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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156255

ABSTRACT

Background. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now the standard approach for most large breast cancers including locally advanced cancers of the breast. The majority of patients respond satisfactorily to chemotherapy with effective downsizing of tumours to consider breast conservation surgery. Pathological complete response (pathCR) is known to be a strong predictor of good outcome; however, many factors are known to influence the extent of response to chemotherapy. It has been observed that smaller the tumour, better is the response achieved in contrast to larger and locally advanced tumours where only one-third may respond well enough to merit breast conservation. Various other clinical, biological and molecular factors are also being evaluated as effective predictors of chemosensitivity. Most of these are either not easily available for all patients in developing countries or are overtly expensive and not applicable for all patients. Methods. We evaluated the clinical and pathological predictors of response to chemotherapy in 1402 women with locally advanced breast cancer. Results. There was a higher rate of pathCR in smaller tumours, younger women and ER-negative as well as triple negative tumours. The presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lymphatic and vascular invasion (LVI) were associated with lower pathCR. Conclusion. In the absence of ready availability of expensive molecular and genomic assays, clinical parameters and standard histopathological variables can also be useful indicators of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, they can help identify those who could be eventually conserved or have a better outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/drug therapy , Carcinoma in Situ/metabolism , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Ductal/metabolism , Carcinoma, Ductal/pathology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
2.
Indian J Cancer ; 2011 Oct-Dec; 48(4): 391-396
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144516

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was undertaken to document the pattern of expression of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and the usage of HER2-targeted therapy in a large tertiary care hospital in India in the year 2008. Materials and Methods: The histopathology reports of all breast cancer patients registered in the hospital in 2008 were extracted from the electronic medical record system. All the cases were immunohistochemically evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR), and c-erbB-2 protein (HER2) expression using standard immunoperoxidase method. The use of HER2-targeted therapies was evaluated by extracting relevant information from the database of the hospital pharmacy and case charts of patients enrolled in ongoing approved trials. Results: A total of 2001 new patients of invasive breast cancers with available pathology reports were registered in the hospital in the year 2008. ER and/or PR expression was positive in tumors of 1025 (51.2%) patients. HER2 3+ expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was found in 335 (16.7%) and HER2 2+ in 163 (8.1%). The triple negative phenotype was found in 596 (29.8%) patients. An estimated 441 patients were eligible to receive HER2-targeted therapy based on their HER2 status. Of these 38 (8.6%) patients received some form of HER2-targeted therapy; 20 patients (4.5%) as part of ongoing clinical trials and 18 (4.1%) as part of routine care. Conclusions: The overwhelming majority of patients eligible for HER2-targeted therapy in our institution are unable to receive it because of financial constraints and limited access to health insurance. There is a higher fraction of patients with the triple negative phenotype compared to the Western population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/economics , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cost of Illness , Electronic Health Records , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , India , Middle Aged , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Progesterone/metabolism , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
4.
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Oct-Dec; 47(4): 385-390
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144376

