV antibodies. We report a boy with CAEBV who progressed to aggressive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with NK cell neoplasm. A 19-year-old adolescent boy was admitted with fever and a history of recurrent IM-like symptoms following mosquito bites since the age of 6 years. His condition was diagnosed as CAEBV with atypical lymphocytosis and an unusual pattern of anti-EBV antibodies. His symptoms subsided during treatment with steroids and cyclosporine, although the EBV genome load kept increasing for several years. He was re-admitted after follow-up loss for 8 years, and his clinical and laboratory findings confirmed HLH and high titer of the EBV genome. Bone marrow analysis with flow cytometry showed hemophagocytosis with compatible NK cell neoplasm. He rapidly progressed to pulmonary infection and expired soon after. We conclude that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be a potential therapeutic modality for treating CAEBV before serious EBV manifestations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Antibodies , Bone Marrow , Culicidae , Cyclosporine , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Fever , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Genome , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Hypersensitivity , Infectious Mononucleosis , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Steroids
18.
Blood Research ; : 145-151, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy for β-thalassemia major (TM) and sickle cell disease (SCD) in children. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and treatment-related mortality (TRM) remain significant challenges to improving survival after HSCT. Here, we analyzed the outcome of TM and SCD patients, who received allogeneic HSCT with myeloablative conditioning at our institution. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (15 TM, 7 SCD), with a median age of 9 years (range, 1.6–16.9), underwent allogeneic HSCT using busulfan, cyclophosphamide and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin-based conditioning. Cells were derived from either the bone marrow (8 patients), or peripheral blood stem cells (14 patients). The majority of patients received HSCT from a matched sibling donor (N=18). GVHD prophylaxis included cyclosporine and short course methotrexate. RESULTS: All patients achieved donor engraftment. Two SCD patients died from TRM-related grade IV gut GVHD (N=1) or severe bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (N=1). Cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 36.4% and 32.7%, respectively. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred in 8 patients (36.4%), but resolved in all instances. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) occurred in 1 patient. The overall survival (OS) was 90.9% (TM 100%, SCD 71.4%), with all patients achieving transfusion independence, while 8 achieved complete donor chimerism. CONCLUSION: Busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and ATG-based conditioning for HSCT of TM and SCD patients did not result in graft failure, although modifications may be required to reduce VOD incidence. Further changes to donor type and cell source prioritization are necessary to minimize TRM and morbidity caused by GVHD.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Antilymphocyte Serum , beta-Thalassemia , Bone Marrow , Bronchiolitis Obliterans , Busulfan , Chimerism , Cyclophosphamide , Cyclosporine , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hemoglobinopathies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Incidence , Methotrexate , Mortality , Siblings , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Transplants
19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 114-118, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715908

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is caused by mutations in the SPTA1, SPTB, ANK1, SLC4A1, and EPB42 genes, all of which encode erythrocyte membrane proteins. Mutations in SLC4A1, which encodes band 3 protein, have rarely been reported as the causative factor among Korean patients with HS. Here, we report two Korean patients with HS carrying mutations in SLC4A1. Patient 1 was a 3-year-old girl with unremarkable past and family histories and was evaluated for anemia that was detected after a complete blood count. She was suspected of having HS considering the spherocytosis of her peripheral blood smear, increased osmotic fragility, hemolytic features in blood chemistry tests, and splenomegaly. Sequence analysis revealed that the patient harbored a single heterozygous missense mutation, c.2278C>T (p.Arg760Trp) in exon 17 of SLC4A1. Patient 2 was a 23-year-old man who had a prior history of intermittent jaundice. Although the patient did not have anemia, a genetic test for HS was performed due to evidence of hemolytic features in the blood chemistry test, splenomegaly, and a family history of HS. The test confirmed a single heterozygous missense mutation, c.2423G>T (p.Arg808Leu) in exon 18 of SLC4A1.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Anemia , Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte , Blood Cell Count , Chemistry , Erythrocyte Membrane , Exons , Jaundice , Mutation, Missense , Osmotic Fragility , Sequence Analysis , Splenomegaly
20.
Blood Research ; : 119-124, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune cytopenia (AIC) is a rare complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we reviewed the diagnosis, treatment and response to therapy for pediatric patients with post-HCT AIC at our institution. METHODS: Of the 292 allogeneic HCTs performed from January, 2011 to December, 2015 at the Department of Pediatrics, The Catholic University of Korea, seven were complicated by post-HCT AIC, resulting in an incidence of 2.4%. RESULTS: All seven patients with post-HCT AIC had received unrelated donor transplant. Six of seven patients had a major donor-recipient blood type mismatch. The subtypes of AIC were as follows: immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) 2, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) 2, Evans syndrome 3. Median time from HCT to AIC diagnosis was 3.6 months. All but one patient responded to first line therapy of steroid±intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), but none achieved complete response (CR) with this treatment. After a median duration of treatment of 15.3 months, two patients with ITP achieved CR and five had partial response (PR) of AIC. Five patients were treated with rituximab, resulting in the following response: 2 CR, 2 PR, 1 no response (NR). Median time to response to rituximab was 26 days from first infusion. All patients are alive without event. CONCLUSION: Post-HCT AIC is a rare complication that may not resolve despite prolonged therapy. Rapid initiation of second line agents including but not limited to B cell depleting treatment should be considered for those that fail to achieve CR with first line therapy.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Cell Transplantation , Diagnosis , Immunoglobulins , Incidence , Korea , Pediatrics , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Rituximab , Transplants , Unrelated Donors
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