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies of elderly males. Management depends on the accurate estimation of disease both at initial diagnosis and in its subsequent course. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in patients having prostate cancer. The findings were compared with the results of bone scan (BS) for the detection of bone metastases. Sixteen patients (age range, 55-83 years) with confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer were included in the prospective study. Three patients had undergone bilateral orchidectomy, 1 had hormonal therapy, 9 had undergone both, and 3 had no therapy. All the patients underwent wholebody BS and FDG-PET within 1 week. Interpretation of BS and FDG-PET were performed qualitatively. Osseous abnormalities detected by both methods were compared. Involvement of the disease in other sites as seen on FDG-PET was also noted. BS detected 197 osseous lesions, whereas FDG-PET could detect 97 (49%) bone lesions. However, in 3 patients without any prior therapeutic intervention, FDG-PET results were superior or equivalent to that of BS. FDG-PET also detected extensive involvement of the disease in the bone marrow in 4 patients, lymph node metastases at various sites in 8, liver metastases in 2, and lung metastases in 1 patient. FDG-PET could demonstrate less number of osseous metastases in comparison with BSs, but the results have to be interpreted in the background of prior treatment administered and the tumor biology of the lesion. It is evident that FDG-PET could detect the unknown soft tissue involvement of the disease with good sensitivity, which might play an important role in the management of prostate cancer. Overall, in the absence of novel PET tracers, both skeletal scintigraphy and FDG-PET imaging can play a complimentary role in the management of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnosis , Technetium/diagnosis
5.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2008 Nov; 62(11): 439-43
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-68675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND :Adolescence is the most important and sensitive period of one's life [1] . According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee, adolescence is defined as the period between 10 and 19 years, the second decade of life. OBJECTIVE :To determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention program on knowledge of reproductive health among adolescent girls. SETTINGS AND DESIGN :This educational intervention study was carried out over a period of one year. A total of 791 rural girls in the age group 16-19 years were randomly selected from coastal villages in Udupi District, Karnataka. MATERIALS AND METHODS :Adolescent girls were educated regarding reproductive health and their awareness levels were evaluated immediately following intervention. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS :Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 11.0 for Windows. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages. Chi square test was used to test the effect of the intervention. RESULTS :A significant increase in overall knowledge after the intervention (from 14.4 to 68%, P < 0.01) was observed regarding contraception. Knowledge regarding ovulation, first sign of pregnancy and fertilization improved by 37.2% (95% CI = (35.2, 39.2), P < 0.001). Knowledge regarding the importance of diet during pregnancy improved from 66 to 95% following the intervention. CONCLUSION : This study clearly showed that an educational intervention program can bring about a desirable change in knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

6.
J Postgrad Med ; 2007 Oct-Dec; 53(4): 241-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has been associated with a plethora of metabolic changes in the brain that vary with duration and type of psychoses. Additionally, it has been observed that antipsychotics can further alter cerebral glucose metabolism. These changes resulting from antipsychotics have been postulated to be reflective of the duration and mechanism of action of the medication. AIMS: We aimed to examine the influence of antipsychotics on brain metabolism in individuals with schizophrenia in a naturalistic setting. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out by the psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital in collaboration with the Radiation Medicine Centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male patients with schizophrenia in different phases of treatment underwent an 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan in a resting state 12 hours after the last dose of antipsychotic. Statistical Analysis: The types and duration of treatment were then compared with the regional glucose uptake in 14 predetermined regions of interest. The relative Uptake Values were further compared using SPSS 11.0. RESULTS: An immediate increase followed by a decrease in cortical uptake was noted while the basal ganglia uptake remained high, albeit with a decreasing trend. Typical antipsychotics were associated with lower frontal cortical and higher basal ganglia and cerebellar uptake as compared to atypical antipsychotics. CONCLUSION: The differential influence of the type and duration of antipsychotic on glucose uptake suggests a possible trend towards long-term side effects with typical medications that were not noted on clinical examination. This however needs to be confirmed with larger, controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
7.
Indian J Cancer ; 2005 Oct-Dec; 42(4): 205-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-50094

ABSTRACT

Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule), who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Needle , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Diagnosis, Differential , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagoscopy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Risk Assessment , Thyroid Nodule/pathology
8.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2005 Sep; 59(9): 398-402
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-68273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer being one of the leading cancers among women in developing countries, prevention or identification of the disease at an early stage is of paramount importance in saving as well as improving the quality of life. Breast health awareness appears to be a pragmatic method for this. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acceptability and effectiveness of an educational intervention programme on breast health awareness for rural women by trained female health workers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Community based non-randomised educational intervention study carried out over a period of 1 year. Three hundred and sixty rural women in the age group 30--59 years were randomly selected (and age-wise stratified), from a coastal village in Southern India. METHODS: Women were educated on breast health and breast self-examination by specifically trained health workers and their awareness and proficiency levels were evaluated at the end of 1 and 3 months post-intervention. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: This was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 10. RESULTS: Following the educational intervention, a significant increase in overall awareness regarding breast cancer (z=-15.807; P< 0.001) as well as in the performance of self-examination of the breast 321/342 (93%) was observed. Forgetfulness or being too busy appeared to be the two most frequently perceived barriers. CONCLUSION: This study clearly shows that a community oriented educational intervention programme emphasizing on proper technique can bring about the desirable behavioural change among women.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Program Evaluation/standards , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Sep; 43(9): 786-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61222

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the effects of Zinc deficient diet on oxidative stress in testis and epididymis, various parameters viz: total proteins, lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxides, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic activities are evaluated in rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Total proteins, water and lipid solouble antioxidant capacity decreased while lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and hydroperoxides concentration increased in testes, caput and cauda epididymis except in 2ZD (testes) where hydroperoxides revealed a significant decrease. GSH decreased in testes and caput and cauda epididymis. GPx and gamma-GT activities increased in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of zinc deficient rats. Further, GST increased in testes but exhibited decreases after 2 and 4 weeks and an increase after 6 weeks in caput and cauda epididymis of zinc deficient rats. GR activities decreased in testes but it increased in caput and cauda epididymis of zinc deficient rats. Thus, zinc deprivation results in increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. All these may have been as a consequence of increased ROS generation and/or decreased zinc dependent antioxidant processes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Epididymis/drug effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species , Testis/drug effects , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Zinc/deficiency , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-86226

ABSTRACT

Caudal dysplasia sequence (CDS) comprises developmental anomalies of the caudal vertebrae, neural tube, urogenital and digestive organs, and hind limbs, the precursors of all of which are derived from the caudal eminence. Although the syndrome is well recognized, the etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We report syringomyelia in association with the CDS, which has not been described previously and recommends inclusion of this entity in the spectrum of abnormalities encountered in this syndrome.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Adult , Coccyx/abnormalities , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Osteochondrodysplasias/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Sacrum/abnormalities , Syndrome , Syringomyelia/etiology
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-92880

ABSTRACT

The prognosis and overall outcome of solid growth pattern in differentiated papillary carcinoma of thyroid is controversial. While general consensus suggest outcomes similar to typical papillary carcinomas others demonstrate a more aggressive biology. We present a case of differentiated papillary carcinoma of thyroid with solid growth pattern presenting with neck swelling and widespread skeletal metastases. The areas of bone lesions showed avid 131I concentration on a postoperative large dose 131I whole body scan and was treated with 131I subsequently. The present case suggest that the solid architecture in a papillary thyroid carcinoma may be indicative of an aggressive clinical course, contrary to the common opinion that it does not adversely influence its biologic behaviour and thus emphasize the need to reexplore the prognostic significance of histopathologic subclassification along with an assessment of histologic grade and expression of molecular risk factors in this particular tumour subtype.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adult , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Humans , India , Male , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis
12.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2002 Jun; 69(6): 477-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-81303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A cross sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, KMC, Manipal to find out the prevalence of goitre among school children in the age group of 8-10 years. METHODS: A total of 722 children were selected from the study population by the method of probability proportion to size (PPS) stratified sampling giving due representation to both Government and private schools. Children were clinically examined for the presence of goitre and graded according to WHO guidelines. Urine and salt samples were collected from subsample to estimate the urinary iodine excretion level and iodine content in the salt respectively. RESULTS: Over all prevalence of goitre was 30 percent. Prevalence among males was 28.8 percent and among females it was 31.2 percent. In the both sexes goitre rate increased with the advancement of age. Prevalence of grade I and grade II goitre was 29.4 and 0.6 percent respectively. Prevalence of goitre was significantly higher among children who had urinary iodine excretion level less than optimum (<10 mcg/dl). Estimation of iodine content in the salt sample revealed that 48.3 percent of samples had adequate iodine content (>=15 ppm). There was significant increase in the goitre rate as the iodine content in the salt decreased (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of goitre among school children was high and therefore constituted a public health problem in this region.


Subject(s)
Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Goiter/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Iodine/deficiency , Male , Prevalence
15.
Bahrain Medical Bulletin. 2001; 23 (1): 22-26
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-56316

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of pre-pregnancy weight, maternal height and weight gain during pregnancy on birth weight. Design: A community based longitudinal study. Setting: The study was conducted in the rural field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka State, India. Study Period: Between 1st June 1996 to 31st January 1998. Subjects: A total of 75 pregnancies were followed up till delivery. Main outcome and measures: Pre-pregnancy weight, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy and other baseline characteristics were collected using a pre-tested proforma. Weight of the baby was recorded immediately after birth. The mean pre-pregnancy weight and maternal height were 43.7 kg [SD=6.6] and 154.2 cm [SD=5.2] respectively. The mean weight gain during pregnancy was found to be 8.0 kg [SD=2.6]. The mean birth weight was 2869.7 gm [SD=467.2] with a range of 1380-3800gm. A statistically significant correlation was observed between pre-pregnancy weight [r =0.4, p<0.001], maternal height [r=0.36, p=0.001], weight gain during pregnancy [r=0.52, p<0.001] and birth weight. Interpretation and Multiple regression analysis revealed that pre-pregnancy weight, maternal height and weight gain during pregnancy were independently associated with birth weight


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Body Weight , Weight Gain , Pregnancy
17.
Indian J Cancer ; 2000 Jun-Sep; 37(2-3): 114-22
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-49824

ABSTRACT

Studies on site specific risks for oral cancers are few. Present investigation explores the possible role of human sociodemographic factors in causing oral cancer. Majority of patients had poor oral hygiene (85.5%) and belonged to 51-60 years age group (35.7%). Most of the subjects were agriculture workers (30.3%). Tongue and floor of mouth included majority of the affected sites (77.2%). Male to female ratio was highest for tonsil (32.3%) but differed marginally for other subsites. Majority of females used tobacco (81%) while males users of tobacco, alcohol and smoking reported in nearly equal proportions. Tobacco and smoking were found as primary risk factors for several intraoral subsites. However, for tongue, palate and lip no risk factor could be identified from given patients' characteristics. In general, tobacco posed high risk for buccal mucosa and alveolus in comparison to other subsites. Smoking affected tonsil and floor of mouth more than other sites. Alcohol posed more risk for buccal mucosa and floor of mouth than tongue.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Blood Group Antigens , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth Floor/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco/adverse effects , Tongue Neoplasms/epidemiology
18.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2000 Jan; 67(1): 9-14
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-84553

ABSTRACT

A community based study was conducted in the rural areas of Udupi taluk, Karnataka state of South India to identify the socio-demographic, maternal and obstetric determinants of low birth weight. All singleton live births that occurred in the study area during a one year period (October 1991 to September 1992) were included. A total of 2919 singleton child-mother pairs formed the basis of the analysis. Information about social, demographic and economic conditions of the families; maternal factors such as age, parity, quality of antenatal care and previous obstetric history were collected by interviewing the mothers and family members and verifying the available medical records through the field investigators especially recruited and trained for this purpose. Data was analyzed using multiple logistic regression model. Primis, elderly mothers and mothers who had not received good quality antenatal care were found to be more at risk of having low birth weight babies. Other significant determinants were family custom, socio-economic status and environmental sanitation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mothers , Multivariate Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Indian J Pediatr ; 1998 Sep-Oct; 65(5): 709-15
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-79867

ABSTRACT

Perinatal mortality is one of the most sensitive indices of maternal and child health. The perinatal mortality rate is an indicator of the extent of pregnancy wastage as well as of the quality and quantity of health care available to the mother and the newborn. A community based prospective study carried out on 13,214 births in South Kanara district between Oct. 1991-Sept. 1992 revealed a perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) of 44.65/1000 births. Among the various factors influencing perinatal mortality, breech deliveries and babies of multiple pregnancies had a very high perinatal mortality rate of 180.81/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 4.90) and 128/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 2.64). The previous bad obstetric history of the mother, parity and sex of the newborn were among the other important factors influencing the PNMR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant Mortality/trends , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1998 Jan; 36(1): 22-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62093

ABSTRACT

Administration of glucocorticoid (1, 2 and 4 mg) in excess leads to degeneration of epididymides as supported by cellular degeneration, sperm density and morphometric measurements. Zinc level increased statistically after 1, 2 and 4 mg hydrocortisone treatment while copper increased after 1 and 2 mg treatment. Cholesterol, protein and leucine aminopeptidase levels increased and decreased significantly in caput and cauda respectively. Activity of alkaline phosphatase reduced significantly while the treatment of hydrocortisone at different doses elevated acid phosphatase, aryl sulphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Evidently, these changes are as a result of onset of cellular degeneration leading to impairment of metabolic/secretory activity of epididymal cells. The possible involvement of pituitary-testis axis in hydrocortisone induced epididymal degeneration and functional inhibition has been discussed.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Arylsulfatases/metabolism , Copper/metabolism , Epididymis/drug effects , Hydrocortisone/toxicity , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Leucyl Aminopeptidase/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Zinc/metabolism
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